DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Active ingredient: Ciprofloxacin
ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial drug of fluoroquinolone group with bactericidal action. Inhibits DNA gyrase and inhibits the synthesis of bacterial DNA. Highly active against most gram-negative bacteria: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
ciprofloxacin is active against Staphylococcus spp., some strains of Enterococcus spp., Campylobacter spp., Legionella spp., Mycoplasma spp., Chlamydia spp., Mycobacterium spp.
ciprofloxacin is active against bacteria producing beta-lactamases.
Ureaplasma urealyticum, Clostridium difficile, Nocardia asteroides resistant to ciprofloxacin. The effect on Treponema pallidum is studied not enough.
ciprofloxacin rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Bioavailability after oral administration of 70%. Eating has a little effect on the absorption of ciprofloxacin. Plasma protein binding is 20-40%. Distributed in tissues and body fluids. It penetrates the cerebrospinal fluid: the concentration of ciprofloxacin for not inflamed meninges reach 10% with inflammation - up to 37%. High concentrations are achieved in bile. Excreted in the urine and bile.
Why is ciprofloxacin prescribed?
Infectious-inflammatory diseases caused by microorganisms susceptible to ciprofloxacin, including respiratory diseases, diseases of abdominal and pelvic organs, bones, joints, skin, septicemia; severe infections of ENT organs. Treatment of postoperative infections. Prevention and treatment of infections in patients with reduced immunity.
For ciprofloxacin local use: acute and subacute conjunctivitis, blepharoconjunctivitis, blepharitis, bacterial corneal ulcers, keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis, chronic dacryocystitis, meybomity. Infectious lesions in the eyes from injury or contact with foreign bodies. Preoperative prophylaxis in ophthalmic surgery.
Dosage and administration
Individual. For oral administration dose of ciprofloxacin is 250-750 mg 2 times / day. Treatment duration is from 7-10 days to 4 weeks.
For IV administration a single dose is 200-400 mg, the multiplicity of the introduction is 2 times / day, duration of treatment - 1-2 weeks and more if necessary. May be IV injected as jet but more preferably a drip for 30 minutes.
When ciprofloxacin applied topically instilled 1-2 drops into the lower conjunctival sac of the affected eye every 1-4 hours. After improving the intervals between instillation can be increased. The maximum oral daily dose for adults is 1.5 g.
ciprofloxacin side effects, adverse reactions
Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, increase in liver transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, LDH, bilirubin, pseudomembranous colitis.
CNS: headache, dizziness, fatigue, insomnia, nightmares, hallucinations, fainting, disorders of vision.
Urinary system: crystalluria, glomerulonephritis, dysuria, polyuria, albuminuria, hematuria, transient increase of serum creatinine.
Hemopoietic system: eosinophilia, leukopenia, neutropenia, changes in the number of platelets.
Cardiovascular system: tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension.
Allergic reactions: itching, urticaria, Quincke's edema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, arthralgia.
Adverse reactions associated with the chemotherapeutic effect: candidiasis.
Local reactions: pain, phlebitis. When applying eye drops in some cases may be mild pain and conjunctival hyperemia.
Pregnancy, lactation (breastfeeding), childhood and adolescence to 15 years, increased sensitivity to ciprofloxacin and other drugs hinolonovogo series; deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; in ophthalmology: viral keratitis.
ciprofloxacin Cipla: restrictions to using
Pronounced cerebral arteriosclerosis, cerebral circulatory disorder, mental illness, epilepsy, epileptic syndrome, marked renal and / or hepatic insufficiency.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Contraindicated in pregnancy ; ciprofloxacin crosses the placenta, excreted in breast milk.
In experimental studies found that it causes arthropathy. In experiments on rats and mice treated with ciprofloxacin in doses exceeding the usual daily dose for a person 6 times, adverse effects on the fetus is not revealed. In experiments on rabbits treated with oral dose of ciprofloxacin 30 and 100 mg / kg, it is shown that the drug causes disruption of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to loss of body weight in females and increase the number of miscarriages but teratogenicity not found. When IV introduction to the doses of 20 mg / kg ciprofloxacin did not exert toxic effects on the mother and embryo, showed no teratogenicity. The use of local forms of ciprofloxacin in pregnancy is possible if the anticipated benefits exceed the potential risk to the fetus.
Category of the fetus by FDA - C.
ciprofloxacin is excreted in breast milk, so the period of lactation should decide, stop taking ciprofloxacin or breastfeeding based on the degree of importance of the use of drugs for the mother.
With careful use of local forms of ciprofloxacin in breast-feeding (not known whether ciprofloxacin is excreted in breast milk when applied topically).
Patients with impaired renal function requires correction dosing regimen. With caution used in elderly patients, with cerebral arteriosclerosis, cerebral circulatory disorders, epilepsy, convulsive syndrome of unknown etiology.
During treatment patients with ciprofloxacin should receive enough amounts of liquids.
In the case of persistent diarrhea ciprofloxacin should not be taken.
At the same time of ciprofloxacin IV introduction and barbiturates is necessary to monitor heart rate, blood pressure, ECG. In the course of treatment is necessary to monitor blood concentrations of urea, creatinine, hepatic transaminases.
In the period of treatment may decrease the reactivity (especially when used with alcohol).
Not allowed the introduction of ciprofloxacin subconjunctival or directly into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Due to the threat of adverse reactions from the CNS ciprofloxacin should be used only according to the life in the pathology of the CNS in history: organic brain lesions, epilepsy, lowering the convulsive threshold, severe atherosclerosis of the brain, the elderly, with severely impaired renal function and liver (requires monitoring concentrations in blood plasma).
Patients with allergic reactions to fluoroquinolone derivatives in history may develop reactions to ciprofloxacin. During the period of treatment should avoid sunlight and UV radiation, intense physical exercise, control of drinking mode, pH of urine.
Reported cases of crystalluria, particularly in patients with alkaline reaction of urine (pH 7 or more). In order to avoid the development of crystalluria unacceptable excess of the recommended daily dose, should also be adequate fluid intake and maintaining acidic urine.
If you have pain in the tendons or the first signs tendovaginitah treatment should be discontinued (described isolated cases of inflammation or tendon rupture during fluoroquinolone treatment).
It can reduce the speed of psychomotor reactions, especially against the backdrop of alcohol, that should be considered for patients who work with potentially dangerous machinery or drive vehicles.
If you have severe diarrhea, pseudomembranous colitis should be excluded (for which ciprofloxacin is contraindicated). At the same time of barbiturates IV injections requires monitoring function of the cardiovascular system (heart rate, BP, ECG). Teenagers under 18 years shall be appointed only if the pathogen resistance to other chemotherapeutic drugs. The solution in the form of eye drops are not designed for intraocular injections. The use of other ophthalmic means the interval between injections should be at least 5 minutes.
ciprofloxacin drug interactions
Activity increases when combined with beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, vancomycin, clindamycin, metronidazole. Sukralfat, bismuth preparations, antacids containing aluminum ions, magnesium or calcium, cimetidine, ranitidine, vitamin and mineral supplement, iron sulfate, zinc, didanosine (recommended for 2 hours before or 4 hours after these drugs) reduce the suction. Probenecid, azlocillin increase the concentration in the blood. Decreases clearance and increases in plasma caffeine, aminophylline and theophylline (increased likelihood of side effects). ciprofloxacin enhances the effect of warfarin and other oral anticoagulants (prolongs bleeding time). Increases nephrotoxicity of cyclosporine, increase the risk of CNS excitability and convulsive reactions against the background of NSAIDs. Medicines alkalinizing the urine (citrates, sodium bicarbonate, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors) reduce the solubility (increases the probability of crystalluria). Infusion solutions of ciprofloxacin ready to use can be combined with infusion solutions: 0.9% sodium chloride solution, Ringer's solution, Ringer lactate, 5 and 10% dextrose, 10% solution of fructose, and a solution containing 5% dextrose with 0,225 or 0.45% sodium chloride. Incompatible with solutions having a pH > 7.
ciprofloxacin in case of emergency / overdose
May occur after receiving a single large dose or prolonged use. If a single dose of less than 150 mg / kg, acute poisoning feel light, 150-300 mg / kg - moderate, when using higher doses - heavy.
Symptoms: No specific symptoms.
Treatment: gastric lavage, the use of emetic drugs, the introduction of large quantities of liquid, the creation of acidic urine, in addition - hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (can be derived only 10% of the drug), all events are held on the background to maintain vital functions. The specific antidote is unknown.
Ciprofloxacin available forms, composition, doses:
Indications and Usages:
Ciprofloxacin destination | category:
Drugs with same active ingredients (Pharmaceutical companies):
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Ciprofloxacin?
Depending on the reaction of the Ciprofloxacin after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Ciprofloxacin not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Ciprofloxacin addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Ciprofloxacin, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Ciprofloxacin consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
One visitor reported usefulHow is the drug Ciprofloxacin useful in reducing or relieving the symptoms? How useful is it?
According to the survey conducted by the website sdrugs.com, there are variable results and below are the percentages of the users that say the medicine is useful to them and that say it is not helping them much. It is not ideal to continue taking the medication if you feel it is not helping you much. Contact your healthcare provider to check if there is a need to change the medicine or if there is a need to re-evaluate your condition. The usefulness of the medicine may vary from patient to patient, depending on the other diseases he is suffering from and slightly depends on the brand name.
Visitor reported side effectsNo survey data has been collected yet
One visitor reported price estimatesWhat is your opinion about drug cost? Did you feel the cost is apt, or did you feel it is expensive?
The report given by the sdrugs.com website users shows the following figures about several people who felt the medicine Ciprofloxacin is expensive, and the medicine is not expensive. The results are mixed. The perception of the cost of the medicine to be expensive or not depends on the brand name of the medicine, country, and place where it is sold, and the affordability of the patient. You can choose a generic drug in the place of the branded drug to save the cost. The efficiency of the medicine will not vary if it is generic or a branded one.
Two visitors reported frequency of useHow often in a day do you take the medicine?
Are you taking the Ciprofloxacin drug as prescribed by the doctor?
Few medications can be taken Once in a day more than prescribed when the doctor's advice mentions the medicine can be taken according to frequency or severity of symptoms. Most times, be very careful and clear about the number of times you are taking the medication. The report of sdrugs.com website users about the frequency of taking the drug Ciprofloxacin is mentioned below.
Four visitors reported dosesWhat is the dose of Ciprofloxacin drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sdrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 201-500mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
Three visitors reported time for resultsWhat is the time duration Ciprofloxacin drug must be taken for it to be effective or for it to reduce the symptoms?
Most chronic conditions need at least some time so the dose and the drug action gets adjusted to the body to get the desired effect. The stastistics say sdrugs.com website users needed 3 days to notice the result from using Ciprofloxacin drug. The time needed to show improvement in health condition after using the medicine Ciprofloxacin need not be same for all the users. It varies based on other factors.
Two visitors reported administrationThe drugs are administered in various routes, like oral or injection form. They are administered before food or after food. How are you taking Ciprofloxacin drug, before food or after food?
Click here to find out how other users of our website are taking it. For any doubts or queries on how and when the medicine is administered, contact your health care provider immediately.
Two visitors reported age
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology