DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Active ingredient: Calcium Carbonate
Calcium Carbonate uses
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
calcium carbonate acetate is a phosphate binder indicated to reduce serum phosphorus in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD).
- Calcium acetate is a phosphate binder indicated for the reduction of serum phosphorus in patients with end stage renal disease. (1)
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The recommended initial dose of calcium carbonate acetate for the adult dialysis patient is 2 capsules with each meal. Increase the dose gradually to lower serum phosphorus levels to the target range, as long as hypercalcemia does not develop. Most patients require 3 to 4 capsules with each meal.
- Starting dose is 2 capsules with each meal. (2)
- Titrate the dose every 2 to 3 weeks until acceptable serum phosphorus level is reached. Most patients require 3 to 4 capsules with each meal. (2)
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Capsule: 667 mg calcium carbonate acetate capsule.
- Capsule: 667 mg calcium carbonate acetate capsule. (3)
Patients with hypercalcemia.
- Hypercalcemia. (4)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
- Treat mild hypercalcemia by reducing or interrupting calcium carbonate acetate and Vitamin D. Severe hypercalcemia may require hemodialysis and discontinuation of calcium carbonate acetate.
- Hypercalcemia may aggravate digitalis toxicity. (5.2)
Patients with end stage renal disease may develop hypercalcemia when treated with calcium carbonate, including calcium carbonate acetate. Avoid the use of calcium carbonate supplements, including calcium carbonate based nonprescription antacids, concurrently with calcium carbonate acetate.
An overdose of calcium carbonate acetate may lead to progressive hypercalcemia, which may require emergency measures. Therefore, early in the treatment phase during the dosage adjustment period, monitor serum calcium carbonate levels twice weekly. Should hypercalcemia develop, reduce the calcium carbonate acetate dosage, or discontinue the treatment, depending on the severity of hypercalcemia
More severe hypercalcemia (Ca >12 mg/dL) is associated with confusion, delirium, stupor and coma. Severe hypercalcemia can be treated by acute hemodialysis and discontinuing calcium carbonate acetate therapy.
Mild hypercalcemia (10.5 to 11.9 mg/dL) may be asymptomatic or manifest as constipation, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. Mild hypercalcemia is usually controlled by reducing the calcium carbonate acetate dose or temporarily discontinuing therapy. Decreasing or discontinuing Vitamin D therapy is recommended as well.
Chronic hypercalcemia may lead to vascular calcification and other soft-tissue calcification. Radiographic evaluation of suspected anatomical regions may be helpful in early detection of soft tissue calcification. The long term effect of calcium carbonate acetate on the progression of vascular or soft tissue calcification has not been determined.
Hypercalcemia (>11 mg/dL) was reported in 16% of patients in a 3 month study of solid dose formulation of calcium carbonate acetate; all cases resolved upon lowering the dose or discontinuing treatment.
Maintain the serum calcium-phosphorus (Ca x P) product below 55 mg2/dL2.
5.2 Concomitant Use with Medications
Hypercalcemia may aggravate digitalis toxicity.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
Hypercalcemia is discussed elsewhere [see Warnings and Precautions ].
- The most common (>10%) adverse reactions are hypercalcemia, nausea and vomiting. (6.1)
- In clinical studies, patients have occasionally experienced nausea during calcium carbonate acetate therapy. (6)
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp. at 1-800-962-8364 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch
6.1 Clinical Trial Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In clinical studies, calcium carbonate acetate has been generally well tolerated.
calcium carbonate acetate was studied in a 3 month, open-label, non-randomized study of 98 enrolled ESRD hemodialysis patients and an alternate liquid formulation of calcium carbonate acetate was studied in a two week double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with 69 enrolled ESRD hemodialysis patients. Adverse reactions (>2% on treatment) from these trials are presented in Table 1.
Mild hypercalcemia may be asymptomatic or manifest itself as constipation, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. More severe hypercalcemia is associated with confusion, delirium, stupor, and coma. Decreasing dialysate calcium carbonate concentration could reduce the incidence and severity of calcium carbonate acetate-induced hypercalcemia. Isolated cases pruritus have been reported, which may represent allergic reactions.
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval of calcium carbonate acetate: dizziness, edema, and weakness.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
The drug interaction of calcium carbonate acetate is characterized by the potential of calcium carbonate to bind to drugs with anionic functions. calcium carbonate acetate may decrease the bioavailability of tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones via this mechanism.
There are no empirical data on avoiding drug interactions between calcium carbonate acetate and most concomitant drugs. When administering an oral medication with calcium carbonate acetate where a reduction in the bioavailability of that medication would have a clinically significant effect on its safety or efficacy, administer the drug one hour before or three hours after calcium carbonate acetate. Monitor blood levels of the concomitant drugs that have a narrow therapeutic range. Patients taking anti-arrhythmic medications for the control of arrhythmias and anti-seizure medications for the control of seizure disorders were excluded from the clinical trials with all forms of calcium carbonate acetate.
- Calcium acetate may decrease the bioavailability of tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones. (7)
- When clinically significant drug interactions are expected, administer the drug at least one hour before or at least three hours after calcium carbonate acetate or consider monitoring blood levels of the drug. (7)
In a study of 15 healthy subjects, a co-administered single dose of 4 calcium carbonate acetate tablets, approximately 2.7g, decreased the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin by approximately 50%.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category C:
calcium carbonate acetate capsules contains calcium carbonate acetate. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with calcium carbonate acetate, and there are no adequate and well controlled studies of calcium carbonate acetate use in pregnant women. Patients with end stage renal disease may develop hypercalcemia with calcium carbonate acetate treatment [see Warnings and Precautions ]. Maintenance of normal serum calcium carbonate levels is important for maternal and fetal well being. Hypercalcemia during pregnancy may increase the risk for maternal and neonatal complications such as stillbirth, preterm delivery, and neonatal hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism. calcium carbonate acetate treatment, as recommended, is not expected to harm a fetus if maternal calcium carbonate levels are properly monitored during and following treatment.
8.2 Labor and Delivery
The effects of calcium carbonate acetate on labor and delivery are unknown.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
calcium carbonate Acetate Capsules contains calcium carbonate acetate and is excreted in human milk. Human milk feeding by a mother receiving calcium carbonate acetate is not expected to harm an infant, provided maternal serum calcium carbonate levels are appropriately monitored.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Clinical studies of calcium carbonate acetate did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Administration of calcium carbonate acetate in excess of the appropriate daily dosage may result in hypercalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
calcium carbonate acetate acts as a phosphate binder. Its chemical name is calcium carbonate acetate. Its molecular formula is C4H6CaO4, and its molecular weight is 158.17. Its structural formula is:
Each white opaque/blue opaque capsule contains 667 mg of calcium carbonate acetate USP (anhydrous; Ca(CH3COO)2; MW=158.17 grams) equal to 169 mg (8.45 mEq) calcium carbonate, polyethylene glycol 8000 and magnesium stearate. Each capsule shell contains: black monogramming ink, FD&C Blue #1, FD&C Red #3, gelatin and titanium dioxide. The black monogramming ink contains: ammonium hydroxide, iron oxide black, isopropyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, propylene glycol and shellac glaze.
calcium carbonate Acetate Capsules are administered orally for the control of hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal failure.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
Patients with ESRD retain phosphorus and can develop hyperphosphatemia. High serum phosphorus can precipitate serum calcium carbonate resulting in ectopic calcification. Hyperphosphatemia also plays a role in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with ESRD.
12.1 Mechanism of Action
calcium carbonate acetate, when taken with meals, combines with dietary phosphate to form an insoluble calcium carbonate phosphate complex, which is excreted in the feces, resulting in decreased serum phosphorus concentration.
Orally administered calcium carbonate acetate from pharmaceutical dosage forms is systemically absorbed up to approximately 40% under fasting conditions and up to approximately 30% under nonfasting conditions. This range represents data from both healthy subjects and renal dialysis patients under various conditions.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or fertility studies have been conducted with calcium carbonate acetate.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
Effectiveness of calcium carbonate acetate in decreasing serum phosphorus has been demonstrated in two studies of the calcium carbonate acetate solid oral dosage form.
Ninety-one patients with end-stage renal disease who were undergoing hemodialysis and were hyperphosphatemic (serum phosphorus >5.5 mg/dL) following a 1 week phosphate binder washout period contributed efficacy data to an open-label, non-randomized study.
The patients received calcium carbonate acetate 667 mg tablets at each meal for a period of 12 weeks. The initial starting dose was 2 tablets per meal for 3 meals a day, and the dose was adjusted as necessary to control serum phosphorus levels. The average final dose after 12 weeks of treatment was 3.4 tablets per meal. Although there was a decrease in serum phosphorus, in the absence of a control group the true magnitude of effect is uncertain.
The data presented in Table 2 demonstrate the efficacy of calcium carbonate acetate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal disease patients. The effects on serum calcium carbonate levels are also presented.
There was a 30% decrease in serum phosphorus levels during the 12 week study period (p<0.01). Two-thirds of the decline occurred in the first month of the study. Serum calcium carbonate increased 9% during the study mostly in the first month of the study.
Treatment with the phosphate binder was discontinued for patients from the open-label study, and those patients whose serum phosphorus exceeded 5.5 mg/dL were eligible for entry into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Patients were randomized to receive calcium carbonate acetate or placebo, and each continued to receive the same number of tablets as had been individually established during the previous study. Following 2 weeks of treatment, patients switched to the alternative therapy for an additional 2 weeks.
The phosphate binding effect of calcium carbonate acetate is shown in the Table 3.
Overall, 2 weeks of treatment with calcium carbonate acetate statistically significantly (p<0.01) decreased serum phosphorus by a mean of 19% and increased serum calcium carbonate by a statistically significant (p<0.01) but clinically unimportant mean of 7%.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
calcium carbonate Acetate Capsules
667 mg capsule is supplied as a white opaque/blue opaque capsule, imprinted with “54 215” on the cap and body.
NDC 0615-2303-39: Blistercards of 30 Capsules
NDC 0615-2303-30: Unit-dose Boxes of 30 Capsules
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Inform patients to take calcium carbonate acetate capsules with meals, adhere to their prescribed diets, and avoid the use of calcium carbonate supplements including nonprescription antacids. Inform the patients about the symptoms of hypercalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1) ].
Advise patients who are taking an oral medication where reduction in the bioavailability of that medication would have clinically significant effect on its safety or efficacy to take the drug one hour before or three hours after calcium carbonate acetate capsules.
Distr. by: West-Ward
Eatontown, NJ 07724
Revised April 2016
Calcium Carbonate available forms, composition, doses:
Indications and Usages:
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Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Calcium Carbonate?
Depending on the reaction of the Calcium Carbonate after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Calcium Carbonate not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Calcium Carbonate addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Calcium Carbonate, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Calcium Carbonate consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
Visitor reported usefulNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported side effectsNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported price estimatesNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported frequency of useNo survey data has been collected yet
One visitor reported dosesWhat is the dose of Calcium Carbonate drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sdrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 201-500mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
One visitor reported time for resultsWhat is the time duration Calcium Carbonate drug must be taken for it to be effective or for it to reduce the symptoms?
Most chronic conditions need at least some time so the dose and the drug action gets adjusted to the body to get the desired effect. The stastistics say sdrugs.com website users needed 1 day to notice the result from using Calcium Carbonate drug. The time needed to show improvement in health condition after using the medicine Calcium Carbonate need not be same for all the users. It varies based on other factors.
Visitor reported administrationNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported ageNo survey data has been collected yet
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology