DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
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Acyclovir Sodium is an antiviral agent. Thymidine kinase of virus-infected cells actively converts Acyclovir Sodium through a series of sequential reactions in the mono-, di- and triphosphate of Acyclovir Sodium. The latter interacts with the viral DNA polymerase, and embedded in DNA, which is synthesized for new viruses. Thus it is formed a "defective" viral DNA which leads to suppression of replication of new generations of viruses.
This mediciine Acyclovir Sodium is active against Herpes Simplex virus types 1 and 2, Varicella Zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus.
For oral administration bioavailability is 15-30%. Widely distributed in tissues and body fluids. Plasma protein binding is 9-33%. Metabolised in liver. T1/2 for oral administration - 3.3 h, intravenous - 2.5 hours; Acyclovir Sodium excreted in the urine, also in small quantities - with feces.
For systemic use : infections caused by Herpes Simplex virus types 1 and 2 and Varicella Zoster; prevention of infections caused by viruses Herpes Simplex and Varicella Zoster (including in patients with low immunity); in combined therapy with the pronounced immunodeficiency (including in the clinical picture of HIV infection) and in patients undergoing marrow transplantation, prevention of cytomegalovirus infection after marrow transplantation.
For topical use in ophthalmology: keratitis and other eye damage caused by Herpes Simplex virus.
For external use: infections of the skin caused by Herpes Simplex virus and Varicella Zoster like Herpes Simplex of the skin and mucous membranes, genital herpes (primary and recurrent) localized zoster (support therapy).
Acyclovir Sodium for oral usage for adults and children older than 2 years - 200-400 mg of 3-5 times / day, if necessary - to 20 mg / kg (up to 800 mg per dose) 4 times / day. For children under 2 years are used in doses equal to half the adult dose. Duration of treatment - 5-10 days. In renal insufficiency is recommended correction dosing regimen.
IV in adults and children over 12 years - 5-10 mg / kg, the interval between infusions - 8 hours. Children under the age of 3 months to 12 years - 250-500 mg / m2 body surface, the interval between infusions - 8 hours, for infants dose is 10 mg / kg, the interval between infusions - 8 hours.
In renal insufficiency must be corrected dosing regimen.
Locally and externally applied 5 times / 24 h. Dose and duration of treatment depends on the testimony and the use of dosage form.
Maximum dose for adults for IV usage is 30 mg / kg / 24 h.
For oral usage: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, skin rash, headache, dizziness, fatigue, reduced concentration, hallucinations, drowsiness or insomnia, fever, rarely - hair loss, a transient increase in blood concentrations of bilirubin, urea, creatinine, liver enzymes, lymphocytopenia, eritropeniya, leukopenia.
For IV usage: acute renal failure, crystalluria, encephalopathy, phlebitis, or inflammation at the injection site, nausea, vomiting.
For topically usage: a burning sensation in the application area, superficial punctate keratitis, blepharitis, conjunctivitis.
For external usage: in the application area may be a burning sensation, skin rash, itching, peeling, erythema, dry skin in contact with mucous membranes - inflammation.
Hypersensitivity to Acyclovir Sodium and valaciclovir; for IV usage - lactation (breast feeding).
Pregnancy. Perhaps, if the expected effect of the therapy outweighs the potential risk to the fetus ; Acyclovir Sodium passes through the placenta. Data on the outcome of pregnancy in women taking Acyclovir Sodium systemic action in the I trimester of pregnancy showed no increase in birth defects compared with the total population. Since the observation was included a small number of women, reliable and definitive conclusions about the safety of Acyclovir Sodium in pregnancy can be done.
Breastfeeding. Acyclovir Sodium penetrates into breast milk. After taking Acyclovir Sodium by mouth, it was determined in breast milk in concentrations, the ratio of which, with concentrations in blood plasma was 0,6-1,4. At these concentrations in breast milk, children who are breastfed can receive Acyclovir Sodium at a dose of 0.3 mg / kg / day. Given this, should appoint Acyclovir Sodium lactating women with caution, only if necessary.
Do not use Acyclovir Sodium with severely impaired renal function.
Note that the application of Acyclovir Sodium may develop acute renal failure due to precipitate formation of crystals of Acyclovir Sodium, which is especially likely during rapid IV introduction, the simultaneous use of nephrotoxic drugs in patients with impaired renal function and lack of water stress.
When applying aciclovir should monitor renal function (determination of the level in the blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in blood plasma).
Treatment of elderly patients should be conducted with a sufficient increase in water load and under the supervision of a physician, because among these patients increased half-life of Acyclovir Sodium.
In the treatment of genital herpes should avoid sex or use condoms, because use of Acyclovir Sodium does not prevent transmission to partners.
This medication Acyclovir Sodium in the form of dosage forms for topical use should not be applied to mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes, vagina.
With simultaneous use of probenecid decreases the tubular secretion of Acyclovir Sodium, and thereby increases the concentration in blood plasma and the half-life of Acyclovir Sodium.
With simultaneous use of Acyclovir Sodium with other nephrotoxic drugs increases the risk of nephrotoxicity.
Enhancing effect of Acyclovir Sodium is noted while appointing immunostimulators.
When mixed solutions should be considered an alkaline reaction to Acyclovir Sodium for IV introduction (pH 11).
Symptoms: headache, neurological disorders, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, renal failure, lethargy, convulsions, coma.
Treatment: symptomatic therapy, the maintenance of vital functions, adequate hydration, hemodialysis (especially in acute renal failure and anuria).There is no data for overdose when applied topically.
Depending on the reaction of the Acyclovir Sodium after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Acyclovir Sodium not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Acyclovir Sodium addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
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The information was verified by Dr. Rachana Salvi, MD Pharmacology