Active ingredient: Acyclovir

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Acyclovir uses


Pharmacological action

acyclovir is an antiviral agent. Thymidine kinase of virus-infected cells actively converts acyclovir through a series of sequential reactions in the mono-, di- and triphosphate of acyclovir. The latter interacts with the viral DNA polymerase, and embedded in DNA, which is synthesized for new viruses. Thus it is formed a "defective" viral DNA which leads to suppression of replication of new generations of viruses.

This mediciine acyclovir is active against Herpes Simplex virus types 1 and 2, Varicella Zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus.

Pharmacokinetics

For oral administration bioavailability is 15-30%. Widely distributed in tissues and body fluids. Plasma protein binding is 9-33%. Metabolised in liver. T1/2 for oral administration - 3.3 h, intravenous - 2.5 hours; acyclovir excreted in the urine, also in small quantities - with feces.

Why is acyclovir prescribed?

For systemic use : infections caused by Herpes Simplex virus types 1 and 2 and Varicella Zoster; prevention of infections caused by viruses Herpes Simplex and Varicella Zoster (including in patients with low immunity); in combined therapy with the pronounced immunodeficiency (including in the clinical picture of HIV infection) and in patients undergoing marrow transplantation, prevention of cytomegalovirus infection after marrow transplantation.

For topical use in ophthalmology: keratitis and other eye damage caused by Herpes Simplex virus.

For external use: infections of the skin caused by Herpes Simplex virus and Varicella Zoster like Herpes Simplex of the skin and mucous membranes, genital herpes (primary and recurrent) localized zoster (support therapy).

Dosage and administration

acyclovir for oral usage for adults and children older than 2 years - 200-400 mg of 3-5 times / day, if necessary - to 20 mg / kg (up to 800 mg per dose) 4 times / day. For children under 2 years are used in doses equal to half the adult dose. Duration of treatment - 5-10 days. In renal insufficiency is recommended correction dosing regimen.

IV in adults and children over 12 years - 5-10 mg / kg, the interval between infusions - 8 hours. Children under the age of 3 months to 12 years - 250-500 mg / m2 body surface, the interval between infusions - 8 hours, for infants dose is 10 mg / kg, the interval between infusions - 8 hours.

In renal insufficiency must be corrected dosing regimen.

Locally and externally applied 5 times / 24 h. Dose and duration of treatment depends on the testimony and the use of dosage form.

Maximum dose for adults for IV usage is 30 mg / kg / 24 h.

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acyclovir side effects, adverse reactions

For oral usage: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, skin rash, headache, dizziness, fatigue, reduced concentration, hallucinations, drowsiness or insomnia, fever, rarely - hair loss, a transient increase in blood concentrations of bilirubin, urea, creatinine, liver enzymes, lymphocytopenia, eritropeniya, leukopenia.

For IV usage: acute renal failure, crystalluria, encephalopathy, phlebitis, or inflammation at the injection site, nausea, vomiting.

For topically usage: a burning sensation in the application area, superficial punctate keratitis, blepharitis, conjunctivitis.

For external usage: in the application area may be a burning sensation, skin rash, itching, peeling, erythema, dry skin in contact with mucous membranes - inflammation.

Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to acyclovir and valaciclovir; for IV usage - lactation (breast feeding).

Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

Pregnancy. Perhaps, if the expected effect of the therapy outweighs the potential risk to the fetus ; acyclovir passes through the placenta. Data on the outcome of pregnancy in women taking acyclovir systemic action in the I trimester of pregnancy showed no increase in birth defects compared with the total population. Since the observation was included a small number of women, reliable and definitive conclusions about the safety of acyclovir in pregnancy can be done.

Breastfeeding. acyclovir penetrates into breast milk. After taking acyclovir by mouth, it was determined in breast milk in concentrations, the ratio of which, with concentrations in blood plasma was 0,6-1,4. At these concentrations in breast milk, children who are breastfed can receive acyclovir at a dose of 0.3 mg / kg / day. Given this, should appoint acyclovir lactating women with caution, only if necessary.

Special instructions

Do not use acyclovir with severely impaired renal function.

Note that the application of acyclovir may develop acute renal failure due to precipitate formation of crystals of acyclovir, which is especially likely during rapid IV introduction, the simultaneous use of nephrotoxic drugs in patients with impaired renal function and lack of water stress.

When applying aciclovir should monitor renal function (determination of the level in the blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in blood plasma).

Treatment of elderly patients should be conducted with a sufficient increase in water load and under the supervision of a physician, because among these patients increased half-life of acyclovir.

In the treatment of genital herpes should avoid sex or use condoms, because use of acyclovir does not prevent transmission to partners.

This medication acyclovir in the form of dosage forms for topical use should not be applied to mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes, vagina.

acyclovir drug interactions

With simultaneous use of probenecid decreases the tubular secretion of acyclovir, and thereby increases the concentration in blood plasma and the half-life of acyclovir.

With simultaneous use of acyclovir with other nephrotoxic drugs increases the risk of nephrotoxicity.

Enhancing effect of acyclovir is noted while appointing immunostimulators.

When mixed solutions should be considered an alkaline reaction to acyclovir for IV introduction (pH 11).

acyclovir in case of emergency / overdose

Symptoms: headache, neurological disorders, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, renal failure, lethargy, convulsions, coma.

Treatment: symptomatic therapy, the maintenance of vital functions, adequate hydration, hemodialysis (especially in acute renal failure and anuria).There is no data for overdose when applied topically.

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Acyclovir available forms, composition, doses:


Indications and Usages:

ATC codes:


ICD-10 codes:


Acyclovir destination | category:


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Drugs with same active ingredients (Pharmaceutical companies):


References

  1. Dailymed."ACYCLOVIR TABLET [PD-RX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."ACYCLOVIR: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "acyclovir". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Acyclovir?

Depending on the reaction of the Acyclovir after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Acyclovir not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Acyclovir addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sdrugs.com conducted a study on Acyclovir, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Acyclovir consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

Visitor reports

Visitor reported useful

No survey data has been collected yet

Visitor reported side effects

No survey data has been collected yet

Visitor reported price estimates

No survey data has been collected yet

One visitor reported frequency of use

How often in a day do you take the medicine?
Are you taking the Acyclovir drug as prescribed by the doctor?

Few medications can be taken Twice in a day more than prescribed when the doctor's advice mentions the medicine can be taken according to frequency or severity of symptoms. Most times, be very careful and clear about the number of times you are taking the medication. The report of sdrugs.com website users about the frequency of taking the drug Acyclovir is mentioned below.
Visitors%
Twice in a day1
100.0%

Three visitors reported doses

What is the dose of Acyclovir drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sdrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 201-500mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
Visitors%
201-500mg2
66.7%
1-5mg1
33.3%

One visitor reported time for results

What is the time duration Acyclovir drug must be taken for it to be effective or for it to reduce the symptoms?
Most chronic conditions need at least some time so the dose and the drug action gets adjusted to the body to get the desired effect. The stastistics say sdrugs.com website users needed 1 week to notice the result from using Acyclovir drug. The time needed to show improvement in health condition after using the medicine Acyclovir need not be same for all the users. It varies based on other factors.
Visitors%
1 week1
100.0%

Visitor reported administration

No survey data has been collected yet

Two visitors reported age

Visitors%
> 601
50.0%
16-291
50.0%

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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