DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Zolpidem is a sleeping drug from the group of imidazopyridine, specific agonist of omega1-receptors in CNS. It shortens the time to sleep, reduces the number of nighttime awakenings, increased sleep duration and improves its quality. This medication extends phase II of sleep, phases III and IV of deep sleep, does not affect the duration of REM sleep. Zolpidem characterized also by a central muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant effects.
After oral administration, Cmax plasma levels observed after 0.5-3 hours. Bioavailability is approximately 70%. Plasma protein binding is 92%. There is a linear relationship between the magnitude of the dose and concentration of the active substance in the plasma. Vd is 0.52-0.56 L / kg. Zolpidem is metabolized in the liver and in the form of inactive metabolites are excreted in the urine and feces (37%). It does not induce liver enzymes.
T1/2 is from 0.7 hours to 3.5 hours (mean is 2.4 h).
In elderly patients may decreases plasma clearance of zolpidem, while T1/2 increased slightly (to an average of 3 hours), Cmax increased by 50%, Vd decreased to 0.29-0.39 L / kg.
In patients with severe renal impairment the clearance of zolpidem is reduced slightly, other pharmacokinetic parameters were not changed. In patients with severe liver dysfunction increases the bioavailability of zolpidem, clearance is somewhat reduced, T1/2 increases to 10 hours.
Why is Zolpidem prescribed?
Episodic, transient and chronic insomnia.
Dosage and administration
For oral administration for adults aged under 65 years a single dose is 10 mg, if necessary, may increases to 15-20 mg. For patients older than 65 years or with concomitant hepatic insufficiency initial single dose is 5 mg. Zolpidem is taken just before bedtime. The course of treatment is from several days to 4 weeks. Maximum dose is 10 mg / day.
Zolpidem side effects, adverse reactions
Digestive system: in some cases - abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
CNS and peripheral nervous system: depending on the dose and individual sensitivity - vertigo, imbalance, ataxia, headache, daytime sleepiness, distraction, muscle weakness, double vision, anterograde amnesia, paradoxical or mental disorders; also it is possible ricochet insomnia when used in high doses or long-term treatment.
Allergic reactions: skin rash, itching.
Other: rarely - violation of sexual desire; development of addiction, the formation of psychic and physical dependence (when applying for a few weeks).
Severe respiratory failure, nocturnal apnea, severe hepatic insufficiency, childhood and adolescence to 15 years, I trimester of pregnancy, lactation (breastfeeding), increased sensitivity to zolpidem.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Zolpidem is contraindicated in pregnancy and lactation.
Zolpidem is not recommended for use with myasthenia gravis.
With careful use in patients with respiratory failure. In case of insufficiency of liver function may be necessary to decrease the dose.
If you cancel the therapy dose should be reduced gradually. The likelihood of habituation increases with prolonged use of zolpidem.
Avoid alcohol during the period of treatment.
During the period of treatment should refrain from potentially hazardous activities that require concentration and a high speed of psychomotor reactions.
Zolpidem drug interactions
When Zolpidem used with opioid analgesics, antitussives, barbiturates, antidepressants, sedatives, antihistamines, benzodiazepines, clonidine, neuroleptics, ethanol may develop symptoms of CNS depression and respiratory center.
When Zolpidem used with rifampicin, the concentration of zolpidem in the blood plasma, which is accompanied by a decrease in its hypnotic effect. Interaction is due to induction of isoenzyme CYP3A4.
Simultaneous administration with inducers of CYP3A4 isoenzyme may be possible reducing the concentration of zolpidem in the blood plasma.
Simultaneous administration with clozapine increases the risk of collapse, stop breathing and circulation.
Zolpidem in case of emergency / overdose
Symptoms: disturbance of consciousness (from lethargy to mild coma). There was recorded one case of cardiovascular and respiratory disorders; observed a full recovery after receiving doses of Zolpidem up to 400 mg.
Treatment: immediate induction of vomiting or gastric lavage (depending on state), the appointment of activated carbon. Should abandon the use of any sedative drugs (even when expressed excitation). Hemodialysis is ineffective. Specific antidote is flumazenil (benzodiazepine receptor antagonist).
Zolpidem pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Zolpidem available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Zolpidem destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Zolpidem Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Zolpidem pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Zolpidem?
Depending on the reaction of the Zolpidem after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Zolpidem not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Zolpidem addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
ReviewsDrugs.com conducted a study on Zolpidem, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Zolpidem consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
Three visitors reported dosesWhat is the dose of Zolpidem drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sDrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 6-10mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
One visitor reported administrationThe drugs are administered in various routes, like oral or injection form. They are administered before food or after food. How are you taking Zolpidem drug, before food or after food?
Click here to find out how other users of our website are taking it. For any doubts or queries on how and when the medicine is administered, contact your health care provider immediately.
Three visitors reported age
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology