DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
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Zoa Forte (Dicyclomine Hydrochloride) is an antispasmodic and anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) agent. Zoa Forte (Dicyclomine Hydrochloride) occurs as a fine, white, crystalline, practically odorless powder with a bitter taste. It is soluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol and chloroform, and very slightly soluble in ether.
Chemically, it is [Bicyclohexyl]-1-carboxylic acid, 2-(diethyl-amino) ethyl ester, hydrochloride with the following structural formula:
Each capsule, for oral administration, contains 10 mg of Zoa Forte (Dicyclomine Hydrochloride).
Each tablet, for oral administration, contains 20 mg of Zoa Forte (Dicyclomine Hydrochloride).
This product contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide (tablets only), corn starch (tablets only), D&C red #28 (capsules only), FD&C blue #1 (capsules only), FD&C blue #1 lake (tablets only), FD&C red #40 (capsules only), gelatin (capsules only), hypromellose (tablets only), lactose monohydrate (tablets only), magnesium stearate (capsules only), pregelatinized starch, silicon dioxide (capsules only), sodium lauryl sulfate (capsules only), sodium starch glycolate (tablets only), and stearic acid (tablets only).
Dicyclomine relieves smooth muscle spasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Animal studies indicate that this action is achieved via a dual mechanism: (1) a specific anticholinergic effect (antimuscarinic) at the acetylcholine- receptor sites with approximately 1/8 the milligram potency of atropine (in vitro, guinea pig ileum); and (2) a direct effect upon smooth muscle (musculotropic) as evidenced by dicyclomine's antagonism of bradykinin- and histamine-induced spasms of the isolated guinea pig ileum. Atropine did not affect responses to these two agonists. In vivo studies in cats and dogs showed dicyclomine to be equally potent against acetylcholine (ACh)- or barium chloride (BaCI2)- induced intestinal spasm while atropine was at least 200 times more potent against effects of ACh than BaCI2. Tests for mydriatic effects in mice showed that dicyclomine was approximately 1/500 as potent as atropine; antisialogogue tests in rabbits showed dicyclomine to be 1/300 as potent as atropine.
In man, dicyclomine is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, reaching peak values within 60-90 minutes. The principal route of elimination is via the urine (79.5% of the dose). Excretion also occurs in the feces, but to a lesser extent (8.4%). Mean half-life of plasma elimination in one study was determined to be approximately 1.8 hours when plasma concentrations were measured for 9 hours after a single dose. In subsequent studies, plasma concentrations were followed for up to 24 hours after a single dose, showing a secondary phase of elimination with a somewhat longer half-life. Mean volume of distribution for a 20 mg oral dose is approximately 3.65 L/kg suggesting extensive distribution in tissues.
In controlled clinical trials involving over 100 patients who received drug, 82% of patients treated for functional bowel/irritable bowel syndrome with Zoa Forte (Dicyclomine Hydrochloride) at initial doses of 160 mg daily (40 mg q.i.d.) demonstrated a favorable clinical response compared with 55% treated with placebo (p<.05). In these trials, most of the side effects were typically anticholinergic in nature and were reported by 61% of the patients.
|(40 mg q.i.d.)||Placebo|
Nine percent (9%) of patients were discontinued from the drug because of one or more of these side effects (compared with 2% in the placebo group). In 41% of the patients with side effects, side effects disappeared or were tolerated at the 160 mg daily dose without reduction. A dose reduction from 160 mg daily to an average daily dose of 90 mg was required in 46% of the patients with side effects who then continued to experience a favorable clinical response; their side effects either disappeared or were tolerated.
For the treatment of functional bowel/irritable bowel syndrome.
Obstructive disease of the gastrointestinal tract
Severe ulcerative colitis
Unstable cardiovascular status in acute hemorrhage
Evidence of prior hypersensitivity to Zoa Forte (Dicyclomine Hydrochloride) or other ingredients of these formulations
Infants less than 6 months of age
In the presence of a high environmental temperature, heat prostration can occur with drug use (fever and heat stroke due to decreased sweating). If symptoms occur, the drug should be discontinued and supportive measures instituted.
Diarrhea may be an early symptom of incomplete intestinal obstruction, especially in patients with ileostomy or colostomy. In this instance, treatment with this drug would be inappropriate and possibly harmful.
Dicyclomine may produce drowsiness or blurred vision. The patient should be warned not to engage in activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating a motor vehicle or other machinery or performing hazardous work while taking this drug.
Psychosis has been reported in sensitive individuals given anticholinergic drugs. CNS signs and symptoms include confusion, disorientation, short-term memory loss, hallucinations, dysarthria, ataxia, coma, euphoria, decreased anxiety, fatigue, insomnia, agitation and mannerisms, and inappropriate affect. These CNS signs and symptoms usually resolve within 12 to 24 hours after discontinuation of the drug.
There are reports that administration of dicyclomine syrup to infants has been followed by serious respiratory symptoms (dyspnea, shortness of breath, breathlessness, respiratory collapse, apnea, asphyxia), seizures, syncope, pulse rate fluctuations, muscular hypotonia, and coma. Death has been reported. No causal relationship between these effects observed in infants and dicyclomine administration has been established. DICYCLOMINE IS CONTRAINDICATED IN INFANTS LESS THAN 6 MONTHS OF AGE AND IN NURSING MOTHERS..
Safety and efficacy of Zoa Forte (Dicyclomine Hydrochloride) in pediatric patients have not been established.
Use with caution in patients with:
Hepatic or renal disease
Ulcerative colitis-large doses may suppress intestinal motility to the point of producing a paralytic ileus and the use of this drug may precipitate or aggravate the serious complication of toxic megacolon
Coronary heart disease
Congestive heart failure
Known or suspected prostatic hypertrophy.
Investigate any tachycardia before administration of Zoa Forte (Dicyclomine Hydrochloride), since it may increase the heart rate.
With overdosage, a curare-like action may occur (i.e., neuromuscular blockade leading to muscular weakness and possible paralysis).
Dicyclomine may produce drowsiness or blurred vision. The patient should be warned not to engage in activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating a motor vehicle or other machinery or to perform hazardous work while taking this drug.
Dicyclomine is contraindicated in infants less than 6 months of age and in nursing mothers..
In the presence of a high environmental temperature, heat prostration can occur with drug use (fever and heat stroke due to decreased sweating).
If symptoms occur, the drug should be discontinued and a physician contacted.
The following agents may increase certain actions or side effects of anticholinergic drugs: amantadine, antiarrhythmic agents of Class I, antihistamines, antipsychotic agents (e.g., phenothiazines), benzodiazepines, MAO inhibitors, narcotic analgesics (e.g., meperidine), nitrates and nitrites, sympathomimetic agents, tricyclic antidepressants, and other drugs having anticholinergic activity.
Anticholinergics antagonize the effects of antiglaucoma agents. Anticholinergic drugs in the presence of increased intraocular pressure may be hazardous when taken concurrently with agents such as corticosteroids.
Anticholinergic agents may affect gastrointestinal absorption of various drugs, such as slowly dissolving dosage forms of digoxin; increased serum digoxin concentrations may result. Anticholinergic drugs may antagonize the effects of the drugs that alter gastrointestinal motility, such as metoclopramide. Because antacids may interfere with the absorption of anticholinergic agents, simultaneous use of these drugs should be avoided.
The inhibiting effects of anticholinergic drugs on gastric hydrochloric acid secretion are antagonized by agents used to treat achlorhydria and those used to test gastric secretion.
There are no known human data on long-term potential for carcinogenicity or mutagenicity.
Long-term studies in animals to determine carcinogenic potential are not known to have been conducted.
In studies in rats at doses of up to 100 mg/kg/day, dicyclomine produced no deleterious effects on breeding, conception, or parturition.
Pregnancy Category B.
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 33 times the maximum recommended human dose based on 160 mg/day and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to dicyclomine. Epidemiologic studies in pregnant women with products containing Zoa Forte (Dicyclomine Hydrochloride) (at doses up to 40 mg/day) have not shown that dicyclomine increases the risk of fetal abnormalities if administered during the first trimester of pregnancy. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women at the recommended doses (80-160 mg/day). Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, dicyclomine as indicated for functional bowel/irritable bowel syndrome should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Since dicyclomine has been reported to be excreted in human milk, Zoa Forte (Dicyclomine Hydrochloride) IS CONTRAINDICATED IN NURSING MOTHERS..
DICYCLOMINE IS CONTRAINDICATED IN INFANTS LESS THAN 6 MONTHS OF AGE.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Controlled clinical trials have provided frequency information for reported adverse effects of Zoa Forte (Dicyclomine Hydrochloride) listed in a decreasing order of frequency.
Not all of the following adverse reactions have been reported with Zoa Forte (Dicyclomine Hydrochloride). Adverse reactions are included here that have been reported for pharmacologically similar drugs with anticholinergic/antispasmodic action.
Gastrointestinal: dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, constipation, bloated feeling, abdominal pain, taste loss, anorexia
Central Nervous System: dizziness, light-headedness, tingling, headache, drowsiness, weakness, nervousness, numbness, mental confusion and/or excitement (especially in elderly persons), dyskinesia, lethargy, syncope, speech disturbance, insomnia
Ophthalmologic: blurred vision, diplopia, mydriasis, cycloplegia, increased ocular tension
Dermatological/Allergic: rash, urticaria, itching, and other dermal manifestations; severe allergic reaction or drug idiosyncrasies including anaphylaxis
Genitourinary: urinary hesitancy, urinary retention
Cardiovascular: tachycardia, palpitations
Respiratory: Dyspnea, apnea, asphyxia
Other: decreased sweating, nasal stuffiness or congestion, sneezing, throat congestion, impotence, suppression of lactation
Abuse of and/or dependence on dicyclomine for anticholinergic effects have been rarely reported.
The signs and symptoms of overdosage are headache; nausea; vomiting; blurred vision; dilated pupils; hot, dry skin; dizziness; dryness of the mouth; difficulty in swallowing; and CNS stimulation. A curare-like action may occur.
A 37-year-old female reported numbness on the left side, cold fingertips, blurred vision, abdominal and flank pain, decreased appetite, dry mouth, and nervousness following ingestion of 320 mg daily (four 20 mg tablets QID) for four days. These events resolved after discontinuing the dicyclomine.
The acute oral LD50 of the drug is 625 mg/kg in mice.
Minimum Human Lethal Dose/Maximum Human Dose Recorded
The amount of drug in a single dose that is ordinarily associated with symptoms of overdosage or that is Iikely to be life threatening, has not been defined. The maximum human oral dose recorded was 600 mg by mouth in a 10-month-old child and approximately 1500 mg in an adult, each of whom survived.
In three of the infants who died following administration of Zoa Forte (Dicyclomine Hydrochloride), the blood concentrations of drug were 200, 220, and 505 ng/mL, respectively.
It is not known if dicyclomine is dialyzable.
Treatment should consist of gastric lavage, emetics, and activated charcoal. Sedatives (e.g., short-acting barbiturates, benzodiazepines) may be used for management of overt signs of excitement. If indicated, an appropriate parenteral cholinergic agent may be used as an antidote.
DOSAGE MUST BE ADJUSTED TO INDIVIDUAL PATIENT NEEDS.
The only oral dose clearly shown to be effective is 160 mg per day (in 4 equally divided doses). Since this dose is associated with a significant incidence of side effects, it is prudent to begin with 80 mg per day (in 4 equally divided doses). Depending upon the patient's response during the first week of therapy, the dose should be increased to 160 mg per day unless side effects limit dosage escalation.
If efficacy is not achieved within 2 weeks or side effects require doses below 80 mg per day, the drug should be discontinued. Documented safety data are not available for doses above 80 mg daily for periods longer than 2 weeks.
The intramuscular dosage form is to be used temporarily when the patient cannot take oral medication. Intramuscular injection is about twice as bioavailable as oral dosage forms; consequently, the recommended intramuscular dose is 80 mg daily (in 4 equally divided doses).
Oral Zoa Forte (Dicyclomine Hydrochloride) should be started as soon as possible and the intramuscular form should not be used for periods longer than 1 or 2 days.
Zoa Forte Capsules USP and Zoa Forte (Dicyclomine Hydrochloride) Tablets USP are supplied as follows:
10 mg capsules: Clear Dark Blue cap/Clear Dark Blue body hard gelatin capsules, imprinted with white ink WATSON over 794 on cap and 10 mg on the body, in bottles of 100 and 1000.
20 mg tablets: Blue, round, unscored, flat-faced, beveled-edge tablets, debossed WATSON and 795 on the periphery on one side and plain on the other side, in bottles of 100 and 1000.
Store at controlled room temperature 15°-30°C (59°-86°F).
Dispense in a well-closed container as defined in USP/NF.
Watson Laboratories, Inc.
Corona, CA 92880 USA
Patheon Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Cincinnati, OH 45215 USA
WARNING: POTENTIAL RISK FOR CARCINOGENICITY
See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.
Carcinogenicity has been seen in mice and rats treated chronically with metronidazole, another nitroimidazole agent ( 13.1). Although such data have not been reported for Zoa Forte (Tinidazole), the two drugs are structurally related and have similar biologic effects. Use should be limited to approved indications only.
Indications and Usage, Bacterial Vaginosis ( 1.4) 5/2007
Dosage and Administration, Bacterial Vaginosis ( 2.6) 5/2007
Other pathogens commonly associated with vulvovaginitis such as Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans and Herpes simplex virus should be ruled out.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) and other antibacterial drugs, Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Alcoholic beverages should be avoided when taking Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) and for 3 days afterwards .
Procedure for Extemporaneous Pharmacy Compounding of the Oral Suspension: Pulverize four 500 mg oral tablets with a mortar and pestle. Add approximately 10 mL of cherry syrup to the powder and mix until smooth. Transfer the suspension to a graduated amber container. Use several small rinses of cherry syrup to transfer any remaining drug in the mortar to the final suspension for a final volume of 30 mL. The suspension of crushed tablets in artificial cherry syrup is stable for 7 days at room temperature. When this suspension is used, it should be shaken well before each administration.
Amebic Liver Abscess: The recommended dose in adults is a 2 g dose per day for 3-5 days taken with food. In pediatric patients older than three years of age, the recommended dose is 50 mg/kg/day (up to 2 g per day) for 3-5 days with food. There are limited pediatric data on durations of therapy exceeding 3 days, although a small number of children were treated for 5 days without additional reported adverse reactions. Children should be closely monitored when treatment durations exceed 3 days.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Mission Pharmacal Company at 1-855-778-0177or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch
Among 3669 patients treated with a single 2 g dose of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole), in both controlled and uncontrolled trichomoniasis and giardiasis clinical studies, adverse reactions were reported by 11.0% of patients. For multi-day dosing in controlled and uncontrolled amebiasis studies, adverse reactions were reported by 13.8% of 1765 patients. Common (≥ 1% incidence) adverse reactions reported by body system are as follows. (Note: Data described in Table 1 below are pooled from studies with variable designs and safety evaluations.)
Other adverse reactions reported with Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) include:
Central Nervous System: Two serious adverse reactions reported include convulsions and transient peripheral neuropathy including numbness and paresthesia . Other CNS reports include vertigo, ataxia, giddiness, insomnia, drowsiness.
Gastrointestinal: tongue discoloration, stomatitis, diarrhea
Hypersensitivity: urticaria, pruritis, rash, flushing, sweating, dryness of mouth, fever, burning sensation, thirst, salivation, angioedema
Renal: darkened urine
Hematopoietic: transient neutropenia, transient leukopenia
Other: Candida overgrowth, increased vaginal discharge, oral candidiasis, hepatic abnormalities including raised transaminase level, arthralgias, myalgias, and arthritis.
|2 g single dose||Multi-day dose|
|GI: Metallic/bitter taste||3.7%||6.3%|
|Total patients with adverse reactions||11.0% |
Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients: In pooled pediatric studies, adverse reactions reported in pediatric patients taking Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) were similar in nature and frequency to adult findings including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, taste change, anorexia, and abdominal pain.
Bacterial vaginosis: The most common adverse reactions in treated patients (incidence >2%), which were not identified in the trichomoniasis, giardiasis and amebiasis studies, are gastrointestinal: decreased appetite, and flatulence; renal: urinary tract infection, painful urination, and urine abnormality; and other reactions including pelvic pain, vulvo-vaginal discomfort, vaginal odor, menorrhagia, and upper respiratory tract infection .
Severe acute hypersensitivity reactions have been reported on initial or subsequent exposure to Zoa Forte (Tinidazole). Hypersensitivity reactions may include urticaria, pruritis, angioedema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and erythema multiforme.
The following drug interactions were reported for metronidazole, a chemically-related nitroimidazole and may therefore occur with Zoa Forte (Tinidazole):
Alcohols, Disulfiram: Alcoholic beverages and preparations containing ethanol or propylene glycol should be avoided during Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) therapy and for 3 days afterward because abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and flushing may occur. Psychotic reactions have been reported in alcoholic patients using metronidazole and disulfiram concurrently. Though no similar reactions have been reported with Zoa Forte (Tinidazole), Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) should not be given to patients who have taken disulfiram within the last two weeks.
Lithium: Metronidazole has been reported to elevate serum lithium levels. It is not known if Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) shares this property with metronidazole, but consideration should be given to measuring serum lithium and creatinine levels after several days of simultaneous lithium and Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) treatment to detect potential lithium intoxication.
Phenytoin, Fosphenytoin: Concomitant administration of oral metronidazole and intravenous phenytoin was reported to result in prolongation of the half-life and reduction in the clearance of phenytoin. Metronidazole did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of orally-administered phenytoin.
Cyclosporine, Tacrolimus: There are several case reports suggesting that metronidazole has the potential to increase the levels of cyclosporine and tacrolimus. During Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) co-administration with either of these drugs, the patient should be monitored for signs of calcineurin-inhibitor associated toxicities.
Fluorouracil: Metronidazole was shown to decrease the clearance of fluorouracil, resulting in an increase in side-effects without an increase in therapeutic benefits. If the concomitant use of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) and fluorouracil cannot be avoided, the patient should be monitored for fluorouracil-associated toxicities.
Cholestyramine: Cholestyramine was shown to decrease the oral bioavailability of metronidazole by 21%. Thus, it is advisable to separate dosing of cholestyramine and Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) to minimize any potential effect on the oral bioavailability of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole).
Oxytetracycline: Oxytetracycline was reported to antagonize the therapeutic effect of metronidazole.
Zoa Forte (Tinidazole), like metronidazole, may produce transient leukopenia and neutropenia; however, no persistent hematological abnormalities attributable to Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) have been observed in clinical studies. Total and differential leukocyte counts are recommended if re-treatment is necessary.
The use of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) in pregnant patients has not been studied. Since Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) crosses the placental barrier and enters fetal circulation it should not be administered to pregnant patients in the first trimester.
Embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies in pregnant mice indicated no embryo-fetal toxicity or malformations at the highest dose level of 2,500 mg/kg (approximately 6.3-fold the highest human therapeutic dose based upon body surface area conversions). In a study with pregnant rats a slightly higher incidence of fetal mortality was observed at a maternal dose of 500 mg/kg (2.5-fold the highest human therapeutic dose based upon body surface area conversions). No biologically relevant neonatal developmental effects were observed in rat neonates following maternal doses as high as 600 mg/kg (3-fold the highest human therapeutic dose based upon body surface area conversions). Although there is some evidence of mutagenic potential and animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, the use of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) after the first trimester of pregnancy requires that the potential benefits of the drug be weighed against the possible risks to both the mother and the fetus.
Pediatric Administration: For those unable to swallow tablets, Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) tablets may be crushed in artificial cherry syrup, to be taken with food .
Patients undergoing hemodialysis: If Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) is administered on the same day as and prior to hemodialysis, it is recommended that an additional dose of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) equivalent to one-half of the recommended dose be administered after the end of the hemodialysis .
Treatment of Overdosage: There is no specific antidote for the treatment of overdosage with Zoa Forte (Tinidazole); therefore, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. Gastric lavage may be helpful. Hemodialysis can be considered because approximately 43% of the amount present in the body is eliminated during a 6-hour hemodialysis session.
Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) is a synthetic antiprotozoal and antibacterial agent. It is 1-[2-(ethylsulfonyl)ethyl]-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, a second-generation 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, which has the following chemical structure:
Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) pink oral tablets contain 500 mg of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole). Inactive ingredients include croscarmellose sodium, FD&C Red 40 lake, FD&C Yellow 6 lake, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, pregelatinized corn starch, titanium dioxide, and triacetin.
Administration of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) tablets with food resulted in a delay in T max of approximately 2 hours and a decline in C max of approximately 10% , compared to fasted conditions. However, administration of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) with food did not affect AUC or T 1/2 in this study.
In healthy volunteers, administration of crushed Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) tablets in artificial cherry syrup, [prepared as described in Dosage and Administration ( 2.2) ] after an overnight fast had no effect on any pharmacokinetic parameter as compared to tablets swallowed whole under fasted conditions.
Distribution: Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) is distributed into virtually all tissues and body fluids and also crosses the blood-brain barrier. The apparent volume of distribution is about 50 liters. Plasma protein binding of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) is 12%. Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) crosses the placental barrier and is secreted in breast milk.
Metabolism: Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) is significantly metabolized in humans prior to excretion. Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) is partly metabolized by oxidation, hydroxylation, and conjugation. Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) is the major drug-related constituent in plasma after human treatment, along with a small amount of the 2-hydroxymethyl metabolite.
Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) is biotransformed mainly by CYP3A4. In an in vitro metabolic drug interaction study, Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) concentrations of up to 75 µg/mL did not inhibit the enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4.
The potential of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) to induce the metabolism of other drugs has not been evaluated.
Elimination: The plasma half-life of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) is approximately 12-14 hours. Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) is excreted by the liver and the kidneys. Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) is excreted in the urine mainly as unchanged drug (approximately 20-25% of the administered dose). Approximately 12% of the drug is excreted in the feces.
Patients with impaired renal function: The pharmacokinetics of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCL < 22 mL/min) are not significantly different from the pharmacokinetics seen in healthy subjects. However, during hemodialysis, clearance of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) is significantly increased; the half-life is reduced from 12.0 hours to 4.9 hours. Approximately 43% of the amount present in the body is eliminated during a 6-hour hemodialysis session . The pharmacokinetics of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) in patients undergoing routine continuous peritoneal dialysis have not been investigated.
Patients with impaired hepatic function: There are no data on Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) pharmacokinetics in patients with impaired hepatic function. Reduction of metabolic elimination of metronidazole, a chemically-related nitroimidazole, in patients with hepatic dysfunction has been reported in several studies .
Antibacterial: Culture and sensitivity testing of bacteria are not routinely performed to establish the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis ; standard methodology for the susceptibility testing of potential bacterial pathogens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus spp. or Mycoplasma hominis, has not been defined. The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) is active in vitro against most strains of the following organisms that have been reported to be associated with bacterial vaginosis:
Antiprotozoal: Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) demonstrates activity both in vitro and in clinical infections against the following protozoa: Trichomonas vaginalis; Giardia duodenalis (also termed G. lamblia); and Entamoeba histolytica.
For protozoal parasites, standardized susceptibility tests do not exist for use in clinical microbiology laboratories.
Drug Resistance: The development of resistance to Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) by G. duodenalis, E. histolytica, or bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis has not been examined.
Cross-resistance: Approximately 38% of T. vaginalis isolates exhibiting reduced susceptibility to metronidazole also show reduced susceptibility to Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) in vitro. The clinical significance of such an effect is not known.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) and other antibacterial drugs, Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) was mutagenic in the TA 100, S. typhimurium tester strain both with and without the metabolic activation system and was negative for mutagenicity in the TA 98 strain. Mutagenicity results were mixed (positive and negative) in the TA 1535, 1537, and 1538 strains. Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) was also mutagenic in a tester strain of Klebsiella pneumonia. Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) was negative for mutagenicity in a mammalian cell culture system utilizing Chinese hamster lung V79 cells (HGPRT test system) and negative for genotoxicity in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) sister chromatid exchange assay. Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) was positive for in vivo genotoxicity in the mouse micronucleus assay.
In a 60-day fertility study, Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) reduced fertility and produced testicular histopathology in male rats at a 600 mg/kg/day dose level (approximately 3-fold the highest human therapeutic dose based upon body surface area conversions). Spermatogenic effects resulted from 300 and 600 mg/kg/day dose levels. The no observed adverse reaction level for testicular and spermatogenic effects was 100 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.5-fold the highest human therapeutic dose based upon body surface area conversions). This effect is characteristic of agents in the 5-nitroimidazole class.
A repeated-dose toxicology study has been performed in beagle dogs using oral dosing of Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) at 100 mg/kg/day, 300 mg/kg/day, and 1000 mg/kg/day for 28-days. On Day 18 of the study, the highest dose was lowered to 600 mg/kg/day due to severe clinical symptoms. The two compound-related effects observed in the dogs treated with Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) were increased atrophy of the thymus in both sexes at the middle and high doses, and atrophy of the prostate at all doses in the males. A no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 100 mg/kg/day for females was determined. There was no NOAEL identified for males because of minimal atrophy of the prostate at 100 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.9-fold the highest human dose based upon plasma AUC comparisons).
|Outcome||Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) |
1 g × 5 days
|Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) |
2 g × 2 days
|% Cure||% Cure||% Cure|
97.5% CI 3
97.5% CI 3
Nugent Score Cure
97.5% CI 3
Nugent score of at least 4
2Difference in cure rates (Tindamax-placebo)
3CI: confidence interval
p-values for both Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) regimens vs. placebo for therapeutic, clinical and
Nugent score cure rates for both 2 and 5 days <0.001
The therapeutic cure rates reported in this clinical study conducted with Zoa Forte (Tinidazole) were based on resolution of 4 out of 4 Amsel's criteria and a Nugent score of <4. The cure rates for previous clinical studies with other products approved for bacterial vaginosis were based on resolution of either 2 or 3 out of 4 Amsel's criteria. At the time of approval for other products for bacterial vaginosis, there was no requirement for a Nugent score on Gram stain, resulting in higher reported rates of cure for bacterial vaginosis for those products than for those reported here for Zoa Forte (Tinidazole).
Depending on the reaction of the Zoa Forte after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Zoa Forte not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Zoa Forte addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
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The information was verified by Dr. Rachana Salvi, MD Pharmacology