DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Xantinon Complex usesXantinon Complex consists of Acetylmethionine, Betaine Hydrochloride, Choline Citrate, Inositol, Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin), Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride).
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Cystadane® (betaine anhydrous for oral solution) is indicated for the treatment of homocystinuria to decrease elevated homocysteine blood levels. Included within the category of homocystinuria are:
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The usual dosage in adult and pediatric patients is 6 grams per day administered orally in divided doses of 3 grams twice daily. In pediatric patients less than 3 years of age, dosage may be started at 100 mg/kg/day divided in twice daily doses, and then increased weekly by 50 mg/kg increments.
Therapy with Cystadane should be directed by physicians knowledgeable in the management of patients with homocystinuria. Patient response to Cystadane can be monitored by homocysteine plasma levels. Dosage in all patients can be gradually increased until plasma total homocysteine is undetectable or present only in small amounts. Response usually occurs within several days and steady state within a month. Plasma methionine concentrations should be monitored in patients with CBS deficiency .
Dosages of up to 20 grams per day have been necessary to control homocysteine levels in some patients. However, one pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic in vitro simulation study indicated minimal benefit from exceeding a twice-daily dosing schedule and a 150 mg/kg/day dosage for Cystadane.
The prescribed amount of Cystadane should be measured with the measuring scoop provided (one level 1.7 mL scoop is equal to 1 gram of Xantinon Complex (Betaine Hydrochloride) anhydrous powder) and then dissolved in 4 to 6 ounces (120 to 180 mL) of water, juice, milk, or formula, or mixed with food for immediate ingestion.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Cystadane is a white, granular, hygroscopic powder for oral solution available in bottles containing 180 grams of Xantinon Complex (Betaine Hydrochloride) anhydrous.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Risk of Hypermethioninemia in Patients with CBS Deficiency
Patients with homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency may also have elevated plasma methionine concentrations. Treatment with Cystadane may further increase methionine concentrations due to the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Cerebral edema has been reported in patients with hypermethioninemia, including patients treated with Cystadane. Plasma methionine concentrations should be monitored in patients with CBS deficiency. Plasma methionine concentrations should be kept below 1,000 µmol/L through dietary modification and, if necessary, a reduction of Cystadane dose.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
6.1 Adverse Reactions in Clinical Studies
The most serious adverse reaction reported with Cystadane treatment is the development of hypermethioninemia and cerebral edema in patients with CBS Deficiency .
The assessment of clinical adverse reactions is based on a survey study of 41 physicians, who treated a total of 111 homocystinuria patients with Cystadane. Adverse reactions were retrospectively recalled and were not collected systematically in this open-label, uncontrolled, physician survey. Thus, this list may not encompass all types of potential adverse reactions, reliably estimate their frequency, or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. The following adverse reactions were reported (Table 1):
Table 1: Number of Patients with Adverse Reactions to Cystadane by Physician Survey
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of Cystadane. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
In postmarketing experience with Cystadane, severe cerebral edema and hypermethioninemia have been reported within 2 weeks to 6 months of starting Xantinon Complex (Betaine Hydrochloride) therapy, with complete recovery after discontinuation of Cystadane. All patients who developed cerebral edema had homocystinuria due to CBS deficiency and had severe elevation in plasma methionine levels (range 1,000 to 3,000 µM). As cerebral edema has also been reported in patients with hypermethioninemia, secondary hypermethioninemia due to Xantinon Complex (Betaine Hydrochloride) therapy has been postulated as a possible mechanism of action.
The following adverse reactions have been reported in patients during postmarketing use of Cystadane: anorexia, agitation, depression, irritability, personality disorder, sleep disturbed, dental disorders, diarrhea, glossitis, nausea, stomach discomfort, vomiting, hair loss, hives, skin odor abnormalities, and urinary incontinence.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category C: Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Cystadane. It is also not known whether Cystadane can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Cystadane should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
It is not known whether Cystadane is excreted in human milk. Use only if clearly needed.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The majority of case studies of homocystinuria patients treated with Cystadane have been pediatric patients, including patients ranging in age from 24 days to 17 years . Children younger than 3 years of age may benefit from dose titration .
In an acute toxicology study in rats, death occurred frequently at doses equal to or greater than 10 g/kg.
Cystadane (betaine anhydrous for oral solution) is an agent for the treatment of homocystinuria. It contains no ingredients other than anhydrous Xantinon Complex (Betaine Hydrochloride). Cystadane is a white, granular, hygroscopic powder, which is diluted in water and administered orally. The chemical name of Xantinon Complex (Betaine Hydrochloride) anhydrous powder is trimethylglycine. It has a molecular weight of 117.15. The structural formula is:
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Cystadane acts as a methyl group donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine in patients with homocystinuria. Cystadane occurs naturally in the body. It is a metabolite of choline and is present in small amounts in foods such as beets, spinach, cereals, and seafood.
Cystadane was observed to lower plasma homocysteine levels in three types of homocystinuria, including CBS deficiency; MTHFR deficiency; and cbl defect. Patients have taken Cystadane for many years without evidence of tolerance. There has been no demonstrated correlation between Cystadane levels and homocysteine levels.
In CBS-deficient patients, large increases in methionine levels over baseline have been observed. Cystadane has also been demonstrated to increase low plasma methionine and S-adenosylmethionine levels in patients with MTHFR deficiency and cbl defect.
Pharmacokinetic studies of Cystadane are not available. Plasma levels of Cystadane have not been measured in patients and have not been correlated to homocysteine levels.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term carcinogenicity and fertility studies have not been conducted with Cystadane. No evidence of genotoxicity was demonstrated in the following tests: metaphase analysis of human lymphocytes; bacterial reverse mutation assay; and mouse micronucleus test.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
Cystadane was studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 6 patients with CBS deficiency, ages 7 to 32 years at enrollment. Cystadane was administered at a dosage of 3 grams twice daily, for 12 months. Plasma homocystine levels were significantly reduced (p<0.01) compared to placebo. Plasma methionine levels were variable and not significantly different compared to placebo. No adverse events were reported in any patient.
Cystadane has also been evaluated in observational studies without concurrent controls in patients with homocystinuria due to CBS deficiency, MTHFR deficiency, or cbl defect. A review of 16 case studies and the randomized controlled trial previously described was also conducted, and the data available for each study were summarized; however, no formal statistical analyses were performed. The studies included a total of 78 male and female patients with homocystinuria who were treated with Cystadane. This included 48 patients with CBS deficiency, 13 with MTHFR deficiency, and 11 with cbl defect, ranging in age from 24 days to 53 years. The majority of patients (n=48) received 6 gm/day, 3 patients received less than 6 gm/day, 12 patients received doses from 6 to 15 gm/day, and 5 patients received doses over 15 gm/day. Most patients were treated for more than 3 months (n=57) and 30 patients were treated for 1 year or longer (range 1 month to 11 years). Homocystine is formed nonenzymatically from two molecules of homocysteine, and both have be used to evaluate the effect of Cystadane in patients with homocystinuria. Plasma homocystine or homocysteine levels were reported numerically for 62 patients, and 61 of these patients showed decreases with Cystadane treatment. Homocystine decreased by 83-88% regardless of pre-treatment level, and homocysteine decreased by 71-83%, regardless of the pre-treatment level. Clinical improvement, such as improvement in seizures, or behavioral and cognitive functioning, was reported by the treating physicians in about three-fourths of patients. Many of these patients were also taking other therapies such as vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin B12 (cobalamin), and folate with variable biochemical responses. In most cases, adding Cystadane resulted in a further reduction of either homocystine or homocysteine.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
Cystadane is available in plastic bottles containing 180 grams of Xantinon Complex anhydrous. Each bottle is equipped with a plastic child-resistant cap and is supplied with a polystyrene measuring scoop. One level scoop (1.7 mL) is equal to 1 gram of Xantinon Complex (Betaine Hydrochloride) anhydrous powder.
NDC 66621-4000-1 180 g/bottle
Cystadane can be ordered by calling AnovoRx Group, LLC, Customer service at 1-888-487-4703
Store at room temperature, 15 – 30 ˚C (59 – 86 ˚F). Protect from moisture.
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Patients should be advised of the following information before beginning treatment with Cystadane:
17.1 Dosing and Administration
- Measure with the scoop provided.
- Measure the number of scoops as prescribed by their healthcare professional. One level scoop (1.7 mL) is equivalent to 1 gram of Xantinon Complex (Betaine Hydrochloride) anhydrous powder.
- Mix powder with 4 to 6 ounces (120 to 180 mL) of water, juice, milk, or formula until completely dissolved, or mix with food, then ingest mixture immediately.
- Always replace the cap tightly after using, and protect powder from moisture.
Rare Disease Therapeutics, Inc.
Franklin, TN 37067
Under License From:
Orphan Europe, s.a.r.l. Puteaux France
AnovoRx Distribution, LLC
Memphis, TN 38134
Part No.: RDT C PI007
Part No.: Orphan Europe OEP 829
Cystadane (betaine anhydrous) for oral solution
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Indication: For nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
This compound is needed for good nerve conduction throughout the CNS (central nervous system) as it is a precursor to acetylcholine (ACh). Xantinon Complex (Choline Citrate) is also needed for gallbladder regulation, liver function and lecithin (a key lipid) formation. Xantinon Complex (Choline Citrate) also aids in fat and cholesterol metabolism and prevents excessive fat build up in the liver. Xantinon Complex (Choline Citrate) has been used to mitigate the effects of Parkinsonism and tardive dyskinesia. Xantinon Complex (Choline Citrate) deficiencies may result in excessive build-up of fat in the liver, high blood pressure, gastric ulcers, kidney and liver dysfunction and stunted growth.
Niacin is used with a proper diet and exercise program to help lower "bad" cholesterol and fats ( LDL, triglycerides ) and raise "good" cholesterol (HDL) in the blood. It is generally used after non-drug treatments have not been fully successful at lowering cholesterol. Niacin is also known as vitamin B-3 ( nicotinic acid ), one of the B-complex vitamins. It may be used with or without other medications. Lowering "bad" cholesterol/triglycerides and raising "good" cholesterol helps prevent strokes and heart attacks. Lowering fats may also help reduce the risk of pancreas problems ( pancreatitis ) in people at risk. In addition to eating a proper diet (such as a low-cholesterol/low-fat diet), other lifestyle changes that may help this medication work better include exercising, losing weight if overweight, and stopping smoking. Consult your doctor for more details.
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin):
Xantinon Complex ) refers to a group of water-soluble vitamins. It has high biological activity. Xantinon Complex (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) is necessary for normal hematopoiesis (promotes maturation of erythrocytes). Involved in the processes of transmethylation, hydrogen transport, synthesis of methionine, nucleic acids, choline, creatine. Contributes to the accumulation in erythrocytes of compounds containing sulfhydryl groups. Has a beneficial effect on liver function and the nervous system. Activates the coagulation of blood in high doses causes an increase in the activity of thromboplastin and prothrombin.
After oral administration Xantinon Complex (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Metabolized in the tissues, becoming a co-enzyme form - adenosylcobalamin which is the active form of cyanocobalamin. Excreted in bile and urine.
Why is Xantinon Complex ) prescribed?
Anemia due to B12-deficiency conditions; in the complex therapy for iron and posthemorrhagic anemia; aplastic anemia caused by toxic substances and drugs; liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis); funicular myelosis; polyneuritis, radiculitis, neuralgia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; children cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, peripheral nerve injury; skin diseases (psoriasis, photodermatosis, herpetiformis dermatitis, neurodermatitis); to prevent and treat symptoms of deficiency of Xantinon Complex (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) (including the application of biguanide, PASA, vitamin C in high doses); radiation sickness.
Dosage and administration
Xantinon Complex ) is used as injections SC, IV, IM, intralumbar, and also oral. With anemia associated with Xantinon Complex (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) deficiency is introduced on 100-200 mcg in 2 days. In anemia with symptoms of funicular myelosis and megalocytic anemia with diseases of the nervous system - 400-500 micrograms in the first 7 days daily, then 1 time every 5-7 days. In the period of remission in the absence of events funicular myelosis maintenance dose - 100 mcg 2 times a month, in the presence of neurological symptoms - at 200-400 mcg 2-4 times a month. In acute post-hemorrhagic anemia and iron anemia by 30-100 mcg 2-3 times a week. When aplastic anemia (especially in children) - 100 micrograms before clinical improvement. When nutritional anemia in infants and preterm - 30 mcg / day during 15 days.
In diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system and neurological diseases with a pain syndrome is administered in increasing doses - 200-500 mcg, with the improvement in the state - 100 mcg / day. The course of treatment with Xantinon Complex (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) is 2 weeks. In traumatic lesions of peripheral nervous system - at 200-400 mcg every other day for 40-45 days.
When hepatitis and cirrhosis - 30-60 mcg / day or 100 mg every other day for 25-40 days.
Dystrophy in young children, Down syndrome and cerebral palsy - by 15-30 mcg every other day.
When funicular myelosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis can be introduced into the spinal canal at 15-30 mcg, gradually increasing the dose of 200-250 micrograms.
In radiation sickness, diabetic neuropathy, sprue - by 60-100 mcg daily for 20-30 days.
When deficiency of Xantinon Complex (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) to prevent - IV or IM for 1 mg 1 time a month; for treatment - IV or IM for 1 mg daily for 1-2 weeks, the maintenance dose is 1-2 mg IV or IM from 1 per week, up to 1 per month. Duration of treatment is determined individually.
Xantinon Complex (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) side effects, adverse reactions
CNS: rarely - a state of arousal.
Cardiovascular system: rarely - pain in the heart, tachycardia.
Allergic reactions: rarely - urticaria.
Xantinon Complex ) contraindications
Thromboembolism, erythremia, erythrocytosis, increased sensitivity to cyanocobalamin.
Xantinon Complex ) using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Cyanocobalamin can be used in pregnancy according to prescriptions.
When stenocardia should be used with caution in a single dose of Xantinon Complex ) 100 mcg. During treatment should regularly monitor the blood picture and coagulation. It is unacceptable to enter in the same syringe with cyanocobalamin solutions of thiamine and pyridoxine.
Xantinon Complex (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) drug interactions
In an application of Xantinon Complex (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) with hormonal contraceptives for oral administration may decrease the concentration of cyanocobalamin in plasma.
In an application with anticonvulsant drugs decreased cyanocobalamin absorption from the gut.
In an Xantinon Complex (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) application with neomycin, aminosalicylic acid, colchicine, cimetidine, ranitidine, drugs potassium decreased cyanocobalamin absorption from the gut.
Cyanocobalamin may exacerbate allergic reactions caused by thiamine.
When parenteral application of chloramphenicol may decrease the hematopoietic effects of cyanocobalamin with anemia.
Contained in the molecule of cyanocobalamin cobalt ion contributes to the destruction of ascorbic acid, thiamine bromide, riboflavin in one solution.
Xantinon Complex pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Xantinon Complex available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Xantinon Complex destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Xantinon Complex Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Xantinon Complex pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Xantinon Complex?
Depending on the reaction of the Xantinon Complex after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Xantinon Complex not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Xantinon Complex addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Xantinon Complex, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Xantinon Complex consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
One visitor reported usefulHow is the drug Xantinon Complex useful in reducing or relieving the symptoms? How useful is it?
According to the survey conducted by the website sdrugs.com, there are variable results and below are the percentages of the users that say the medicine is useful to them and that say it is not helping them much. It is not ideal to continue taking the medication if you feel it is not helping you much. Contact your healthcare provider to check if there is a need to change the medicine or if there is a need to re-evaluate your condition. The usefulness of the medicine may vary from patient to patient, depending on the other diseases he is suffering from and slightly depends on the brand name.
Visitor reported side effectsNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported price estimatesNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported frequency of useNo survey data has been collected yet
Two visitors reported dosesWhat is the dose of Xantinon Complex drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sdrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 101-200mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
One visitor reported time for resultsWhat is the time duration Xantinon Complex drug must be taken for it to be effective or for it to reduce the symptoms?
Most chronic conditions need at least some time so the dose and the drug action gets adjusted to the body to get the desired effect. The stastistics say sdrugs.com website users needed 1 month to notice the result from using Xantinon Complex drug. The time needed to show improvement in health condition after using the medicine Xantinon Complex need not be same for all the users. It varies based on other factors.
Visitor reported administrationNo survey data has been collected yet
One visitor reported age
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology