DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino usesUrospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino consists of Nitrofurantoin, Sulfadiazine.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals is specifically indicated for the treatment of urinary tract infections when due to susceptible strains of Escherichia coli, enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and certain susceptible strains of Klebsiella and Enterobacter species.
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) is not indicated for the treatment of pyelonephritis or perinephric abscesses.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals and other antibacterial drugs, Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Nitrofurantoins lack the broader tissue distribution of other therapeutic agents approved for urinary tract infections. Consequently, many patients who are treated with Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals are predisposed to persistence or reappearance of bacteriuria. Urine specimens for culture and susceptibility testing should be obtained before and after completion of therapy. If persistence or reappearance of bacteriuria occurs after treatment with Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals, other therapeutic agents with broader tissue distribution should be selected. In considering the use of Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals, lower eradication rates should be balanced against the increased potential for systemic toxicity and for the development of antimicrobial resistance when agents with broader tissue distribution are utilized.
Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications. Treatment of this type of patient carries an increased risk of toxicity because of impaired excretion of the drug.
Because of the possibility of hemolytic anemia due to immature erythrocyte enzyme systems (glutathione instability), the drug is contraindicated in pregnant patients at term (38 to 42 weeks’ gestation), during labor and delivery, or when the onset of labor is imminent. For the same reason, the drug is contraindicated in neonates under one month of age.
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals is contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin).
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals is also contraindicated in those patients with known hypersensitivity to Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin).
ACUTE, SUBACUTE, OR CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS HAVE BEEN OBSERVED IN PATIENTS TREATED WITH Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino. IF THESE REACTIONS OCCUR, Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) MACROCRYSTALS SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AND APPROPRIATE MEASURES TAKEN. REPORTS HAVE CITED PULMONARY REACTIONS AS A CONTRIBUTING CAUSE OF DEATH.
CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS (DIFFUSE INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONITIS OR PULMONARY FIBROSIS, OR BOTH) CAN DEVELOP INSIDIOUSLY. THESE REACTIONS OCCUR RARELY AND GENERALLY IN PATIENTS RECEIVING THERAPY FOR SIX MONTHS OR LONGER. CLOSE MONITORING OF THE PULMONARY CONDITION OF PATIENTS RECEIVING LONG-TERM THERAPY IS WARRANTED AND REQUIRES THAT THE BENEFITS OF THERAPY BE WEIGHED AGAINST POTENTIAL RISKS.
Hepatic reactions, including hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, chronic active hepatitis, and hepatic necrosis, occur rarely. Fatalities have been reported. The onset of chronic active hepatitis may be insidious, and patients should be monitored periodically for changes in biochemical tests that would indicate liver injury. If hepatitis occurs, the drug should be withdrawn immediately and appropriate measures should be taken.
Peripheral neuropathy, which may become severe or irreversible, has occurred. Fatalities have been reported. Conditions such as renal impairment, anemia, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, vitamin B deficiency, and debilitating disease may enhance the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy. Patients receiving long-term therapy should be monitored periodically for changes in renal function.
Optic neuritis has been reported rarely in postmarketing experience with Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) formulations.
Cases of hemolytic anemia of the primaquine-sensitivity type have been induced by Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin). Hemolysis appears to be linked to a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the red blood cells of the affected patients. This deficiency is found in 10 percent of Blacks and a small percentage of ethnic groups of Mediterranean and Near-Eastern origin. Hemolysis is an indication for discontinuing Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals; hemolysis ceases when the drug is withdrawn.
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin), and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Information for Patients
Patients should be advised to take Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino macrocrystals with food to further enhance tolerance and improve drug absorption. Patients should be instructed to complete the full course of therapy; however, they should be advised to contact their physician if any unusual symptoms occur during therapy.
Many patients who cannot tolerate microcrystalline Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) are able to take Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals without nausea.
Patients should be advised not to use antacid preparations containing magnesium trisilicate while taking Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals.
Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.
Prescribing Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Antacids containing magnesium trisilicate, when administered concomitantly with Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino, reduce both the rate and extent of absorption. The mechanism for this interaction probably is adsorption of Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) onto the surface of magnesium trisilicate.
Uricosuric drugs, such as probenecid and sulfinpyrazone, can inhibit renal tubular secretion of Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin). The resulting increase in Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) serum levels may increase toxicity, and the decreased urinary levels could lessen its efficacy as a urinary tract antibacterial.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
As a result of the presence of Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin), a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur. This has been observed with Benedict's and Fehling's solutions but not with the glucose enzymatic test.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino was not carcinogenic when fed to female Holtzman rats for 44.5 weeks or to female Sprague-Dawley rats for 75 weeks. Two chronic rodent bioassays utilizing male and female Sprague-Dawley rats and two chronic bioassays in Swiss mice and in BDF1 mice revealed no evidence of carcinogenicity.
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) presented evidence of carcinogenic activity in female B6C3F1 mice as shown by increased incidences of tubular adenomas, benign mixed tumors, and granulosa cell tumors of the ovary. In male F344/N rats, there were increased incidences of uncommon kidney tubular cell neoplasms, osteosarcomas of the bone, and neoplasms of the subcutaneous tissue. In one study involving subcutaneous administration of 75 mg/kg Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) to pregnant female mice, lung papillary adenomas of unknown significance were observed in the F1 generation.
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) has been shown to induce point mutations in certain strains of Salmonella typhimurium and forward mutations in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) induced increased numbers of sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells but not in human cells in culture. Results of the sex-linked recessive lethal assay in Drosophila were negative after administration of Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) by feeding or by injection. Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) did not induce heritable mutation in the rodent models examined.
The significance of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity findings relative to the therapeutic use of Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) in humans is unknown.
The administration of high doses of Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) to rats causes temporary spermatogenic arrest; this is reversible on discontinuing the drug. Doses of 10 mg/kg/day or greater in healthy human males may, in certain unpredictable instances, produce a slight to moderate spermatogenic arrest with a decrease in sperm count.
Pregnancy Category B
Several reproduction studies have been performed in rabbits and rats at doses up to six times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino. In a single published study conducted in mice at 68 times the human dose (based on mg/kg administered to the dam), growth retardation and a low incidence of minor and common malformations were observed. However, at 25 times the human dose, fetal malformations were not observed; the relevance of these findings to humans is uncertain. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) has been shown in one published transplacental carcinogenicity study to induce lung papillary adenomas in the F1 generation mice at doses 19 times the human dose on a mg/kg basis. The relationship of this finding to potential human carcinogenesis is presently unknown. Because of the uncertainty regarding the human implications of these animal data, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Labor and Delivery
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino has been detected in human breast milk in trace amounts. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) in nursing infants under one month of age, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals is contraindicated in infants below the age of one month (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Clinical studies of Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. Spontaneous reports suggest a higher proportion of pulmonary reactions, including fatalities, in elderly patients; these differences appear to be related to the higher proportion of elderly patients receiving long-term Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) therapy. As in younger patients, chronic pulmonary reactions generally are observed in patients receiving therapy for six months or longer (see WARNINGS). Spontaneous reports also suggest an increased proportion of severe hepatic reactions, including fatalities, in elderly patients (see WARNINGS).
In general, the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy should be considered when prescribing Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications (see C ONTRAINDICATIONS). Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
CHRONIC, SUBACUTE, OR ACUTE PULMONARY HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY OCCUR.
CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS OCCUR GENERALLY IN PATIENTS WHO HAVE RECEIVED CONTINUOUS TREATMENT FOR SIX MONTHS OR LONGER. MALAISE, DYSPNEA ON EXERTION, COUGH, AND ALTERED PULMONARY FUNCTION ARE COMMON MANIFESTATIONS WHICH CAN OCCUR INSIDIOUSLY. RADIOLOGIC AND HISTOLOGIC FINDINGS OF DIFFUSE INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONITIS OR FIBROSIS, OR BOTH, ARE ALSO COMMON MANIFESTATIONS OF THE CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTION. FEVER IS RARELY PROMINENT.
THE SEVERITY OF CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS AND THEIR DEGREE OF RESOLUTION APPEAR TO BE RELATED TO THE DURATION OF THERAPY AFTER THE FIRST CLINICAL SIGNS APPEAR. PULMONARY FUNCTION MAY BE IMPAIRED PERMANENTLY, EVEN AFTER CESSATION OF THERAPY. THE RISK IS GREATER WHEN CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS ARE NOT RECOGNIZED EARLY.
In subacute pulmonary reactions, fever and eosinophilia occur less often than in the acute form. Upon cessation of therapy, recovery may require several months. If the symptoms are not recognized as being drug-related and Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino therapy is not stopped, the symptoms may become more severe.
Acute pulmonary reactions are commonly manifested by fever, chills, cough, chest pain, dyspnea, pulmonary infiltration with consolidation or pleural effusion on x-ray, and eosinophilia. Acute reactions usually occur within the first week of treatment and are reversible with cessation of therapy. Resolution often is dramatic (see WARNINGS).
Changes in EKG (e.g., non-specific ST/T wave changes, bundle branch block) have been reported in association with pulmonary reactions.
Cyanosis has been reported rarely.
Hepatic reactions, including hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, chronic active hepatitis, and hepatic necrosis, occur rarely (see WARNINGS).
Peripheral neuropathy, which may become severe or irreversible, has occurred. Fatalities have been reported. Conditions such as renal impairment, anemia, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, Vitamin B deficiency, and debilitating diseases may increase the possibility of peripheral neuropathy (see WARNINGS).
Asthenia, vertigo, nystagmus, dizziness, headache, and drowsiness also have been reported with the use of Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin).
Benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri), confusion, depression, optic neuritis, and psychotic reactions have been reported rarely. Bulging fontanels, as a sign of benign intracranial hypertension in infants, have been reported rarely.
Exfoliative dermatitis and erythema multiforme (including Stevens-Johnson syndrome) have been reported rarely. Transient alopecia also has been reported.
A lupus-like syndrome associated with pulmonary reactions to Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino has been reported. Also, angioedema; maculopapular, erythematous, or eczematous eruptions; pruritus; urticaria; anaphylaxis; arthralgia; myalgia; drug fever; and chills have been reported. Hypersensitivity reactions represent the most frequent spontaneously-reported adverse events in worldwide postmarketing experience with Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) formulations.
Nausea, emesis, and anorexia occur most often. Abdominal pain and diarrhea are less common gastrointestinal reactions. These dose-related reactions can be minimized by reduction of dosage. Sialadenitis and pancreatitis have been reported. There have been sporadic reports of pseudomembranous colitis with the use of Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin). The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antimicrobial treatment (see WARNINGS).
Cyanosis secondary to methemoglobinemia has been reported rarely.
As with other antimicrobial agents, superinfections caused by resistant organisms, e.g., Pseudomonas species or Candida species, can occur.
Laboratory Adverse Events
The following laboratory adverse events have been reported with the use of Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin): increased AST (SGOT), increased ALT (SGPT), decreased hemoglobin, increased serum phosphorus, eosinophilia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency anemia (see WARNINGS), agranulocytosis, leukopenia, granulocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, megaloblastic anemia. In most cases, these hematologic abnormalities resolved following cessation of therapy. Aplastic anemia has been reported rarely.
Occasional incidents of acute overdosage of Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals have not resulted in any specific symptoms other than vomiting. Induction of emesis is recommended. There is no specific antidote, but a high fluid intake should be maintained to promote urinary excretion of the drug. It is dialyzable.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino macrocrystals should be given with food to improve drug absorption and, in some patients, tolerance.
50 to 100 mg four times a day - the lower dosage level is recommended for uncomplicated urinary tract infections.
5 to 7 mg/kg of body weight per 24 hours, given in four divided doses (contraindicated under one month of age).
Therapy should be continued for one week or for at least 3 days after sterility of the urine is obtained. Continued infection indicates the need for reevaluation.
For long-term suppressive therapy in adults, a reduction of dosage to 50 to 100 mg at bedtime may be adequate. For long-term suppressive therapy in pediatric patients, doses as low as 1 mg/kg per 24 hours, given in a single dose or in two divided doses, may be adequate. SEE WARNINGS SECTION REGARDING RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH LONG-TERM THERAPY.
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) Macrocrystals Capsules USP are available as pink opaque/white opaque capsules, imprinted with
, “Zenith 50 mg” on the cap and “2130”, underlined with a double bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 50 mg Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 and 1000 capsules and unit-dose boxes of 100 capsules.
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) Macrocrystals Capsules USP are available as pink opaque capsules, imprinted with
, “Zenith 100 mg” on the cap and “2131”, underlined with a triple bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 100 mg Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 and 1000 capsules and unit-dose boxes of 100 capsules.
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
1.) Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard-Eighth Edition. CLSI document M07-A8 [ISBN 1-56238-689-1]. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 2009.
2.) Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard-Tenth Edition. CLSI document M02-A 10 [ISBN 1-56238-688-3]. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 2009.
3.) Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Nineteenth Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S19 [ISBN 1-56238-716-2]. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 2010.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact TEVA USA, PHARMACOVIGILANCE at tel: 1-888-838-2872, x6351 or drug.safetyUrospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin)tevausa.com; or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch
Manufactured In Israel By:
TEVA PHARMACEUTICAL IND. LTD.
Jerusalem, 91010, Israel
TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA
Sellersville, PA 18960
Rev. E 6/2011
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) Macro. 50mg Cap
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Nitrofurantoin) Structural Formula Imprinted logo Imprinted logo
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Sulfadiazine) tablets USP are indicated in the following conditions:
Urinary tract infections (primarily pyelonephritis, pyelitis and cystitis) in the absence of obstructive uropathy or foreign bodies, when these infections are caused by susceptible strains of the following organisms: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Enterobacter species, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis and P. vulgaris. Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Sulfadiazine) should be used for urinary tract infections only after use of more soluble sulfonamides has been unsuccessful.
Toxoplasmosis encephalitis in patients with and without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, as adjunctive therapy with pyrimethamine.
Malaria due to chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, when used as adjunctive therapy.
Prophylaxis of meningococcal meningitis when sulfonamide-sensitive group A strains are known to prevail in family groups or larger closed populations (the prophylactic usefulness of sulfonamides when group B or C infections are prevalent is not proved and may be harmful in closed population groups).
Meningococcal meningitis, when the organism has been demonstrated to be susceptible.
Acute otitis media due to Haemophilus influenzae, when used concomitantly with adequate doses of penicillin.
Prophylaxis against recurrences of rheumatic fever, as an alternative to penicillin.
H. influenzae meningitis, as adjunctive therapy with parental streptomycin.
In vitro sulfonamide susceptibility tests are not always reliable. The test must be carefully coordinated with bacteriologic and clinical response. When the patient is already taking sulfonamides, follow-up cultures should have aminobenzoic acid added to the culture media.
Currently, the increasing frequency of resistant organisms limits the usefulness of antibacterial agents, including the sulfonamides, especially in the treatment of recurrent and complicated urinary tract infections.
Wide variation in blood levels may result with identical doses. Blood levels should be measured in patients receiving sulfonamides for serious infections. Free sulfonamide blood levels of 5 mg to 15 mg per 100 mL may be considered therapeutically effective for most infections and blood levels of 12 mg to 15 mg per 100 mL may be considered optimal for serious infections. Twenty mg per 100 mL should be the maximum total sulfonamide level, since adverse reactions occur more frequently above this level.
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Sulfadiazine) is contraindicated in the following circumstances: Hypersensitivity to sulfonamides.
In infants less than 2 months of age (except as adjunctive therapy with pyrimethamine in the treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis).
In pregnancy at term and during the nursing period, because sulfonamides cross the placenta and are excreted in breast milk and may cause kernicterus.
The sulfonamides should not be used for the treatment of group A betahemolytic streptococcal infections. In an established infection, they will not eradicate the streptococcus and, therefore, will not prevent sequelae such as rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis.
Deaths associated with the administration of sulfonamides have been reported from hypersensitivity reactions, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia and other blood dyscrasias.
The presence of such clinical signs as sore throat, fever, pallor, purpura or jaundice may be early indications of serious blood disorders.
The frequency of renal complications is considerably lower in patients receiving the more soluble sulfonamides.
Sulfonamides should be given with caution to patients with impaired renal or hepatic function and to those with severe allergy or bronchial asthma.
Hemolysis may occur in individuals deficient in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. This reaction is dose related.
Adequate fluid intake must be maintained in order to prevent crystalluria and stone formation.
Information for Patients
Patients should be instructed to drink an eight ounce glass of water with each dose of medication and at frequent intervals throughout the day. Caution patients to report promptly the onset of sore throat, fever, pallor, purpura or jaundice when taking this drug, since these may be early indications of serious blood disorders.
Complete blood counts and urinalyses with careful microscopic examinations should be done frequently in patients receiving sulfonamides.
Administration of a sulfonamide may increase the effect of oral anticoagulants and methotrexate, probably by displacement of these drugs from binding sites on plasma albumin. Potentiation of the action of sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agents, thiazide diuretics and uricosuric agents may also be noted. This may also be due to displacement of the drugs from albumin or a pharmacodynamic mechanism may play a role. Conversely, agents such as indomethacin, probenecid and salicylates may displace sulfonamides from plasma albumin and increase the concentrations of free drug in plasma.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
The sulfonamides bear certain chemical similarities to some goitrogens. Rats appear to be especially susceptible to the goitrogenic effects of sulfonamides and long-term administration has produced thyroid malignancies in rats.
Pregnancy Category C
The safe use of sulfonamides in pregnancy has not been established. The teratogenic potential of most sulfonamides has not been thoroughly investigated in either animals or humans. However, a significant increase in the incidence of cleft palate and other bony abnormalities in offspring has been observed when certain sulfonamides of the short, intermediate and long acting types were given to pregnant rats and mice in high oral doses.
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Sulfadiazine) is contraindicated for use in nursing mothers because the sulfonamides cross the placenta, are excreted in breast milk and may cause kernicterus.
Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Sulfadiazine), a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. See CONTRAINDICATIONS.
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Sulfadiazine) is contraindicated in infants less than 2 months of age (except as adjunctive therapy with pyrimethamine in the treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis). See CONTRAINDICATIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.
Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia, purpura, hypoprothrombinemia and methemoglobinemia.
Erythema multiforme, generalized skin eruptions, epidermal necrolysis, urticaria, serum sickness, pruritus, exfoliative dermatitis, anaphylactoid reactions, periorbital edema, conjunctival and scleral injection, photosensitization, arthralgia, allergic myocarditis, drug fever and chills.
Nausea, emesis, abdominal pains, hepatitis, diarrhea, anorexia, pancreatitis and stomatitis.
Headache, peripheral neuritis, mental depression, convulsions, ataxia, hallucinations, tinnitus, vertigo and insomnia.
Crystalluria, stone formation, toxic nephrosis with oliguria and anuria; periarteritis nodosa and lupus erythematosus phenomenon have been noted.
The sulfonamides bear certain chemical similarities to some goitrogens, diuretics (acetazolamide and the thiazides) and oral hypoglycemic agents. Goiter production, diuresis, and hypoglycemia have occurred rarely in patients receiving sulfonamides. Cross-sensitivity may exist with these agents.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
SYSTEMIC SULFONAMIDES ARE CONTRAINDICATED IN INFANTS UNDER 2 MONTHS OF AGE except as adjunctive therapy with pyrimethamine in the treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis.
Usual Dosage for Infants over 2 Months of Age and Children
Initially, one-half the 24-hour dose. Maintenance, 150 mg/kg or 4 g/m2, divided into 4 to 6 doses, every 24 hours, with a maximum of 6 g every 24 hours. Rheumatic fever prophylaxis, under 30 kg, 500 mg every 24 hours; over 30 kg (66 pounds), 1 g every 24 hours.
Usual Adult Dosage
Initially, 2 g to 4 g. Maintenance, 2 g to 4 g, divided into 3 to 6 doses, every 24 hours.
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Sulfadiazine) Tablets USP for oral administration are available as:
500 mg: white, unscored, capsule-shaped tablets, debossed “E 757” on one face and supplied as:
NDC 0185-0757-30 bottles of 30
NDC 0185-0757-01 bottles of 100
NDC 0185-0757-10 bottles of 1000
Storage: Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP with a child-resistant closure, as required.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Sandoz Inc. at 1-800-525-8747 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
Princeton, NJ 08540
Epic Pharma, LLC
Laurelton, NY 11413
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino (Sulfadiazine) Tablets, USP
500 mg x 30 Tablets
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino?
Depending on the reaction of the Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Urospasmon Sine Phenazopyridino consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology