Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B

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Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B uses


DESCRIPTION

Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B Ophthalmic Solution USP* is a sterile antimicrobial solution for topical ophthalmic use. It has a pH of 4.0 to 6.2 and osmolality of 270 to 310 mOsm/kg. Trimethoprim sulfate, a white, odorless, crystalline powder, is represented by the following structural formula:

C28H38N8O10S

Mol. Wt. 678.72

Chemical Name: Trimethoprim sulfate, 2,4-diamino-5-(3,4 5-trimethoxybenzyl)pyrimidine sulfate (2:1)

Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B is the sulfate salt of polymyxin B1 and B2 which are produced by the growth of Bacillus polymyxa (Prazmowski) Migula (Fam. Bacillaceae). It has a potency of not less than 6,000 polymyxin B units per mg, calculated on an anhydrous basis. The structural formula is:

Each mL Contains: ACTIVES: Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B equal to 10,000 polymyxin B units, Trimethoprim Sulfate (equivalent to trimethoprim 1 mg); INACTIVES: Sodium Chloride, Purified Water. Sulfuric acid and, if necessary, sodium hydroxide may be added to adjust pH (4.0 – 6.2). PRESERVATIVE ADDED: Benzalkonium Chloride 0.004%.

Trimethoprim sulfate (Structural formula) Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B, the sulfate salt of polymyxin Bl and B2 (Structural formula)

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Trimethoprim is a synthetic antibacterial drug active against a wide variety of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative ophthalmic pathogens. Trimethoprim blocks the production of tetrahydrofolic acid from dihydrofolic acid by binding to and reversibly inhibiting the enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. This binding is stronger for the bacterial enzyme than for the corresponding mammalian enzyme and therefore selectively interferes with bacterial biosynthesis of nucleic acids and proteins.

Polymyxin B, a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic, is bactericidal for a variety of gram-negative organisms, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It increases the permeability of the bacterial cell membrane by interacting with the phospholipid components of the membrane.

Blood samples were obtained from 11 human volunteers at 20 minutes, 1 hour and 3 hours following instillation in the eye of 2 drops of ophthalmic solution containing 1 mg trimethoprim and 10,000 units polymyxin B per mL. Peak serum concentrations were approximately 0.03 μg/mL trimethoprim and 1 unit/mL polymyxin B.

Microbiology :

In vitro studies have demonstrated that the anti-infective components of trimethoprim sulfate and Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B ophthalmic solution are active against the following bacterial pathogens that are capable of causing external infections of the eye:

Trimethoprim: Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus aegyptius, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis (indole-negative), Proteus vulgaris (indolepositive), Enterobacter aerogenes, and Serratia marcescens.

Polymyxin B: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes and Haemophilus influenzae.

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INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B ophthalmic solution is indicated in the treatment of surface ocular bacterial infections, including acute bacterial conjunctivitis, and blepharoconjunctivitis, caused by susceptible strains of the following microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus viridans, Haemophilus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.**

**Efficacy for this organism in this organ system was studied in fewer than 10 infections.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B ophthalmic solution is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to any of its components.

WARNINGS

NOT FOR INJECTION INTO THE EYE.

If a sensitivity reaction to Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B ophthalmic solution occurs, discontinue use.

Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B ophthalmic solution is not indicated for the prophylaxis or treatment of ophthalmia neonatorum.

PRECAUTIONS

General

As with other antimicrobial preparations, prolonged use may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, appropriate therapy should be initiated.

Information for patients

Avoid contaminating the applicator tip with material from the eye, fingers, or other source. This precaution is necessary if the sterility of the drops is to be maintained.

If redness, irritation, swelling or pain persists or increases, discontinue use immediately and contact your physician. Patients should be advised not to wear contact lenses if they have signs and symptoms of ocular bacterial infections.

Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility

Carcinogenesis: Long-term studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential have not been conducted with Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B or trimethoprim.

Mutagenesis: Trimethoprim was demonstrated to be non-mutagenic in the Ames assay. In studies at two laboratories no chromosomal damage was detected in cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells at concentrations approximately 500 times human plasma levels after oral administration; at concentrations approximately 1000 times human plasma levels after oral administration in these same cells, a low level of chromosomal damage was induced at one of the laboratories. Studies to evaluate mutagenic potential have not been conducted with Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B.

Impairment of Fertility: Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B has been reported to impair the motility of equine sperm, but its effects on male or female fertility are unknown.

No adverse effects on fertility or general reproductive performance were observed in rats given trimethoprim in oral dosages as high as 70 mg/kg/day for males and 14 mg/kg/day for females.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic effects

Pregnancy Category C. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B. It is not known whether Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity.

Trimethoprim has been shown to be teratogenic in the rat when given in oral doses 40 times the human dose.

In some rabbit studies, the overall increase in fetal loss was associated with oral doses 6 times the human therapeutic dose.

While there are no large well-controlled studies on the use of trimethoprim in pregnant women, Brumfitt and Pursell, in a retrospective study, reported the outcome of 186 pregnancies during which the mother received either placebo or oral trimethoprim in combination with sulfamethoxazole. The incidence of congenital abnormalities was 4.5% (3 of 66) in those who received placebo and 3.3% (4 of 120) in those receiving trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. There were no abnormalities in the 10 children whose mothers received the drug during the first trimester. In a separate survey, Brumfitt and Pursell also found no congenital abnormalities in 35 children whose mothers had received oral trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole at the time of conception or shortly thereafter.

Because trimethoprim may interfere with folic acid metabolism, trimethoprim should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nonteratogenic effects

The oral administration of trimethoprim to rats at a dose of 70 mg/kg/day commencing with the last third of gestation and continuing through parturition and lactation caused no deleterious effects on gestation or pup growth and survival.

Nursing mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B ophthalmic solution is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 2 months have not been established.

Geriatric use

No overall differences in safety or effectiveness have been observed between elderly and other adult patients.

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ADVERSE REACTIONS

The most frequent adverse reaction to Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B ophthalmic solution is local irritation consisting of increased redness, burning, stinging, and/or itching. This may occur on instillation, within 48 hours, or at any time with extended use. There are also multiple reports of hypersensitivity reactions consisting of lid edema, itching, increased redness, tearing, and/or circumocular rash. Photosensitivity has been reported in patients taking oral trimethoprim.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

In mild to moderate infections, instill one drop in the affected eye(s) every three hours (maximum of 6 doses per day) for a period of 7 to 10 days.

HOW SUPPLIED

Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B Ophthalmic Solution USP*, containing 10,000 polymyxin B units and 1 mg trimethoprim per mL, is supplied in a plastic bottle with a controlled drop tip in the following size:

10 mL - Prod. No. 31509

DO NOT USE IF IMPRINTED NECKBAND IS NOT INTACT.

*Does not meet USP packaging specification for light resistance.

STORAGE

Store at 15°-25°C (59°-77°F). PROTECT FROM LIGHT.

RETAIN IN CARTON UNTIL TIME OF USE.

Rx Only

MANUFACTURER INFORMATION

Bausch & Lomb Incorporated

Tampa, Florida 33637

©Bausch & Lomb Incorporated

Revised August 2007

9117800 (Folded)

9117900 (Flat)

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Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B available forms, composition, doses:

Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B destination | category:

Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B pharmaceutical companies:

Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."POLYMYXIN B SULFATE; TRIMETHOPRIM SULFATE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."BACITRACIN ZINC; POLYMYXIN B SULFATE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "trimethoprim". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B?

Depending on the reaction of the Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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sdrugs.com conducted a study on Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Trimethoprim; Polymyxin B consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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