Tonabolin

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Tonabolin uses

Tonabolin consists of Iron (Iron Choline Citrate), Vitamin B1 (Thiamine Hydrochloride), Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin), Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (Nicotinamide), Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride), Zinc Sulfate.

Iron (Iron Choline Citrate):


1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) is indicated for the treatment of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) deficiency anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) is an Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) replacement product indicated for the treatment of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) deficiency anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). (1)

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Tonabolin ) must only be administered intravenously either by slow injection or by infusion. The dosage of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) is expressed in mg of elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)). Each mL contains 20 mg of elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)).

Population Dose
Adult patients Hemodialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease (HDD-CKD) (2.1) 100 mg slow intravenous injection or infusion
Non-Dialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease (NDD-CKD) (2.2) 200 mg slow intravenous injection or infusion
Peritoneal Dialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease (PDD-CKD) (2.3) 300 mg or 400 mg intravenous infusion
Pediatric patients HDD-CKD (2.4), PDD-CKD or NDD-CKD (2.5) 0.5 mg/kg slow intravenous injection or infusion

2.1 Adult Patients with Hemodialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease (HDD-CKD)

Administer Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) 100 mg undiluted as a slow intravenous injection over 2 to 5 minutes, or as an infusion of 100 mg diluted in a maximum of 100 mL of 0.9% NaCl over a period of at least 15 minutes, per consecutive hemodialysis session. Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) should be administered early during the dialysis session. The usual total treatment course of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) is 1000 mg. Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) treatment may be repeated if Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) deficiency reoccurs.

2.2 Adult Patients with Non-Dialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease

Administer Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) 200 mg undiluted as a slow intravenous injection over 2 to 5 minutes or as an infusion of 200 mg in a maximum of 100 mL of 0.9% NaCl over a period of 15 minutes. Administer on 5 different occasions over a 14 day period. There is limited experience with administration of an infusion of 500 mg of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)), diluted in a maximum of 250 mL of 0.9% NaCl, over a period of 3.5 to 4 hours on Day 1 and Day 14. Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) treatment may be repeated if Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) deficiency reoccurs.

2.3 Adult Patients with Peritoneal Dialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease

Administer Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) in 3 divided doses, given by slow intravenous infusion, within a 28 day period: 2 infusions each of 300 mg over 1.5 hours 14 days apart followed by one 400 mg infusion over 2.5 hours 14 days later. Dilute Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) in a maximum of 250 mL of 0.9% NaCl. Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) treatment may be repeated if Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) deficiency reoccurs.

2.4 Pediatric Patients with HDD-CKD for Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) maintenance treatment

The dosing for Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) replacement treatment in pediatric patients with HDD-CKD has not been established.

For Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) maintenance treatment: Administer Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, not to exceed 100 mg per dose, every two weeks for 12 weeks given undiluted by slow intravenous injection over 5 minutes or diluted in 25 mL of 0.9% NaCl and administered over 5 to 60 minutes. Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) treatment may be repeated if necessary.

2.5 Pediatric Patients with NDD-CKD or PDD-CKD who are on erythropoietin therapy for Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) maintenance treatment

The dosing for Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) replacement treatment in pediatric patients with NDD-CKD or PDD-CKD has not been established.

For Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) maintenance treatment: Administer Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, not to exceed 100 mg per dose, every four weeks for 12 weeks given undiluted by slow intravenous injection over 5 minutes or diluted in 25 mL of 0.9% NaCl and administered over 5 to 60 minutes. Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) treatment may be repeated if necessary.

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3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

  • 10 mL single-use vial / 200 mg elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (20 mg/mL)
  • 5 mL single-use vial / 100 mg elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (20 mg/mL)
  • 2.5 mL single-use vial / 50 mg elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (20 mg/mL)
  • 10 mL single-use vial / 200 mg elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (20 mg/mL) (3)
  • 5 mL single-use vial / 100 mg elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (20 mg/mL) (3)
  • 2.5 mL single-use vial / 50 mg elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (20 mg/mL) (3)

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Known hypersensitivity to Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate))
  • Known hypersensitivity to Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (4)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Hypersensitivity Reactions: Observe for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity during and after Tonabolin ) administration for at least 30 minutes and until clinically stable following completion of each administration. Only administer Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) when personnel and therapies are immediately available for the treatment of serious hypersensitivity reactions. (5.1)
  • Hypotension: Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) may cause hypotension. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension during and following each administration of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)). (5.2)
  • Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) Overload: Regularly monitor hematologic responses during Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) therapy. Do not administer Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) to patients with Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) overload. (5.3)

5.1 Hypersensitivity Reactions

Serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic-type reactions, some of which have been life-threatening and fatal, have been reported in patients receiving Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)). Patients may present with shock, clinically significant hypotension, loss of consciousness, and/or collapse. If hypersensitivity reactions or signs of intolerance occur during administration, stop Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) immediately. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity during and after Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) administration for at least 30 minutes and until clinically stable following completion of the infusion. Only administer Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) when personnel and therapies are immediately available for the treatment of serious hypersensitivity reactions. Most reactions associated with intravenous Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) preparations occur within 30 minutes of the completion of the infusion .

5.2 Hypotension

Tonabolin ) may cause clinically significant hypotension. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension following each administration of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)). Hypotension following administration of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) may be related to the rate of administration and/or total dose administered .

5.3 Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) Overload

Excessive therapy with parenteral Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) can lead to excess storage of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) with the possibility of iatrogenic hemosiderosis. All adult and pediatric patients receiving Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) require periodic monitoring of hematologic and Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation). Do not administer Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) to patients with evidence of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) overload. Transferrin saturation (TSAT) values increase rapidly after intravenous administration of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose; do not perform serum Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) measurements for at least 48 hours after intravenous dosing .

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6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following serious adverse reactions associated with Tonabolin ) are described in other sections .

  • The most common adverse reactions (≥2%) following the administration of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, hypotension, pruritus, pain in extremity, arthralgia, back pain, muscle cramp, injection site reactions, chest pain, and peripheral edema. (6.1)

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact American Regent, Inc. at 1-800-734-9236 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch .

6.1 Adverse Reactions in Clinical Trials

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adverse Reactions in Adults Patients with CKD

Adverse Reactions in Adult Patients with CKD

The frequency of adverse reactions associated with the use of Tonabolin ) has been documented in six clinical trials involving 231 patients with HDD-CKD, 139 patients with NDD-CKD and 75 patients with PDD-CKD. Treatment-emergent adverse reactions reported by ≥ 2% of treated patients in the six clinical trials for which the rate for Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) exceeds the rate for comparator are listed by indication in Table 1. Patients with HDD-CKD received 100 mg doses at 10 consecutive dialysis sessions until a cumulative dose of 1000 mg was administered. Patients with NDD-CKD received either 5 doses of 200 mg over 2 weeks or 2 doses of 500 mg separated by fourteen days, and patients with PDD-CKD received 2 doses of 300 mg followed by a dose of 400 mg over a period of 4 weeks.


* EPO=Erythropoietin

Adverse Reactions

(Preferred Term)

HDD-CKD NDD-CKD PDD-CKD
Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) Oral Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) EPO* Only
(N=231) (N=139) (N=139) (N=75) (N=46)
% % % % %
Subjects with any adverse reaction 78.8 76.3 73.4 72.0 65.2
Ear and Labyrinth Disorders
Ear Pain 0 2.2 0.7 0 0
Eye Disorders
Conjunctivitis 0.4 0 0 2.7 0
Gastrointestinal Disorders
Abdominal pain 3.5 1.4 2.9 4.0 6.5
Diarrhea 5.2 7.2 10.1 8.0 4.3
Dysgeusia 0.9 7.9 0 0 0
Nausea 14.7 8.6 12.2 5.3 4.3
Vomiting 9.1 5.0 8.6 8.0 2.2
General Disorders and
Administration Site Conditions
Asthenia 2.2 0.7 2.2 2.7 0
Chest pain 6.1 1.4 0 2.7 0
Feeling abnormal 3.0 0 0 0 0
Infusion site pain or burning 0 5.8 0 0 0
Injection site extravasation 0 2.2 0 0 0
Peripheral edema 2.6 7.2 5.0 5.3 10.9
Pyrexia 3.0 0.7 0.7 1.3 0
Infections and Infestations
Nasopharyngitis, Sinusitis, Upper

respiratory tract infections, Pharyngitis

2.6 2.2 4.3 16.0 4.3
Injury, Poisoning and Procedural
Complications
Graft complication 9.5 1.4 0 0 0
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
Fluid overload 3.0 1.4 0.7 1.3 0
Gout 0 2.9 1.4 0 0
Hyperglycemia 0 2.9 0 0 2.2
Hypoglycemia 0.4 0.7 0.7 4.0 0
Musculoskeletal and Connective
Tissue Disorders
Arthralgia 3.5 1.4 2.2 4.0 4.3
Back pain 2.2 2.2 3.6 1.3 4.3
Muscle cramp 29.4 0.7 0.7 2.7 0
Myalgia 0 3.6 0 1.3 0
Pain in extremity 5.6 4.3 0 2.7 6.5
Nervous System Disorders
Dizziness 6.5 6.5 1.4 1.3 4.3
Headache 12.6 2.9 0.7 4.0 0
Respiratory, Thoracic and
Mediastinal Disorders
Cough 3.0 2.2 0.7 1.3 0
Dyspnea 3.5 5.8 1.4 1.3 2.2
Nasal congestion 0 1.4 2.2 1.3 0
Skin and Subcutaneous
Tissue Disorders
Pruritus 3.9 2.2 4.3 2.7 0
Vascular Disorders
Hypertension 6.5 6.5 4.3 8.0 6.5
Hypotension 39.4 2.2 0.7 2.7 2.2

One hundred thirty (11%) of the 1,151 patients evaluated in the 4 U.S. trials in HDD-CKD patients (studies A, B and the two post marketing studies) had prior other intravenous Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) therapy and were reported to be intolerant (defined as precluding further use of that Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) product). When these patients were treated with Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) there were no occurrences of adverse reactions that precluded further use of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) .

Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients with CKD (ages 2 years and older)

Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients with CKD (ages 2 years and older)

In a randomized, open-label, dose-ranging trial for Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) maintenance treatment with Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) in pediatric patients with CKD on stable erythropoietin therapy , at least one treatment-emergent adverse reaction was experienced by 57% (27/47) of the patients receiving Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) 0.5 mg/kg, 53% (25/47) of the patients receiving Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) 1.0 mg/kg, and 55% (26/47) of the patients receiving Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) 2.0 mg/kg.

A total of 5 (11%) subjects in the Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) 0.5 mg/kg group, 10 (21%) patients in the Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) 1.0 mg/kg group, and 10 (21%) patients in the Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) 2.0 mg/kg group experienced at least 1 serious adverse reaction during the study. The most common treatment-emergent adverse reactions (> 2% of patients) in all patients were headache (6%), respiratory tract viral infection (4%), peritonitis (4%), vomiting (4%), pyrexia (4%), dizziness (4%), cough (4%), renal transplant (4%), nausea (3%), arteriovenous fistula thrombosis (2%), hypotension (2%), and hypertension (2.1%).

6.2 Adverse Reactions from Post-Marketing Experience

Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

In the post-marketing safety studies in 1,051 treated patients with HDD-CKD, the adverse reactions reported by > 1% were: cardiac failure congestive, sepsis and dysgeusia.

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)). Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure: Anaphylactic-type reactions, shock, loss of consciousness, collapse, bronchospasm, dyspnea, convulsions, light-headedness, confusion, angioedema, swelling of the joints, hyperhidrosis, back pain, bradycardia, and chromaturia.

Symptoms associated with Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) total dosage or infusing too rapidly included hypotension, dyspnea, headache, vomiting, nausea, dizziness, joint aches, paresthesia, abdominal and muscle pain, edema, and cardiovascular collapse. These adverse reactions have occurred up to 30 minutes after the administration of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) injection. Reactions have occurred following the first dose or subsequent doses of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)). Symptoms may respond to intravenous fluids, hydrocortisone, and/or antihistamines. Slowing the infusion rate may alleviate symptoms.

Injection site discoloration has been reported following extravasation. Assure stable intravenous access to avoid extravasation.

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7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Drug interactions involving Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) have not been studied. However, Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) may reduce the absorption of concomitantly administered oral Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) preparations.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category B

Pregnancy Category B

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. In animal reproduction studies, Tonabolin ) sucrose was administered intravenously to rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 13 mg/kg/day of elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (half or equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area, respectively) and revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response, Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose is excreted in human milk. Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose is secreted into the milk of lactating rats. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) is administered to a nursing woman.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of Tonabolin ) for Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) replacement treatment in pediatric patients with dialysis-dependent or non-dialysis-dependent CKD have not been established.

Safety and effectiveness of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) for Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) maintenance treatment in pediatric patients 2 years of age and older with dialysis-dependent or non-dialysis-dependent CKD receiving erythropoietin therapy were studied. Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) at doses of 0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg, and 2.0 mg/kg was administered. All three doses maintained hemoglobin between 10.5 g/dL and 14.0 g/dL in about 50% of subjects over the 12-week treatment period with stable EPO dosing. [See Clinical Studies (14.6)]

Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) has not been studied in patients younger than 2 years of age.

In a country where Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) is available for use in children, at a single site, five premature infants (weight less than 1,250 g) developed necrotizing enterocolitis and two of the five died during or following a period when they received Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)), several other medications and erythropoietin. Necrotizing enterocolitis may be a complication of prematurity in very low birth weight infants. No causal relationship to Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) or any other drugs could be established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Of the 1,051 patients in two post-marketing safety studies of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)), 40% were 65 years and older. No overall differences in safety were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. In general, dose administration to an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

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10 OVERDOSAGE

No data are available regarding overdosage of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) in humans. Excessive dosages of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) may lead to accumulation of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) in storage sites potentially leading to hemosiderosis. Do not administer Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) to patients with Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) overload.

Toxicities in single-dose studies in mice and rats, at intravenous Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose doses up to 8 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area, included sedation, hypoactivity, pale eyes, bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract and lungs, and mortality.

11 DESCRIPTION

Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (iron sucrose injection, USP), an Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) replacement product, is a brown, sterile, aqueous, complex of polynuclear Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (III)-hydroxide in sucrose for intravenous use. Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose injection has a molecular weight of approximately 34,000 to 60,000 daltons and a proposed structural formula:

[Na2Fe5O8(OH) ·3(H2O)]n ·m(C12H22O11)

where: n is the degree of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) polymerization and m is the number of sucrose molecules associated with the Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (III)-hydroxide.

Each mL contains 20 mg elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) as Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose in water for injection. Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) is available in 10 mL single-use vials (200 mg elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) per 10 mL), 5 mL single-use vials (100 mg elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) per 5 mL), and 2.5 mL single-use vials (50 mg elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) per 2.5 mL). The drug product contains approximately 30% sucrose w/v (300 mg/mL) and has a pH of 10.5 to 11.1. The product contains no preservatives. The osmolarity of the injection is 1,250 mOsmol/L.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Tonabolin ) is an aqueous complex of poly-nuclear Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (III)-hydroxide in sucrose. Following intravenous administration, Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) is dissociated into Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) and sucrose and the Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) is transported as a complex with transferrin to target cells including erythroid precursor cells. The Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) in the precursor cells is incorporated into hemoglobin as the cells mature into red blood cells.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Following intravenous administration, Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) is dissociated into Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) and sucrose. In 22 patients undergoing hemodialysis and receiving erythropoietin (recombinant human erythropoietin) therapy treated with Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose containing 100 mg of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)), three times weekly for three weeks, significant increases in serum Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) and serum ferritin and significant decreases in total Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) binding capacity occurred four weeks from the initiation of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose treatment.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

In healthy adults administered intravenous doses of Tonabolin ), its Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) component exhibited first order kinetics with an elimination half-life of 6 h, total clearance of 1.2 L/h, and steady state apparent volume of distribution of 7.9 L. The Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) component appeared to distribute mainly in blood and to some extent in extravascular fluid. A study evaluating Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) containing 100 mg of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) labeled with 52Fe/59Fe in patients with Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) deficiency showed that a significant amount of the administered Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) is distributed to the liver, spleen and bone marrow and that the bone marrow is an irreversible Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) trapping compartment.

Following intravenous administration of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)), Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose is dissociated into Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) and sucrose. The sucrose component is eliminated mainly by urinary excretion. In a study evaluating a single intravenous dose of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) containing 1,510 mg of sucrose and 100 mg of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) in 12 healthy adults (9 female, 3 male: age range 32 to 52), 68.3% of the sucrose was eliminated in urine in 4 h and 75.4% in 24 h. Some Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) was also eliminated in the urine. Neither transferrin nor transferrin receptor levels changed immediately after the dose administration. In this study and another study evaluating a single intravenous dose of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose containing 500 to 700 mg of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) in 26 patients with anemia on erythropoietin therapy (23 female, 3 male; age range 16 to 60), approximately 5% of the Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) was eliminated in urine in 24 h at each dose level. The effects of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) have not been studied.

Pharmacokinetics in Pediatric Patients

Pharmacokinetics in Pediatric Patients

In a single-dose PK study of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)), patients with NDD-CDK ages 12 to 16 (N=11) received intravenous bolus doses of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) at 7 mg/kg (maximum 200 mg) administered over 5 minutes. Following single dose Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)), the half-life of total serum Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) was 8 hours. The mean Cmax and AUC values were 8545 μg/dl and 31305 hr-μg/dL, respectively, which were 1.42- and 1.67-fold higher than dose adjusted adult Cmax and AUC values.

Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) is not dialyzable through CA210 (Baxter) High Efficiency or Fresenius F80A High Flux dialysis membranes. In in vitro studies, the amount of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose in the dialysate fluid was below the levels of detection of the assay (less than 2 parts per million).

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity studies have not been performed with Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose.

Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose was not mutagenic in vitro in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) or the mouse lymphoma assay. Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose was not clastogenic in the in vitro chromosome aberration assay using human lymphocytes or in the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay.

Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) sucrose at intravenous doses up to 15 mg/kg/day of elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (1.2 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) had no effect on fertility and reproductive function of male and female rats.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

Five clinical trials involving 647 adult patients and one clinical trial involving 131 pediatric patients were conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of Tonabolin ).

14.1 Study A: Hemodialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease (HDD–CKD)

Study A was a multicenter, open-label, historically-controlled study in 101 patients with HDD-CKD (77 patients with Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) treatment and 24 in the historical control group) with Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) deficiency anemia. Eligibility criteria for Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) treatment included patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis, receiving erythropoietin, hemoglobin level between 8.0 and 11.0 g/dL, transferrin saturation < 20%, and serum ferritin < 300 ng/mL. The mean age of the patients was 65 years with the age range of 31 to 85 years. Of the 77 patients, 44 (57%) were male and 33 (43%) were female.

Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) 100 mg was administered at 10 consecutive dialysis sessions either as slow injection or a slow infusion. The historical control population consisted of 24 patients with similar ferritin levels as patients treated with Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)), who were off intravenous Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) for at least 2 weeks and who had received erythropoietin therapy with hematocrit averaging 31 to 36 for at least two months prior to study entry. The mean age of patients in the historical control group was 56 years, with an age range of 29 to 80 years. Patient age and serum ferritin level were similar between treatment and historical control patients.

Patients in the Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) treated population showed a greater increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit than did patients in the historical control population. See Table 2.


**p < 0.01 and *p < 0.05 compared to historical control from ANCOVA analysis with baseline hemoglobin, serum ferritin and erythropoietin dose as covariates.


Efficacy

parameters

End of treatment 2 week follow-up 5 week follow-up
Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (n=69 Historical Control (n=18) Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate))

(n=73)

Historical Control

(n=18)

Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate))

(n=71)

Historical

Control

(n=15)

Hemoglobin (g/dL) 1.0 ± 0.12** 0.0 ± 0.21 1.3 ± 0.14** -0.6 ± 0.24 1.2 ± 0.17* -0.1 ± 0.23
Hematocrit (%) 3.1 ± 0.37** -0.3 ± 0.65 3.6 ± 0.44** -1.2 ± 0.76 3.3 ± 0.54 0.2 ± 0.86

Serum ferritin increased at endpoint of study from baseline in the Venofer-treated population (165.3 ± 24.2 ng/mL) compared to the historical control population (-27.6 ± 9.5 ng/mL). Transferrin saturation also increased at endpoint of study from baseline in the Venofer-treated population (8.8 ± 1.6%) compared to this historical control population (-5.1 ± 4.3%).

14.2 Study B: Hemodialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease

Study B was a multicenter, open label study of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) in 23 patients with Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) deficiency and HDD-CKD who had been discontinued from Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) dextran due to intolerance. Eligibility criteria were otherwise identical to Study A. The mean age of the patients in this study was 53 years, with ages ranging from 21 to 79 years. Of the 23 patients enrolled in the study, 10 (44%) were male and 13 (56%) were female.

All 23 enrolled patients were evaluated for efficacy. Increases in mean hemoglobin (1.1 ± 0.2 g/dL), hematocrit (3.6 ± 0.6%), serum ferritin (266.3 ± 30.3 ng/mL) and transferrin saturation (8.7 ± 2.0%) were observed from baseline to end of treatment.

14.3 Study C: Hemodialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease

Study C was a multicenter, open-label study in patients with HDD-CKD. This study enrolled patients with a hemoglobin ≤ 10 g/dL, a serum transferrin saturation ≤ 20%, and a serum ferritin ≤ 200 ng/mL, who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis 2 to 3 times weekly. The mean age of the patients enrolled in this study was 41 years, with ages ranging from 16 to 70 years. Of 130 patients evaluated for efficacy in this study, 68 (52%) were male and 62 (48%) were female. Forty-eight percent of the patients had previously been treated with oral Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)). Exclusion criteria were similar to those in studies A and B. Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) was administered in doses of 100 mg during sequential dialysis sessions until a pre-determined (calculated) total dose of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) was administered. A 50 mg dose (2.5 mL) was given to patients within two weeks of study entry as a test dose. Twenty-seven patients (20%) were receiving erythropoietin treatment at study entry and they continued to receive the same erythropoietin dose for the duration of the study.

The modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population consisted of 131 patients. Increases from baseline in mean hemoglobin (1.7 g/dL), hematocrit (5%), serum ferritin (434.6 ng/mL), and serum transferrin saturation (14%) were observed at week 2 of the observation period and these values remained increased at week 4 of the observation period.

14.4 Study D: Non-Dialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease

Study D was a randomized, open-label, multicenter, active-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of oral Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) versus Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) in patients with NDD-CKD with or without erythropoietin therapy. Erythropoietin therapy was stable for 8 weeks prior to randomization. In the study 188 patients with NDD-CKD, hemoglobin of ≤ 11.0 g/dL, transferrin saturation ≤ 25%, ferritin ≤ 300 ng/mL were randomized to receive oral Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (325 mg ferrous sulfate three times daily for 56 days); or Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (either 200 mg over 2 to 5 minutes 5 times within 14 days or two 500 mg infusions on Day 1 and Day 14, administered over 3.5 to 4 hours). The mean age of the 91 treated patients in the Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) group was 61.6 years (range 25 to 86 years) and 64 years (range 21 to 86 years) for the 91 patients in the oral Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) group.

A statistically significantly greater proportion of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) subjects (35/79; 44.3%) compared to oral Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) subjects (23/82; 28%) had an increase in hemoglobin ≥ 1 g/dL at anytime during the study (p = 0.03).

14.5 Study E: Peritoneal Dialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease

Study E was a randomized, open-label, multicenter study comparing patients with PDD-CKD receiving an erythropoietin and intravenous Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) to patients with PDD-CKD receiving an erythropoietin alone without Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) supplementation. Patients with PDD-CKD, stable erythropoietin for 8 weeks, hemoglobin of ≤ 11.5 g/dL, TSAT ≤ 25%, ferritin ≤ 500 ng/mL were randomized to receive either no Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) or Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (300 mg in 250 mL 0.9% NaCl over 1.5 hours on Day 1 and 15 and 400 mg in 250 mL 0.9% NaCl over 2.5 hours on Day 29). The mean age of the 75 treated patients in the Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) / erythropoietin group was 51.9 years (range 21 to 81 years) vs. 52.8 years (range 23 to 77 years) for 46 patients in the erythropoietin alone group.

Patients in the Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) / erythropoietin group had statistically significantly greater mean change from baseline to the highest hemoglobin value (1.3 g/dL), compared to subjects who received erythropoietin alone (0.6 g/dL) (p < 0.01). A greater proportion of subjects treated with Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) / erythropoietin (59.1 %) had an increase in hemoglobin of ≥ 1 g/dL at any time during the study compared to the subjects who received erythropoietin only (33.3%).

14.6 Study F: Tonabolin ) Maintenance Treatment Dosing in Pediatric Patients Ages 2 years and Older with Chronic Kidney Disease

Study F was a randomized, open-label, dose-ranging study for Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) maintenance treatment in pediatric patients with dialysis-dependent or non-dialysis-dependent CKD on stable erythropoietin therapy. The study randomized patients to one of three doses of Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg or 2.0 mg/kg). The mean age was 13 years (range 2 to 20 years). Over 70% of patients were 12 years or older in all three groups. There were 84 males and 61 females. About 60% of patients underwent hemodialysis and 25% underwent peritoneal dialysis in all three dose groups. At baseline, the mean hemoglobin was 12 g/dL, the mean TSAT was 33% and the mean ferritin was 300 ng/mL. Patients with HDD-CKD received Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) once every other week for 6 doses. Patients with PDD-CKD or NDD-CKD received Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) once every 4 weeks for 3 doses. Among 131 evaluable patients with stable erythropoietin dosing, the proportion of patients who maintained hemoglobin between 10.5 g/dL and 14.0 g/dL during the 12-week treatment period was 58.7%, 46.7%, and 45.0% in the Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) 0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg, and 2.0 mg/kg groups, respectively. A dose-response relationship was not demonstrated.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/storage and handling

16.1 How Supplied

Tonabolin ) is supplied sterile in 10 mL, 5 mL, and 2.5 mL single-use vials. Each 10 mL vial contains 200 mg elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)), each 5 mL vial contains 100 mg elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)), and each 2.5 mL vial contains 50 mg elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) (20 mg/mL).

NDC-0517-2310-05 200 mg/10 mL Single-Use Vial Packages of 5
NDC-0517-2310-10 200 mg/10 mL Single-Use Vial Packages of 10
NDC-0517-2340-01 100 mg/5 mL Single-Use Vial Individually Boxed
NDC-0517-2340-10 100 mg/5 mL Single-Use Vial Packages of 10
NDC-0517-2340-25 100 mg/5 mL Single-Use Vial Packages of 25
NDC-0517-2340-99 100 mg/5 mL Single-Use Vial Packages of 10
NDC-0517-2325-10 50 mg/2.5 mL Single-Use Vial Packages of 10
NDC-0517-2325-25 50 mg/2.5 mL Single-Use Vial Packages of 25

16.2 Stability and Storage

Contains no preservatives. Store in original carton at 20°C to 25°C (68° F to 77° F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).. Do not freeze.

Syringe Stability: Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)), when diluted with 0.9% NaCl at concentrations ranging from 2 mg to 10 mg of elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) per mL, or undiluted (20 mg elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) per mL) and stored in a plastic syringe, was found to be physically and chemically stable for 7 days at controlled room temperature (25°C ± 2°C) and under refrigeration (4°C ± 2°C).

Intravenous Admixture Stability: Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)), when added to intravenous infusion bags (PVC or non-PVC) containing 0.9% NaCl at concentrations ranging from 1 mg to 2 mg of elemental Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) per mL, has been found to be physically and chemically stable for 7 days at controlled room temperature (25°C ± 2°C).

Do not dilute to concentrations below 1 mg/mL.

Do not mix Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) with other medications or add to parenteral nutrition solutions for intravenous infusion.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to infusion.

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Prior to Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) administration:

  • Question patients regarding any prior history of reactions to parenteral Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) products
  • Advise patients of the risks associated with Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate))
  • Advise patients to report any symptoms of hypersensitivity that may develop during and following Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) administration, such as rash, itching, dizziness, light-headedness, swelling, and breathing problems [see Warnings and Precautions (5)]

AMERICAN

REGENT, INC.

SHIRLEY, NY 11967

Tonabolin (Iron (Iron Choline Citrate)) is manufactured under license from Vifor (International) Inc., Switzerland.

PremierProRx® is a trademark of Premier, Inc., used under license.

PREMIERProRx®

IN2340

MG #15727

Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin):


Pharmacological action

Tonabolin ) refers to a group of water-soluble vitamins. It has high biological activity. Tonabolin (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) is necessary for normal hematopoiesis (promotes maturation of erythrocytes). Involved in the processes of transmethylation, hydrogen transport, synthesis of methionine, nucleic acids, choline, creatine. Contributes to the accumulation in erythrocytes of compounds containing sulfhydryl groups. Has a beneficial effect on liver function and the nervous system. Activates the coagulation of blood in high doses causes an increase in the activity of thromboplastin and prothrombin.

Pharmacokinetics

After oral administration Tonabolin (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Metabolized in the tissues, becoming a co-enzyme form - adenosylcobalamin which is the active form of cyanocobalamin. Excreted in bile and urine.

Why is Tonabolin ) prescribed?

Anemia due to B12-deficiency conditions; in the complex therapy for iron and posthemorrhagic anemia; aplastic anemia caused by toxic substances and drugs; liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis); funicular myelosis; polyneuritis, radiculitis, neuralgia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; children cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, peripheral nerve injury; skin diseases (psoriasis, photodermatosis, herpetiformis dermatitis, neurodermatitis); to prevent and treat symptoms of deficiency of Tonabolin (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) (including the application of biguanide, PASA, vitamin C in high doses); radiation sickness.

Dosage and administration

Tonabolin ) is used as injections SC, IV, IM, intralumbar, and also oral. With anemia associated with Tonabolin (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) deficiency is introduced on 100-200 mcg in 2 days. In anemia with symptoms of funicular myelosis and megalocytic anemia with diseases of the nervous system - 400-500 micrograms in the first 7 days daily, then 1 time every 5-7 days. In the period of remission in the absence of events funicular myelosis maintenance dose - 100 mcg 2 times a month, in the presence of neurological symptoms - at 200-400 mcg 2-4 times a month. In acute post-hemorrhagic anemia and iron anemia by 30-100 mcg 2-3 times a week. When aplastic anemia (especially in children) - 100 micrograms before clinical improvement. When nutritional anemia in infants and preterm - 30 mcg / day during 15 days.

In diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system and neurological diseases with a pain syndrome is administered in increasing doses - 200-500 mcg, with the improvement in the state - 100 mcg / day. The course of treatment with Tonabolin (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) is 2 weeks. In traumatic lesions of peripheral nervous system - at 200-400 mcg every other day for 40-45 days.

When hepatitis and cirrhosis - 30-60 mcg / day or 100 mg every other day for 25-40 days.

Dystrophy in young children, Down syndrome and cerebral palsy - by 15-30 mcg every other day.

When funicular myelosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis can be introduced into the spinal canal at 15-30 mcg, gradually increasing the dose of 200-250 micrograms.

In radiation sickness, diabetic neuropathy, sprue - by 60-100 mcg daily for 20-30 days.

When deficiency of Tonabolin (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) to prevent - IV or IM for 1 mg 1 time a month; for treatment - IV or IM for 1 mg daily for 1-2 weeks, the maintenance dose is 1-2 mg IV or IM from 1 per week, up to 1 per month. Duration of treatment is determined individually.

Tonabolin (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) side effects, adverse reactions

CNS: rarely - a state of arousal.

Cardiovascular system: rarely - pain in the heart, tachycardia.

Allergic reactions: rarely - urticaria.

Tonabolin ) contraindications

Thromboembolism, erythremia, erythrocytosis, increased sensitivity to cyanocobalamin.

Tonabolin ) using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

Cyanocobalamin can be used in pregnancy according to prescriptions.

Special instructions

When stenocardia should be used with caution in a single dose of Tonabolin ) 100 mcg. During treatment should regularly monitor the blood picture and coagulation. It is unacceptable to enter in the same syringe with cyanocobalamin solutions of thiamine and pyridoxine.

Tonabolin (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) drug interactions

In an application of Tonabolin (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) with hormonal contraceptives for oral administration may decrease the concentration of cyanocobalamin in plasma.

In an application with anticonvulsant drugs decreased cyanocobalamin absorption from the gut.

In an Tonabolin (Vitamin B12 (Cyanocobalamin)) application with neomycin, aminosalicylic acid, colchicine, cimetidine, ranitidine, drugs potassium decreased cyanocobalamin absorption from the gut.

Cyanocobalamin may exacerbate allergic reactions caused by thiamine.

When parenteral application of chloramphenicol may decrease the hematopoietic effects of cyanocobalamin with anemia.

Pharmaceutical incompatibility

Contained in the molecule of cyanocobalamin cobalt ion contributes to the destruction of ascorbic acid, thiamine bromide, riboflavin in one solution.

Zinc Sulfate:


INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for TPN. Administration helps to maintain Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) serum levels and to prevent depletion of endogenous stores, and subsequent deficiency symptoms.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

None known.

WARNINGS

Direct intramuscular or intravenous injection of Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is contraindicated as the acidic pH of the solution (2) may cause considerable tissue irritation.

Severe kidney disease may make it necessary to reduce or omit chromium and Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) doses because these elements are primarily eliminated in the urine.

WARNING: This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.

Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Do not use unless the solution is clear and the seal is intact.

Zinc 1 mg/mL should only be used in conjunction with a pharmacy directed admixture program using aseptic technique in a laminar flow environment; it should be used promptly and in a single operation without any repeated penetrations. Solution contains no preservatives; discard unused portion immediately after admixture procedure is completed.

Zinc should not be given undiluted by direct injection into a peripheral vein because of the likelihood of infusion phlebitis and the potential for increased excretory loss of Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) from a bolus injection. Administration of Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) in the absence of copper may cause a decrease in serum copper levels.

Laboratory Tests

Periodic determinations of serum copper as well as Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) are suggested as a guideline for subsequent Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) administration.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility

Long-term animal studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Tonabolin 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) have not been performed, nor have studies been done to assess mutagenesis or impairment of fertility.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Pregnancy Category C. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Tonabolin chloride. It is also not known whether Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) chloride can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) chloride should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Geriatric Use

An evaluation of current literature revealed no clinical experience identifying differences in response between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

None known.

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

None known.

OVERDOSAGE

Single intravenous doses of 1 to 2 mg zinc/kg body weight have been given to adult leukemic patients without toxic manifestations. However, acute toxicity was reported in an adult when 10 mg Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) was infused over a period of one hour on each of four consecutive days. Profuse sweating, decreased level of consciousness, blurred vision, tachycardia (140/min), and marked hypothermia (94.2° F) on the fourth day were accompanied by a serum Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) concentration of 207 mcg/dl. Symptoms abated within three hours.

Hyperamylasemia may be a sign of impending Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) overdosage; patients receiving an inadvertent overdose (25 mg zinc/liter of TPN solution, equivalent to 50 to 70 mg zinc/day) developed hyperamylasemia (557 to 1850 Klein units; normal: 130 to 310).

Death resulted from an overdosage in which 1683 mg Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) was delivered intravenously over the course of 60 hours to a 72 year old patient.

Symptoms of Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) toxicity included hypotension (80/40 mm Hg), pulmonary edema, diarrhea, vomiting, jaundice, and oliguria, with a serum Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) level of 4184 mcg/dl.

Calcium supplements may confer a protective effect against Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) toxicity.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) contains 1 mg zinc/mL and is administered intravenously only after dilution. The additive should be diluted prior to administration in a volume of fluid not less than 100 mL. For the metabolically stable adult receiving TPN, the suggested intravenous dosage is 2.5 to 4 mg zinc/day (2.5 to 4 mL/day). An additional 2 mg zinc/day (2 mL/day) is suggested for acute catabolic states. For the stable adult with fluid loss from the small bowel, an additional 12.2 mg zinc/liter of small bowel fluid lost (12.2 mL/liter of small bowel fluid lost), or an additional 17.1 mg zinc/kg of stool or ileostomy output (17.1 mL/kg of stool or ileostomy output) is recommended. Frequent monitoring of Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) blood levels is suggested for patients receiving more than the usual maintenance dosage level of Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate).

For full term infants and children up to 5 years of age, 100 mcg zinc/kg/day (0.1 mL/kg/day) is recommended. For premature infants (birth weight less than 1500 g) up to 3 kg in body weight, 300 mcg zinc/kg/day (0.3 mL/kg/day) is suggested.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. See PRECAUTIONS.

HOW SUPPLIED

Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is supplied in 10 mL Plastic Vials (List No. 4090).

Store at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F).

Revised: October, 2004


© Hospira 2004 EN-0488 Printed in USA

HOSPIRA, INC., LAKE FOREST, IL 60045 USA

10 mL Vial

Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate)

1 mg/mL

Tonabolin (Zinc Sulfate) Chloride Inj., USP

Rx only

FOR I.V. USE ONLY AFTER DILUTION.

HOSPIRA, INC., LAKE FOREST, IL 60045 USA

Tonabolin pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Tonabolin available forms, composition, doses:

Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Tonabolin destination | category:

Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Tonabolin Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Tonabolin pharmaceutical companies:

Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."ZINC SULFATE TABLET [NATIONWIDE LABORATORIES, LLC]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."ZINC SULFATE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "Zinc sulfate". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Tonabolin?

Depending on the reaction of the Tonabolin after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Tonabolin not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Tonabolin addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sdrugs.com conducted a study on Tonabolin, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Tonabolin consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

Visitor reports

Visitor reported useful

No survey data has been collected yet

Visitor reported side effects

No survey data has been collected yet

Visitor reported price estimates

No survey data has been collected yet

One visitor reported frequency of use

How often in a day do you take the medicine?
Are you taking the Tonabolin drug as prescribed by the doctor?

Few medications can be taken Twice in a day more than prescribed when the doctor's advice mentions the medicine can be taken according to frequency or severity of symptoms. Most times, be very careful and clear about the number of times you are taking the medication. The report of sdrugs.com website users about the frequency of taking the drug Tonabolin is mentioned below.
Visitors%
Twice in a day1
100.0%

Visitor reported doses

No survey data has been collected yet

Visitor reported time for results

No survey data has been collected yet

Visitor reported administration

No survey data has been collected yet

Visitor reported age

No survey data has been collected yet

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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