DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS

Theophylline LP

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Theophylline LP uses


INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Theophylline LP Extended-release capsules are indicated for the treatment of the symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction associated with chronic asthma and other chronic lung diseases, e.g., emphysema and chronic bronchitis.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Theophylline LP Extended - release capsules is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to Theophylline LP or other components in the product.

WARNINGS

Concurrent Illness:

Theophylline LP should be used with extreme caution in patients with the following clinical conditions due to the increased risk of exacerbation of the concurrent condition:

  • Active peptic ulcer disease
  • Seizure disorders
  • Cardiac arrhythmias

Conditions That Reduce Theophylline LP Clearance:

There are several readily identifiable causes of reduced Theophylline LP clearance. If the total daily dose is not appropriately reduced in the presence of these risk factors, severe and potentially fatal Theophylline LP toxicity can occur. Careful consideration must be given to the benefits and risks of Theophylline LP use and the need for more intensive monitoring of serum Theophylline LP concentrations in patients with the following risk factors:

Age

  • Neonates
  • Children <1 year
  • Elderly (>60 years)

Concurrent Diseases

  • Acute pulmonary edema
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Cor-pulmonale
  • Fever; ≥102° for 24 hours or more; or lesser temperature elevations for longer periods
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Liver disease; cirrhosis, acute hepatitis
  • Reduced renal function in infants <3 months of age
  • Sepsis with multi-organ failure
  • Shock

Cessation of Smoking

Drug Interactions Adding a drug that inhibits Theophylline LP metabolism or stopping a concurrently administered drug that enhances Theophylline LP metabolism (e.g., carbamazepine, rifampin)..

When Signs or Symptoms of Theophylline LP Toxicity Are Present:

Whenever a patient receiving Theophylline LP develops nausea or vomiting, particularly repetitive vomiting, or other signs or symptoms consistent with Theophylline LP toxicity (even if another cause may be suspected), additional doses of Theophylline LP should be withheld and a serum Theophylline LP concentration measured immediately. Patients should be instructed not to continue any dosage that causes adverse effects and to withhold subsequent doses until the symptoms have resolved, at which time the clinician may instruct the patient to resume the drug at a lower dosage.

Dosage Increases:

Increases in the dose of Theophylline LP should not be made in response to an acute exacerbation of symptoms of chronic lung disease since Theophylline LP provides little added benefit to inhaled beta2-selective agonists and systemically administered corticosteroids in this circumstance and increases the risk of adverse effects. A peak steady-state serum Theophylline LP concentration should be measured before increasing the dose in response to persistent chronic symptoms to ascertain whether an increase in dose is safe. Before increasing the Theophylline LP dose on the basis of a low serum concentration, the clinician should consider whether the blood sample was obtained at an appropriate time in relationship to the dose and whether the patient has adhered to the prescribed regimen.

As the rate of Theophylline LP clearance may be dose-dependent (i.e., steady-state serum concentrations may increase disproportionately to the increase in dose), an increase in dose based upon a sub-therapeutic serum concentration measurement should be conservative. In general, limiting dose increases to about 25% of the previous total daily dose will reduce the risk of unintended excessive increases in serum Theophylline LP concentration.

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PRECAUTIONS

General:

Careful consideration of the various interacting drugs and physiologic conditions that can alter Theophylline LP clearance and require dosage adjustment should occur prior to initiation of Theophylline LP therapy, prior to increases in Theophylline LP dose, and during follow up. The dose of Theophylline LP selected for initiation of therapy should be low and, if tolerated, increased slowly over a period of a week or longer with the final dose guided by monitoring serum Theophylline LP concentrations and the patient's clinical response.

Monitoring Serum Theophylline LP Concentrations:

Serum Theophylline LP concentration measurements are readily available and should be used to determine whether the dosage is appropriate. Specifically, the serum Theophylline LP concentration should be measured as follows:

  • When initiating therapy to guide final dosage adjustment after titration.
  • Before making a dose increase to determine whether the serum concentration is sub-therapeutic in a patient who continues to be symptomatic.
  • Whenever signs or symptoms of Theophylline LP toxicity are present.
  • Whenever there is a new illness, worsening of a chronic illness or a change in the patient's treatment regimen that may alter Theophylline LP clearance (e.g., fever >102°F sustained for ≥24 hours, hepatitis, or drugs listed in Table II are added or discontinued).
To guide a dose increase, the blood sample should be obtained at the time of the expected peak serum Theophylline LP concentration; 1-2 hours after a dose at steady-state (expected peak concentration at steady state: 13.7±1.9 μg/mL after 600 or 900 mg of Theophylline LP Extended-release Capsules per day for six days with q24h dosing). For most patients, steady-state will be reached after 3 days of dosing when no doses have been missed, no extra doses have been added, and none of the doses have been taken at unequal intervals. A trough concentration (i.e., at the end of the dosing interval) provides no additional useful information and may lead to an inappropriate dose increase since the peak serum Theophylline LP concentration can be two or more times greater than the trough concentration with an immediate-release formulation. If the serum sample is drawn more than two hours after the dose, the results must be interpreted with caution since the concentration may not be reflective of the peak concentration. Trough concentrations at steady state are expected to occur at the end of a 12h dosing interval prior to the next dose (q12h dosing) or at the end of a 24h dosing interval prior to the next dose (q24h dosing). In contrast, when signs or symptoms of Theophylline LP toxicity are present, the serum sample should be obtained as soon as possible, analyzed immediately, and the result reported to the clinician without delay. In patients in whom decreased serum protein binding is suspected (e.g., cirrhosis, women during the third trimester of pregnancy), the concentration of unbound Theophylline LP should be measured and the dosage adjusted to achieve an unbound concentration of 6-12 mcg/mL.Saliva concentrations of Theophylline LP cannot be used reliably to adjust dosage without special techniques.

Effects on Laboratory Tests:

As a result of its pharmacological effects, Theophylline LP at serum concentrations within the 10-20 mcg/mL range modestly increases plasma glucose, uric acid (from a mean of 4 mg/dl to 6 mg/dl), free fatty acids (from a mean of 451 μεq/l to 800 μεq/l, total cholesterol (from a mean of 140 vs 160 mg/dl), HDL (from a mean of 36 to 50 mg/dl), HDL/LDL ratio (from a mean of 0.5 to 0.7), and urinary free cortisol excretion (from a mean of 44 to 63 mcg/24 hr). Theophylline LP at serum concentrations within the 10-20 mcg/mL range may also transiently decrease serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (144 before, 131 after one week and 142 ng/dl after 4 weeks of Theophylline LP). The clinical importance of these changes should be weighed against the potential therapeutic benefit of Theophylline LP in individual patients.

Information for Patients:

The patient (or parent/care giver) should be instructed to seek medical advice whenever nausea, vomiting, persistent headache, insomnia or rapid heart beat occurs during treatment with Theophylline LP, even if another cause is suspected. The patient should be instructed to contact their clinician if they develop a new illness, especially if accompanied by a persistent fever, if they experience worsening of a chronic illness, if they start or stop smoking cigarettes or marijuana, or if another clinician adds a new medication or discontinues a previously prescribed medication. Patients should be instructed to inform all clinicians involved in their care that they are taking Theophylline LP, especially when a medication is being added or deleted from their treatment. Patients should be instructed to not alter the dose, timing of the dose, or frequency of administration without first consulting their clinician. If a dose is missed, the patient should be instructed to take the next dose at the usually scheduled time and to not attempt to make up for the missed dose.

When prescribing administration by the sprinkle method, details of the proper technique should be explained to the patient.

Drug Interactions:

Theophylline LP interacts with a wide variety of drugs. The interaction may be pharmacodynamic, i.e., alterations in the therapeutic response to Theophylline LP or another drug or occurrence of adverse effects without a change in serum Theophylline LP concentration. More frequently, however, the interaction is pharmacokinetic, i.e., the rate of Theophylline LP clearance is altered by another drug resulting in increased or decreased serum Theophylline LP concentrations. Theophylline LP only rarely alters the pharmacokinetics of other drugs.

The drugs listed in Table II have the potential to produce clinically significant pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic interactions with Theophylline LP. The information in the “Effect” column of Table II assumes that the interacting drug is being added to a steady-state Theophylline LP regimen. If Theophylline LP is being initiated in a patient who is already taking a drug that inhibits Theophylline LP clearance, the dose of Theophylline LP required to achieve a therapeutic serum Theophylline LP concentration will be smaller. Conversely, if Theophylline LP is being initiated in a patient who is already taking a drug that enhances Theophylline LP clearance (e.g., rifampin), the dose of Theophylline LP required to achieve a therapeutic serum Theophylline LP concentration will be larger. Discontinuation of a concomitant drug that increases Theophylline LP clearance will result in accumulation of Theophylline LP to potentially toxic levels, unless the Theophylline LP dose is appropriately reduced. Discontinuation of a concomitant drug that inhibits Theophylline LP clearance will result in decreased serum Theophylline LP concentrations, unless the Theophylline LP dose is appropriately increased. The drugs listed in Table III have either been documented not to interact with Theophylline LP or do not produce a clinically significant interaction (i.e., <15% change in Theophylline LP clearance).The listing of drugs in Tables II and III are current as of February 9, 1995. New interactions are continuously being reported for Theophylline LP, especially with new chemical entities. The clinician should not assume that a drug does not interact with Theophylline LP if it is not listed in Table II. Before addition of a newly available drug in a patient receiving Theophylline LP, the package insert of the new drug and/or the medical literature should be consulted to determine if an interaction between the new drug and Theophylline LP has been reported.

* Refer to PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions for further information regarding table.

** Average effect on steady state Theophylline LP concentration or other clinical effect for pharmacologic interactions. Individual patients may experience larger changes in serum Theophylline LP concentration than the value listed.

DrugType of InteractionEffect**
AdenosineTheophylline LP blocks adenosine receptors.Higher doses of adenosine may be required to achieve desired effect.
AlcoholA single large dose of alcohol (3 mL/kg of whiskey) decreases Theophylline LP clearance for up to 24 hours.30% increase
AllopurinolDecreases Theophylline LP clearance at allopurinol doses ≥600 mg/day.25% increase
AminoglutethimideIncreases Theophylline LP clearance by induction of microsomal enzyme activity.25% decrease
CarbamazepineSimilar to aminoglutethimide.30% decrease
CimetidineDecreases Theophylline LP clearance by inhibiting cytochrome P450 1A2.70% increase
CiprofloxacinSimilar to cimetidine.40% increase
ClarithromycinSimilar to erythromycin.25% increase
DiazepamBenzodiazepines increase CNS concentrations of adenosine, a potent CNS depressant, while Theophylline LP blocks adenosine receptors.Larger diazepam doses may be required to produce desired level of sedation.

Discontinuation of Theophylline LP without reduction of diazepam dose may result in respiratory depression.

DisulfiramDecreases Theophylline LP clearance by inhibiting hydroxylation and demethylation.50% increase
EnoxacinSimilar to cimetidine.300% increase
EphedrineSynergistic CNS effects.Increased frequency of nausea, nervousness, and insomnia.
ErythromycinErythromycin metabolite decreases Theophylline LP clearance by inhibiting cytochrome P450 3A3.35% increase. Erythromycin steady-state serum concentrations decrease by a similar amount.
EstrogenEstrogen containing oral contraceptives decrease Theophylline LP clearance in a dose-dependent fashion. The effect of progesterone on Theophylline LP clearance is unknown.30% increase
FlurazepamSimilar to diazepam.Similar to diazepam.
FluvoxamineSimilar to cimetidine.Similar to cimetidine.
HalothaneHalothane sensitizes the myocardium. to catecholamines, Theophylline LP increases release of endogenous catecholamines.Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias.
Interferon, human recombinant alpha-ADecreases Theophylline LP clearance.100% increase
Isoproterenol (IV)Increases Theophylline LP clearance.20% decrease
KetaminePharmacologic seizure threshold.May lower Theophylline LP
LithiumTheophylline LP increases renal lithium clearance.Lithium dose required to achieve a therapeutic serum concentration increased an average of 60%.
LorazepamSimilar to diazepam.Similar to diazepam.
Methotrexate (MTX)Decreases Theophylline LP clearance.20% increase after low dose MTX, higher dose MTX may have a greater effect.
MexiletineSimilar to disulfiram.80% increase
MidazolamSimilar to diazepam.Similar to diazepam.
MoricizineIncreases Theophylline LP clearance.25% decrease
PancuroniumTheophylline LP may antagonize non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking effects; possibly due to phosphodiesterase inhibition.Larger dose of pancuronium may be required to achieve neuromuscular blockade.
PentoxifyllineDecreases Theophylline LP clearance.30% increase
Phenobarbital (PB)Similar to aminoglutethimide.25% decrease after two weeks of concurrent PB.
PhenytoinPhenytoin increases Theophylline LP clearance by increasing microsomal enzyme activity. Theophylline LP decreases phenytoin absorption.Serum Theophylline LP and phenytoin concentrations decrease about 40%.
PropafenoneDecreases Theophylline LP clearance and pharmacologic interaction.40% increase. Beta-2 blocking effect may decrease efficacy of Theophylline LP.
PropranololSimilar to cimetidine and pharmacologic interaction.100% increase. Beta-2 blocking effect may decrease efficacy of Theophylline LP.
RifampinIncreases Theophylline LP clearance by increasing cytochrome P450 1A2 and 3A3 activity.20-40% decrease
SulfinpyrazoneIncreases Theophylline LP clearance by increasing demethylation and hydroxylation. Decreases renal clearance of Theophylline LP.20% decrease
TacrineSimilar to cimetidine, also increases renal clearance of Theophylline LP.90% increase
ThiabendazoleDecreases Theophylline LP clearance.190% increase
TiclopidineDecreases Theophylline LP clearance.60% increase
TroleandomycinSimilar to erythromycin.33-100% increase depending on troleandomycin dose.
VerapamilSimilar to disulfiram.20% increase
* Refer to PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions for information regarding table.

albuterol,diltiazemmedroxyprogesteroneroxithromycin
   systemic and inhaleddirithromycinmethylprednisolonesorbitol
amoxicillinenfluranemetronidazole   (purgative doses
ampicillin,famotidinemetoprolol   do not inhibit
   with or withoutfelodipinenadolol   theophylline
   sulbactamfinasteridenifedipine   absorption)
atenololhydrocortisonenizatidinesucralfate
azithromycinisofluranenorfloxacinterbutaline, systemic
caffeine,isoniazidofloxacinterfenadine
   dietary ingestionisradipineomeprazoletetracycline
cefaclorinfluenza vaccineprednisone,tocainide
co-trimoxazoleketoconazole   prednisolone
   (trimethoprim andlomefloxacinranitidine
   sulfamethoxazole)mebendazolerifabutin

The Effect of Other Drugs on Theophylline LP Serum Concentration Measurements: Most serum Theophylline LP assays in clinical use are immunoassays which are specific for Theophylline LP. Other xanthines such as caffeine, dyphylline, and pentoxifylline are not detected by these assays. Some drugs (e.g.,cefazolin, cephalothin), however, may interfere with certain HPLC techniques. Caffeine and xanthine metabolites in neonates or patients with renal dysfunction may cause the reading from some dry reagent office methods to be higher than the actual serum Theophylline LP concentration.

Drug-Food: Taking Theophylline LP Extended-release Capsules immediately after a high-fat content meal such as 8 ounces whole milk, one fried egg, one slice of Canadian bacon, one English muffin with butter, 4 ounces hash brown potatoes, one slice of American cheese (about 240 calories, including approximately 27 g of fat) may result in an increase in the Cmax, but with no significant difference in the extent of absorption. The influence of the type and amount of other foods, as well as the time interval between drug and food, has not been studied.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility:

Long term carcinogenicity studies have been carried out in mice (oral doses 30-150 mg/kg) and rats (oral doses 5-75 mg/kg). Results are pending.

Theophylline LP has been studied in Ames salmonella, in vivo and in vitro cytogenetics, micronucleus and Chinese hamster ovary test systems and has not been shown to be genotoxic. In a 14 week continuous breeding study, Theophylline LP, administered to mating pairs of B6C3F1 mice at oral doses of 120, 270 and 500 mg/kg (approximately 1.0- 3.0 times the human dose on a mg/m2 basis) impaired fertility, as evidenced by decreases in the number of live pups per litter, decreases in the mean number of litters per fertile pair, and increases in the gestation period at the high dose as well as decreases in the proportion of pups born alive at the mid and high dose. In 13 week toxicity studies, Theophylline LP was administered to F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice at oral doses of 40-300 mg/kg (approximately 2.0 times the human dose on a mg/m2 basis). At the high dose, systemic toxicity was observed in both species including decreases in testicular weight.

Pregnancy:

CATEGORY C : There are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women. Additionally, there are no teratogenicity studies in non-rodents. Theophylline LP was not shown to be teratogenic in CD-1 mice at oral doses up to 400 mg/kg, approximately 2.0 times the human dose on a mg/m2 basis or in CD-1 rats at oral doses up to 260 mg/kg, approximately 3.0 times the recommended human dose on a mg/m2 basis. At a dose of 220 mg/kg, embryotoxicity was observed in rats in the absence of maternal toxicity.

Nursing Mothers:

Theophylline LP is excreted into breast milk and may cause irritability or other signs of mild toxicity in nursing human infants. The concentration of Theophylline LP in breast milk is about equivalent to the maternal serum concentration. An infant ingesting a liter of breast milk containing 10-20 mcg/mL of Theophylline LP day is likely to receive 10-20 mg of Theophylline LP per day. Serious adverse effects in the infant are unlikely unless the mother has toxic serum Theophylline LP concentrations.

Pediatric Use:

Theophylline LP is safe and effective for the approved indications in pediatric patients. The maintenance dose of Theophylline LP must be selected with caution in pediatric patients since the rate of Theophylline LP clearance is highly variable across the age range of neonates to adolescents.

Geriatric Use:

Elderly patients are at significantly greater risk of experiencing serious toxicity from Theophylline LP than younger patients due to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes associated with aging. Theophylline LP clearance is reduced in patients greater than 60 years of age, resulting in increased serum Theophylline LP concentrations in response to a given Theophylline LP dose. Protein binding may be decreased in the elderly resulting in a larger proportion of the total serum Theophylline LP concentration in the pharmacologically active unbound form. Elderly patients also appear to be more sensitive to the toxic effects of Theophylline LP after chronic overdosage than younger patients. For these reasons, the maximum daily dose of Theophylline LP in patients greater than 60 years of age ordinarily should not exceed 400 mg/day unless the patient continues to be symptomatic and the peak steady state serum Theophylline LP concentration is <10 mcg/mL. Theophylline LP doses greater than 400 mg/d should be prescribed with caution in elderly patients.

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ADVERSE REACTIONS

Adverse reactions associated with Theophylline LP are generally mild when peak serum Theophylline LP concentrations are <20 mcg/mL and mainly consist of transient caffeine-like adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, headache, and insomnia. When peak serum Theophylline LP concentrations exceed 20 mcg/mL, however, Theophylline LP produces a wide range of adverse reactions including persistent vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, and intractable seizures which can be lethal. The transient caffeine-like adverse reactions occur in about 50% of patients when Theophylline LP therapy is initiated at doses higher than recommended initial doses (e.g.,>300 mg/day in adults and >12 mg/kg/day in children beyond >1 year of age). During the initiation of Theophylline LP therapy, caffeine-like adverse effects may transiently alter patient behavior, especially in school age children, but this response rarely persists. Initiation of Theophylline LP therapy at a low dose with subsequent slow titration to a predetermined age-related maximum dose will significantly reduce the frequency of these transient adverse effects. In a small percentage of patients (<3% of children and <10% of adults) the caffeine-like adverse effects persist during maintenance therapy, even at peak serum Theophylline LP concentrations within the therapeutic range (i.e., 10-20 mcg/mL). Dosage reduction may alleviate the caffeine-like adverse effects in these patients, however, persistent adverse effects should result in a reevaluation of the need for continued Theophylline LP therapy and the potential therapeutic benefit of alternative treatment.

Other adverse reactions that have been reported at serum Theophylline LP concentrations <20 mcg/mL include diarrhea, irritability, restlessness, fine skeletal muscle tremors, and transient diuresis. In patients with hypoxia secondary to COPD, multifocal atrial tachycardia and flutter have been reported at serum Theophylline LP concentrations ≥15 mcg/mL. There have been a few isolated reports of seizures at serum Theophylline LP concentrations <20 mcg/mL in patients with an underlying neurological disease or in elderly patients. The occurrence of seizures in elderly patients with serum Theophylline LP concentrations <20 mcg/mL may be secondary to decreased protein binding resulting in a larger proportion of the total serum Theophylline LP concentration in the pharmacologically active unbound form. The clinical characteristics of the seizures reported in patients with serum Theophylline LP concentrations <20 mcg/mL have generally been milder than seizures associated with excessive serum Theophylline LP concentrations resulting from an overdose (i.e. they have generally been transient, often stopped without anticonvulsant therapy, and did not result in neurological residua).

Percentage of patients reported
with sign or symptom
Acute OverdoseChronic Overdosage
(Large Single Ingestion)(Multiple Excessive Doses)
Sign/SymptomStudy 1Study 2Study 1Study 2
(n=157)(n=14)(n=92)(n=102)
* These data are derived from two studies in patients with serum Theophylline LP concentrations >30 mcg/mL. In the first study (Study #1 - Shanon, Ann Intern Med 1993;119:1161-67), data were prospectively collected from 249 consecutive cases of Theophylline LP toxicity referred to a regional poison center for consultation. In the second study (Study #2 - Sessler, Am J Med 1990;88:567-76), data were retrospectively collected from 116 cases with serum Theophylline LP concentrations >30 mcg/mL among 6000 blood samples obtained for measurement of serum Theophylline LP concentrations in three emergency departments. Differences in the incidence of manifestations of Theophylline LP toxicity between the two studies may reflect sample selection as a result of study design (e.g., in Study #1, 48% of the patients had acute intoxications versus only 10% in Study #2) and different methods of reporting results.

** NR = Not reported in a comparable manner.

AsymptomaticNR**0NR**6
Gastrointestinal
   Vomiting73933061
   Abdominal PainNR**21NR**12
   DiarrheaNR**0NR**14
   HematemesisNR**0NR**2
Metabolic/Other
   Hypokalemia85794443
   Hyperglycemia98NR**18NR**
   Acid/base disturbance342195
   RhabdomyolysisNR**7NR**0
Cardiovascular
   Sinus tachycardia1008610062
   Other supraventricular2211214
      tachycardias
   Ventricular premature beats3211019
   Atrial fibrillation or flutter1NR**12NR**
Cardiovascular (continued)
   Multifocal atrial tachycardia0NR**2NR**
   Ventricular arrhythmias with714400
      hemodynamic instability
   Hypotension/shockNR**21NR**8
Neurologic
   NervousnessNR**64NR**21
   Tremors38291614
   DisorientationNR**7NR**11
   Seizures514145
Death321104
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OVERDOSAGE

General:

The chronicity and pattern of Theophylline LP overdosage significantly influences clinical manifestations of toxicity, management and outcome. There are two common presentations: acute overdose, i.e., ingestion of a single large excessive dose (>10 mg/kg) as occurs in the context of an attempted suicide or isolated medication error, and (2) chronic overdosage, i.e., ingestion of repeated doses that are excessive for the patient's rate of Theophylline LP clearance. The most common causes of chronic Theophylline LP overdosage include patient or care giver error in dosing, clinician prescribing of an excessive dose or a normal dose in the presence of factors known to decrease the rate of Theophylline LP clearance, and increasing the dose in response to an exacerbation of symptoms without first measuring the serum Theophylline LP concentration to determine whether a dose increase is safe.

Severe toxicity from Theophylline LP overdose is a relatively rare event. In one health maintenance organization, the frequency of hospital admissions for chronic overdosage of Theophylline LP was about 1 per 1000 person-years exposure. In another study, among 6000 blood samples obtained for measurement of serum Theophylline LP concentration, for any reason, from patients treated in an emergency department, 7% were in the 20-30 mcg/mL range and 3% were >30 mcg/mL. Approximately two-thirds of the patients with serum Theophylline LP concentrations in the 20-30 mcg/mL range had one or more manifestations of toxicity while >90% of patients with serum Theophylline LP concentrations >30 mcg/mL were clinically intoxicated. Similarly, in other reports, serious toxicity from Theophylline LP is seen principally at serum concentrations >30 mcg/mL.Several studies have described the clinical manifestations of Theophylline LP overdose and attempted to determine the factors that predict life-threatening toxicity. In general, patients who experience an acute overdose are less likely to experience seizures than patients who have experienced a chronic overdosage, unless the peak serum Theophylline LP concentration is >100 mcg/mL. After a chronic overdosage, generalized seizures, life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, and death may occur at serum Theophylline LP concentrations >30 mcg/mL. The severity of toxicity after chronic overdosage is more strongly correlated with the patient's age than the peak serum Theophylline LP concentration; patients >60 years are at the greatest risk for severe toxicity and mortality after a chronic overdosage. Pre-existing or concurrent disease may also significantly increase the susceptibility of a patient to a particular toxic manifestation, e.g., patients with neurologic disorders have an increased risk of seizures and patients with cardiac disease have an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias for a given serum Theophylline LP concentration compared to patients without the underlying disease. The frequency of various reported manifestations of Theophylline LP overdose according to the mode of overdose are listed in Table IV.Other manifestations of Theophylline LP toxicity include increases in serum calcium, creatine kinase, myoglobin and leukocyte count, decreases in serum phosphate and magnesium, acute myocardial infarction, and urinary retention in men with obstructive uropathy. Seizures associated with serum Theophylline LP concentrations >30 mcg/mL are often resistant to anticonvulsant therapy and may result in irreversible brain injury if not rapidly controlled. Death from Theophylline LP toxicity is most often secondary to cardiorespiratory arrest and/or hypoxic encephalopathy following prolonged generalized seizures or intractable cardiac arrhythmias causing hemodynamic compromise.

Overdose Management:

General Recommendations for Patients with Symptoms of Theophylline LP Overdose or Serum Theophylline LP Concentrations >30 mcg/mL (Note: Serum Theophylline LP concentrations may continue to increase after presentation of the patient for medical care.

  • While simultaneously instituting treatment, contact a regional poison center to obtain updated information and advice on individualizing the recommendations that follow.
  • Institute supportive care, including establishment of intravenous access, maintenance of the airway, and electrocardiographic monitoring.
  • Treatment of seizures Because of the high morbidity and mortality associated with theophylline-induced seizures, treatment should be rapid and aggressive. Anticonvulsant therapy should be initiated with an intravenous benzodiazepine, e.g., diazepam, in increments of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg every 1-3 minutes until seizures are terminated. Repetitive seizures should be treated with a loading dose of phenobarbital (20 mg/kg infused over 30-60 minutes). Case reports of Theophylline LP overdose in humans and animal studies suggest that phenytoin is ineffective in terminating theophylline-induced seizures. The doses of benzodiazepines and phenobarbital required to terminate theophylline-induced seizures are close to the doses that may cause severe respiratory depression or respiratory arrest; the clinician should therefore be prepared to provide assisted ventilation. Elderly patients and patients with COPD may be more susceptible to the respiratory depressant effects of anticonvulsants. Barbiturate-induced coma or administration of general anesthesia may be required to terminate repetitive seizures or status epilepticus. General anesthesia should be used with caution in patients with Theophylline LP overdose because fluorinated volatile anesthetics may sensitize the myocardium to endogenous catecholamines released by Theophylline LP. Enflurane appears to less likely to be associated with this effect than halothane and may, therefore, be safer. Neuromuscular blocking agents alone should not be used to terminate seizures since they abolish the musculoskeletal manifestations without terminating seizure activity in the brain.
  • Anticipate Need for Anticonvulsants In patients with Theophylline LP overdose who are at high risk for theophylline-induced seizures, e.g., patients with acute overdoses and serum Theophylline LP concentrations >100 mcg/mL or chronic overdosage in patients >60 years of age with serum Theophylline LP concentrations >30 mcg/mL, the need for anticonvulsant therapy should be anticipated. A benzodiazepine such as diazepam should be drawn into a syringe and kept at the patient's bedside and medical personnel qualified to treat seizures should be immediately available. In selected patients at high risk for theophylline-induced seizures, consideration should be given to the administration of prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy. Situations where prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy should be considered in high risk patients include anticipated delays in instituting methods for extracorporeal removal of Theophylline LP (e.g., transfer of a high risk patient from one health care facility to another for extracorporeal removal) and clinical circumstances that significantly interfere with efforts to enhance Theophylline LP clearance (e.g., a neonate where dialysis may not be technically feasible or a patient with vomiting unresponsive to antiemetics who is unable to tolerate multiple-dose oral activated charcoal). In animal studies, prophylactic administration of phenobarbital, but not phenytoin, has been shown to delay the onset of theophylline-induced generalized seizures and to increase the dose of Theophylline LP required to induce seizures (i.e., markedly increases the LD50). Although there are no controlled studies in humans, a loading dose of intravenous phenobarbital (20 mg/kg infused over 60 minutes) may delay or prevent life-threatening seizures in high risk patients while efforts to enhance Theophylline LP clearance are continued. Phenobarbital may cause respiratory depression, particularly in elderly patients and patients with COPD.
  • Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias Sinus tachycardia and simple ventricular premature beats are not harbingers of life-threatening arrhythmias, they do not require treatment in the absence of hemodynamic compromise, and they resolve with declining serum Theophylline LP concentrations. Other arrhythmias, especially those associated with hemodynamic compromise, should be treated with antiarrhythmic therapy appropriate for the type of arrhythmia.
  • Gastrointestinal decontamination Oral activated charcoal (0.5 g/kg up to 20 g and repeat at least once 1-2 hours after the first dose) is extremely effective in blocking the absorption of Theophylline LP throughout the gastrointestinal tract, even when administered several hours after ingestion. If the patient is vomiting, the charcoal should be administered through a nasogastric tube or after administration of an antiemetic. Phenothiazine antiemetics such as prochlorperazine or perphenazine should be avoided since they can lower the seizure threshold and frequently cause dystonic reactions. A single dose of sorbitol may be used to promote stooling to facilitate removal of Theophylline LP bound to charcoal from the gastrointestinal tract. Sorbitol, however, should be dosed with caution since it is a potent purgative which can cause profound fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, particularly after multiple doses. Commercially available fixed combinations of liquid charcoal and sorbitol should be avoided in young children and after the first dose in adolescents and adults since they do not allow for individualization of charcoal and sorbitol dosing. Ipecac syrup should be avoided in Theophylline LP overdoses. Although ipecac induces emesis, it does not reduce the absorption of Theophylline LP unless administered within 5 minutes of ingestion and even then is less effective than oral activated charcoal. Moreover, ipecac induced emesis may persist for several hours after a single dose and significantly decrease the retention and the effectiveness of oral activated charcoal.
  • Serum Theophylline LP Concentration Monitoring The serum Theophylline LP concentration should be measured immediately upon presentation, 2-4 hours later, and then at sufficient intervals, e.g., every 4 hours, to guide treatment decisions and to assess the effectiveness of therapy. Serum Theophylline LP concentrations may continue to increase after presentation of the patient for medical care as a result of continued absorption of Theophylline LP from the gastrointestinal tract. Serial monitoring of serum Theophylline LP serum concentrations should be continued until it is clear that the concentration is no longer rising and has returned to non-toxic levels.
  • General Monitoring Procedures Electrocardiographic monitoring should be initiated on presentation and continued until the serum Theophylline LP level has returned to a non-toxic level. Serum electrolytes and glucose should be measured on presentation and at appropriate intervals indicated by clinical circumstances. Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities should be promptly corrected. Monitoring and treatment should be continued until the serum concentration decreases below 20 mcg/mL.
  • Enhance clearance of Theophylline LP Multiple-dose oral activated charcoal (e.g., 0.5 mg/kg up to 20 g, every two hours) increases the clearance of Theophylline LP at least twofold by adsorption of Theophylline LP secreted into gastrointestinal fluids. Charcoal must be retained in, and pass through, the gastrointestinal tract to be effective; emesis should therefore be controlled by administration of appropriate antiemetics. Alternatively, the charcoal can be administered continuously through a nasogastric tube in conjunction with appropriate antiemetics. A single dose of sorbitol may be administered with the activated charcoal to promote stooling to facilitate clearance of the adsorbed Theophylline LP from the gastrointestinal tract. Sorbitol alone does not enhance clearance of Theophylline LP and should be dosed with caution to prevent excessive stooling which can result in severe fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Commercially available fixed combinations of liquid charcoal and sorbitol should be avoided in young children and after the first dose in adolescents and adults since they do not allow for individualization of charcoal and sorbitol dosing. In patients with intractable vomiting, extracorporeal methods of Theophylline LP removal should be instituted.

Specific Recommendations:

Acute Overdose

  • Serum Concentration >20<30 mcg/mL
    • Administer a single dose of oral activated charcoal.
    • Monitor the patient and obtain a serum Theophylline LP concentration in 2-4 hours to insure that the concentration is not increasing.
  • Serum Concentration >30<100 mcg/mL
    • Administer multiple dose oral activated charcoal and measures to control emesis.
    • Monitor the patient and obtain serial Theophylline LP concentrations every 2-4 hours to gauge the effectiveness of therapy and to guide further treatment decisions.
    • Institute extracorporeal removal if emesis, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias cannot be adequately controlled.
  • Serum Concentration >100 mcg/mL
    • Consider prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy.
    • Administer multiple-dose oral activated charcoal and measures to control emesis.
    • Consider extracorporeal removal, even if the patient has not experienced a seizure.
    • Monitor the patient and obtain serial Theophylline LP concentrations every 2-4 hours to gauge the effectiveness of therapy and to guide further treatment decisions.

Chronic Overdosage

  • Serum Concentration >20<30 mcg/mL (with manifestations of Theophylline LP toxicity)
    • Administer a single dose of oral activated charcoal.
    • Monitor the patient and obtain a serum Theophylline LP concentration in 2-4 hours to insure that the concentration is not increasing.
  • Serum Concentration >30 mcg/mL in patients <60 years of age
    • Administer multiple-dose oral activated charcoal and measures to control emesis.
    • Monitor the patient and obtain serial Theophylline LP concentrations every 2-4 hours to gauge the effectiveness of therapy and to guide further treatment decisions.
    • Institute extracorporeal removal if emesis, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias cannot be adequately controlled.
  • Serum Concentration >30 mcg/mL in patients ≥60 years of age.
    • Consider prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy.
    • Administer multiple-dose oral activated charcoal and measures to control emesis.
    • Consider extracorporeal removal even if the patient has not experienced a seizure.
    • Monitor the patient and obtain serial Theophylline LP concentrations every 2-4 hours to gauge the effectiveness of therapy and to guide further treatment decisions.

Extracorporeal Removal:

Increasing the rate of Theophylline LP clearance by extracorporeal methods may rapidly decrease serum concentrations, but the risks of the procedure must be weighed against the potential benefit. Charcoal hemoperfusion is the most effective method of extracorporeal removal, increasing Theophylline LP clearance up to six fold, but serious complications, including hypotension, hypocalcemia, platelet consumption and bleeding diatheses may occur. Hemodialysis is about as efficient as multiple-dose oral activated charcoal and has a lower risk of serious complications than charcoal hemoperfusion. Hemodialysis should be considered as an alternative when charcoal hemoperfusion is not feasible and multiple-dose oral charcoal is ineffective because of intractable emesis. Serum Theophylline LP concentrations may rebound 5-10 mcg/mL after discontinuation of charcoal hemoperfusion or hemodialysis due to redistribution of Theophylline LP from the tissue compartment. Peritoneal dialysis is ineffective for Theophylline LP removal; exchange transfusions in neonates have been minimally effective.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

General Considerations:

Taking Theophylline LP Extended-release Capsules immediately after a high-fat content meal may alter its rate of absorption. However, the differences are usually small and Theophylline LP Extended-release Capsules may normally be administered without regard to meals.

The steady-state peak serum Theophylline LP concentration is a function of the dose, the dosing interval, and the rate of Theophylline LP absorption and clearance in the individual patient. Because of marked individual differences in the rate of Theophylline LP clearance, the dose required to achieve a peak serum Theophylline LP concentration in the 10-20 mcg/mL range varies fourfold among otherwise similar patients in the absence of factors known to alter Theophylline LP clearance (e.g., 400-1600 mg/day in adults <60 years old and 10-36 mg/kg/day in children 1-9 years old). For a given population there is no single Theophylline LP dose that will provide both safe and effective serum concentrations for all patients. Administration of the median Theophylline LP dose required to achieve a therapeutic serum Theophylline LP concentration in a given population may result in either sub-therapeutic or potentially toxic serum Theophylline LP concentrations in individual patients. For example, at a dose of 900 mg/d in adults <60 years or 22 mg/kg/d in children 1-9 years, the steady-state peak serum Theophylline LP concentration will be <10 mcg/mL in about 30% of patients, 10-20 mcg/mL in about 50% and 20-30 mcg/mL in about 20% of patients. The dose of Theophylline LP must be individualized on the basis of peak serum Theophylline LP concentration measurements in order to achieve a dose that will provide maximum potential benefit with minimal risk of adverse effects. Transient caffeine-like adverse effects and excessive serum concentrations in slow metabolizers can be avoided in most patients by starting with a sufficiently low dose and slowly increasing the dose, if judged to be clinically indicated, in small increments. Dose increases should only be made if the previous dosage is well tolerated and at intervals of no less than 3 days to allow serum Theophylline LP concentrations to reach the new steady state. Dosage adjustment should be guided by serum Theophylline LP concentration measurement. Health care providers should instruct patients and care givers to discontinue any dosage that causes adverse effects, to withhold the medication until these symptoms are gone and to then resume therapy at a lower, previously tolerated dosage. If the patient's symptoms are well controlled, there are no apparent adverse effects, and no intervening factors that might alter dosage requirements, serum Theophylline LP concentrations should be monitored at 6 month intervals for rapidly growing children and at yearly intervals for all others. In acutely ill patients, serum Theophylline LP concentrations should be monitored at frequent intervals, e.g., every 24 hours. Theophylline distributes poorly into body fat, therefore, mg/kg dose should be calculated on the basis of ideal body weight. Table V contains Theophylline LP dosing titration schema recommended for patients in various age groups and clinical circumstances. Table VI contains recommendations for Theophylline LP dosage adjustment based upon serum Theophylline LP concentrations. Application of these general dosing recommendations to individual patients must take into account the unique clinical characteristics of each patient. In general, these recommendations should serve as the upper limit for dosage adjustments in order to decrease the risk of potentially serious adverse events associated with unexpected large increases in serum Theophylline LP concentration.

* Patients with more rapid metabolism, clinically identified by higher than average dose requirements, should receive a smaller dose more frequently to prevent breakthrough symptoms resulting from low trough concentrations before the next dose. A reliably absorbed slow-release formulation will decrease fluctuations and permit longer dosing intervals.

A.   Children (1-15 years) and adults (16-60 years) without risk factors for impaired clearance.
Titration StepChildren < 45 kgChildren > 45 kg and adults
1 Starting Dosage12-14 mg/kg/day up to a maximum300 mg/day divided
of 300 mg/day divided Q8-12 hrs*Q8-12 hrs*
2 After 3 days,16 mg/kg/day up to a maximum400 mg/day divided
if tolerated,of 400 mg/day divided Q8-12 hrs*Q8- 12 hrs*
increase dose to:
3 After 3 more days, if20 mg/kg/day up to a maximum600 mg/day divided
tolerated and if needed,of 600 mg/day divided Q8-12 hrs*Q8-12 hrs*
increase dose to:
B.Once-Daily Dosing:
The slow absorption rate of this preparation may allow once-daily administration in adult nonsmokers with appropriate total body clearance and other patients with low dosage requirements. Once-daily dosing should be considered only after the patient has been gradually and satisfactorily treated to therapeutic levels with q12h dosing. Once-daily dosing should be based on the dosing guidelines in Table V and Table VI, and should be initiated at the end of the last q12h dosing interval. The trough concentration (Cmin) obtained following conversion to once-daily dosing may be lower (especially in high clearance patients) and the peak concentration (Cmax) may be higher (especially in low clearance patients) than that obtained with q12h dosing. If symptoms recur, or signs of toxicity appear during the once-daily dosing interval, dosing on the q12h basis should be reinstituted.

It is essential that serum Theophylline LP concentrations be monitored before and after transfer to once-daily dosing. Food and posture, along with changes associated with circadian rhythm, may influence the rate of absorption and/or clearance rates of Theophylline LP from extended-release dosage forms administered at night. The exact relationship of these and other factors to nighttime serum concentrations and the clinical significance of such findings require additional study. Therefore, it is not recommended that Theophylline LP Extended-release Capsules when used as a once-a-day product, be administered at night.

C.Patients With Risk Factors For Impaired Clearance, The Elderly (>60 Years), And Those In Whom It Is Not Feasible To Monitor Serum Theophylline LP Concentrations:
In children 1-15 years of age, the final Theophylline LP dose should not exceed 16 mg/kg/day up to a maximum of 400 mg/day in the presence of risk factors for reduced Theophylline LP clearance or if it is not feasible to monitor serum Theophylline LP concentrations.

In adolescents ≥16 years and adults, including the elderly, the final Theophylline LP dose should not exceed 400 mg/day in the presence of risk factors for reduced Theophylline LP clearance or if it is not feasible to monitor serum Theophylline LP concentrations.

Peak Serum ConcentrationDosage Adjustment
¶ Dose reduction and/or serum Theophylline LP concentration measurement is indicated whenever adverse effects are present, physiologic abnormalities that can reduce Theophylline LP clearance occur (e.g., sustained fever), or a drug that interacts with Theophylline LP is added or discontinued.

<9.9 mcg/mLIf symptoms are not controlled and current dosage is tolerated, increase dose about 25%. Recheck serum concentration after three days for further dosage adjustment.
10 to 14.9 mcg/mLIf symptoms are controlled and current dosage is tolerated, maintain dose and recheck serum concentration at 6-12 month intervals.¶ If symptoms are not controlled and current dosage is tolerated consider adding additional medication(s) to treatment regimen.
15-19.9 mcg/mLConsider 10% decrease in dose to provide greater margin of safety even if current dosage is tolerated.¶
20-24.9 mcg/mLDecrease dose by 25% even if no adverse effects are present. Recheck serum concentration after 3 days to guide further dosage adjustment.
25-30 mcg/mLSkip next dose and decrease subsequent doses at least 25% even if no adverse effects are present. Recheck serum concentration after 3 days to guide further dosage adjustment. If symptomatic, consider whether overdose treatment is indicated.
>30 mcg/mLTreat overdose as indicated. If Theophylline LP is subsequently resumed, decrease dose by at least 50% and recheck serum concentration after 3 days to guide further dosage adjustment.

Sprinkling Contents on Food

Theophylline LP Extended-release Capsules may be administered by carefully opening the capsule and sprinkling the beaded contents on a spoonful of soft food such as applesauce or pudding; the soft food should be swallowed immediately without chewing and followed with a glass of cool water or juice to ensure complete swallowing of the beads. It is recommended that the food used should not be hot and should be soft enough to be swallowed without chewing. Any bead/food mixture should be used immediately and not stored for future use. SUBDIVIDING THE CONTENTS OF A CAPSULE IS NOT RECOMMENDED.

HOW SUPPLIED

Theophylline LP Extended-release Capsules USP are available as 125 mg, 200 mg, or 300 mg and have the following identification characteristics:

Theophylline LP Extended-release 125 mg clear/clear capsule, with off-white seeds, and imprint: IL/3638.

Available in bottles of 100 (NDC 0258-3638-01).Theophylline Extended-release 200 mg clear/opaque white capsule, with off-white seeds, and imprint: IL/3634.

Available in bottles of 100 (NDC 0258-3634-01).Theophylline Extended-release 300 mg opaque white/clear capsule, with off-white seeds, and imprint: IL/3625.

Available in bottles of 100 (NDC 0258-3625-01).

STORAGE: Store at controlled room temperature 15° - 30°C (59°- 86°F).

Dispense in a tight container as defined in the USP.

Keep this and all medications out of the reach of children. Inwood Laboratories, Inc.

Subsidiary of FOREST LABORATORIES, INC.

Inwood, New York 11096MG #9933 (06)

Rev. 03/05

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Theophylline LP pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

infoActive ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Theophylline LP available forms, composition, doses:

infoForm of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Theophylline LP destination | category:

infoDestination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Theophylline LP Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

infoA medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Theophylline LP pharmaceutical companies:

infoPharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."UNIPHYL (THEOPHYLLINE ANHYDROUS) TABLET [PURDUE PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS LP]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."THEOPHYLLINE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "theophylline". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Theophylline LP?

Depending on the reaction of the Theophylline LP after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Theophylline LP not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Theophylline LP addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sDrugs.com conducted a study on Theophylline LP, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Theophylline LP consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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