DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS

Theo Salbid

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Theo Salbid uses

Theo Salbid consists of Albuterol, Theophylline.

Albuterol:


Pharmacological action

Theo Salbid is a beta adrenoagonists with a predominant effect on beta2-adrenergic receptors (localized, particularly in the bronchi, myometrium, blood vessels).

This medication prevents and reduces or eliminates bronchospasm, reduces the resistance in the airways, increases the vital capacity. It prevents the release of histamine, slow reacting substance from mast cells and factors chemotaxis of neutrophils. Compared with other drugs of this group has a less pronounced positive chrono-and inotropic effect on myocardium. It widen of coronary arteries, practically does not reduce blood pressure. Has tocolytic effect, lowering the tone and the contractile activity of the myometrium.

Pharmacokinetics

When using an aerosol there is a rapid absorption of Theo Salbid (Albuterol) (salbutamol) in the blood, but its concentration in plasma when used in recommended doses are very low or below detection limit.

After oral administration Theo Salbid (Albuterol) is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Plasma protein binding is 10%. Metabolised with "first pass" through the liver and possibly in the wall of the intestine, the main metabolite - inactive sulfate conjugate. salbutamol is not metabolised in the lungs, thus its ultimate metabolism and excretion following inhalation depends on the method of application, which defines the relationship between inhaled salbutamol and unintentionally swallowed.

T1/2 from plasma is 2-7 hours. Theo Salbid (Albuterol) (salbutamol) is rapidly excreted in the urine as metabolites and unchanged substance, in small amounts excreted in the feces.

Why is Theo Salbid prescribed?

The prevention and relief of bronchospasm in all forms of bronchial asthma. Reversible airway obstruction in chronic bronchitis and emphysema, bronchial obstruction in children.

Threatening preterm labor with uterine contractions; birth to 37-38 weeks of pregnancy; isthmic-cervical insufficiency, decrease in fetal heart rate, depending on uterine contractions during opening of the cervix and expulsion. As a preventive measure during surgery on the pregnant uterus (the imposition of a circular suture with the lack of internal os of the uterus).

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Dosage and administration

Theo Salbid for oral use as a means of extending the broncho adults and children over 12 years - 2.4 mg 3-4 times / day; if necessary, the dose may be increased to 8 mg 4 times / day. Children aged 6-12 years - 2 mg 3-4 times / day; children 2-6 years - 1-2 mg 3 times / day.

Theo Salbid (Albuterol) for inhalation use dose depends on the applied dosage form, frequency of use depends on the testimony and the clinical situation.

As a tocolytic agent used as IV infusion in dose of 1-2 mg.

Theo Salbid (Albuterol) side effects, adverse reactions

Cardiovascular system: a transient expansion of peripheral blood vessels, a moderate tachycardia.

Central nervous system: headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting.

Metabolic: hypokalaemia.

Allergic reactions: in a few cases - angioedema, allergic reactions in the form of skin rashes, urticaria, hypotension, collapse.

Other: Tremor of hands, inner trembling, tension, rarely - paradoxical bronchoconstriction, muscle cramps.

Contraindications

The threat of miscarriage in I and II trimesters of pregnancy, premature placental abruption, bleeding or toxemia in the III trimester of pregnancy, infancy to 2 years; hypersensitivity to salbutamol.

Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

Category of the fetus by FDA - C.

Theo Salbid is contraindicated in threatened miscarriage in I and II trimesters of pregnancy, premature detachment of the placenta, bleeding, or toxicosis in the III trimester of pregnancy. If necessary, the use of salbutamol during pregnancy should be related to the expected benefits of treatment for the mother and the potential risk to the fetus. Currently is insufficient data on the safety of salbutamol in early pregnancy. salbutamol is excreted in breast milk, so if you need to use during lactation should also assess the potential benefits of treatment for the mother and the potential risk to the child.

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Special instructions

With caution used Theo Salbid (Albuterol) when tachyarrhythmia and other cardiac arrhythmias, arterial hypertension, myocarditis, heart defects, aortic stenosis, diabetes, thyrotoxicosis, glaucoma, acute heart failure (with careful medical supervision).

Increase doses or frequency of receiving Theo Salbid (Albuterol) (salbutamol) should be under the supervision of a doctor. Reducing the interval may be only in exceptional cases and should be strictly justified.

In the application of salbutamol there was a risk of hypokalemia, so the period of treatment in patients with severe asthma should monitor the flow levels of potassium in the blood. The risk of hypokalemia increases with hypoxia.

Precautionary measures

To increase the effectiveness of therapy the patient should be trained in the proper use of inhalers and the beginning of treatment to use an inhaler under the supervision of medical personnel. Receiving high doses of salbutamol in patients with acute asthma leads to the fact that each subsequent attack of breathlessness becomes more intense the previous syndrome. In severe asthma interval between inhalations should be at least 20 minutes. In the absence of the minimal effect of inhalation or the appearance of pronounced tremor, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias continued uncontrolled use of the inhaler is contraindicated, and should appeal to the doctor. The risk of complications increases as in the long duration of treatment, and at a sharp lifting of the drug.

Theo Salbid (Albuterol) drug interactions

With simultaneous use of Theo Salbid (Albuterol) (salbutamol) with not cardioselective beta-blockers may suppress mutual therapeutic effects; with theophylline - increases the risk of tachycardia and arrhythmia, in particular, supraventricular extrasystoles.

With simultaneous use of salbutamol and xanthine derivatives, SCS or diuretics increases the risk of hypokalemia.

Theo Salbid in case of emergency / overdose

Symptoms: tachycardia (heart rate to 200 bpm), ventricular flutter, reducing blood pressure, increased cardiac output, hypoxemia, acidosis, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, muscle tremors, headache, agitation, hallucinations, convulsions.

Treatment: removal of preparation and holding of symptomatic therapy of beta-blockers (selective) in patients with bronchial asthma requires extreme caution because of the risk of severe bronchospasm reaction.

Theophylline:


DESCRIPTION

Theo Salbid (Theophylline)® (theophylline, anhydrous) Tablets in a controlled-release system allows a 24-hour dosing interval for appropriate patients.

Theo Salbid (Theophylline) is structurally classified as a methylxanthine. It occurs as a white, odorless, crystalline powder with a bitter taste. Anhydrous Theo Salbid (Theophylline) has the chemical name 1H-Purine-2,6-dione, 3,7-dihydro-1,3-dimethyl-, and is represented by the following structural formula:

The molecular formula of anhydrous Theo Salbid (Theophylline) is C7H8N4O2 with a molecular weight of 180.17.

Each controlled-release tablet for oral administration, contains 400 or 600 mg of anhydrous Theo Salbid (Theophylline).

Inactive Ingredients: cetostearyl alcohol, hydroxyethyl cellulose, magnesium stearate, povidone and talc.

Theo Salbid (Theophylline) 400 mg

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Theo Salbid has two distinct actions in the airways of patients with reversible obstruction; smooth muscle relaxation (i.e., bronchodilation) and suppression of the response of the airways to stimuli (i.e., non-bronchodilator prophylactic effects). While the mechanisms of action of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) are not known with certainty, studies in animals suggest that bronchodilatation is mediated by the inhibition of two isozymes of phosphodiesterase (PDE III and, to a lesser extent, PDE IV) while non-bronchodilator prophylactic actions are probably mediated through one or more different molecular mechanisms, that do not involve inhibition of PDE III or antagonism of adenosine receptors. Some of the adverse effects associated with Theo Salbid (Theophylline) appear to be mediated by inhibition of PDE III (e.g., hypotension, tachycardia, headache, and emesis) and adenosine receptor antagonism (e.g., alterations in cerebral blood flow).

Theo Salbid (Theophylline) increases the force of contraction of diaphragmatic muscles. This action appears to be due to enhancement of calcium uptake through an adenosine-mediated channel.

Serum Concentration-Effect Relationship

Bronchodilation occurs over the serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration range of 5-20 mcg/mL. Clinically important improvement in symptom control has been found in most studies to require peak serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations >10 mcg/mL, but patients with mild disease may benefit from lower concentrations. At serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations >20 mcg/mL, both the frequency and severity of adverse reactions increase. In general, maintaining peak serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations between 10 and 15 mcg/mL will achieve most of the drug’s potential therapeutic benefit while minimizing the risk of serious adverse events.

Pharmacokinetics

Overview: Theo Salbid is rapidly and completely absorbed after oral administration in solution or immediate-release solid oral dosage form. Theo Salbid (Theophylline) does not undergo any appreciable pre-systemic elimination, distributes freely into fat-free tissues and is extensively metabolized in the liver.

The pharmacokinetics of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) vary widely among similar patients and cannot be predicted by age, sex, body weight or other demographic characteristics. In addition, certain concurrent illnesses and alterations in normal physiology (see Table I ) and co-administration of other drugs (see Table II ) can significantly alter the pharmacokinetic characteristics of Theo Salbid (Theophylline). Within-subject variability in metabolism has also been reported in some studies, especially in acutely ill patients. It is, therefore, recommended that serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations be measured frequently in acutely ill patients (e.g., at 24-hr intervals) and periodically in patients receiving long-term therapy, e.g., at 6-12 month intervals. More frequent measurements should be made in the presence of any condition that may significantly alter Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance (see PRECAUTIONS, Laboratory Tests ).

Population Characteristics Total body clearance*

mean (range)††

(mL/kg/min)

Half-life mean (range)††

(hr)

For various North American patient populations from literature reports. Different rates of elimination and consequent dosage requirements have been observed among other peoples.
*Clearance represents the volume of blood completely cleared of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) by the liver in one minute. Values listed were generally determined at serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations <20 mcg/mL; clearance may decrease and half-life may increase at higher serum concentrations due to non-linear pharmacokinetics.
††Reported range or estimated range (mean ±2 SD) where actual range not reported.
†NR=not reported or not reported in a comparable format.
**Median
Age
Premature neonates
postnatal age 3-15 days 0.29 (0.09-0.49) 30 (17-43)
postnatal age 25-57 days 0.64 (0.04-1.2) 20 (9.4-30.6)
Term infants
postnatal age 1-2 days NR 25.7 (25-26.5)
postnatal age 3-30 weeks NR 11 (6-29)
Children
1-4 years 1.7 (0.5-2.9) 3.4 (1.2-5.6)
4-12 years 1.6 (0.8-2.4) NR
13-15 years 0.9 (0.48-1.3) NR
6-17 years 1.4 (0.2-2.6) 3.7 (1.5-5.9)
Adults (16-60 years)
otherwise healthy
non-smoking asthmatics 0.65 (0.27-1.03) 8.7 (6.1-12.8)
Elderly (>60 years)
non-smokers with normal

cardiac,

liver, and renal function

0.41 (0.21-0.61) 9.8 (1.6-18)
Concurrent illness or altered physiological state
Acute pulmonary edema 0.33** (0.07-2.45) 19** (3.1-82)
COPD->60 years, stable
non-smoker >1 year 0.54 (0.44-0.64) 11 (9.4-12.6)
COPD with cor pulmonale 0.48 (0.08-0.88) NR
Cystic fibrosis (14-28 years) 1.25 (0.31-2.2) 6.0 (1.8-10.2)
Fever associated with
acute viral respiratory illness
(children 9-15 years) NR 7.0 (1.0-13)
Liver disease
cirrhosis 0.31** (0.1-0.7) 32** (10-56)
acute hepatitis 0.35 (0.25-0.45) 19.2 (16.6-21.8)
cholestasis 0.65 (0.25-1.45) 14.4 (5.7-31.8)
Pregnancy
1st trimester NR 8.5 (3.1-13.9)
2nd trimester NR 8.8 (3.8-13.8)
3rd trimester NR 13.0 (8.4-17.6)
Sepsis with multi-organ failure 0.47 (0.19-1.9) 18.8 (6.3-24.1)
Thyroid disease
hypothyroid 0.38 (0.13-0.57) 11.6 (8.2-25)
hyperthyroid 0.8 (0.68-0.97) 4.5 (3.7-5.6)

Note: In addition to the factors listed above, Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance is increased and half-life decreased by low carbohydrate/high protein diets, parenteral nutrition, and daily consumption of charcoal-broiled beef. A high carbohydrate/low protein diet can decrease the clearance and prolong the half-life of Theo Salbid (Theophylline).

Absorption

Theo Salbid (Theophylline)® administered in the fed state is completely absorbed after oral administration.

In a single-dose crossover study, two 400 mg Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets were administered to 19 normal volunteers in the morning or evening immediately following the same standardized meal (769 calories consisting of 97 grams carbohydrates, 33 grams protein and 27 grams fat). There was no evidence of dose dumping nor were there any significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters attributable to time of drug administration. On the morning arm, the pharmacokinetic parameters were AUC=241.9±83.0 mcg hr/mL, Cmax=9.3±2.0 mcg/mL, Tmax=12.8±4.2 hours. On the evening arm, the pharmacokinetic parameters were AUC=219.7±83.0 mcg hr/mL, Cmax=9.2±2.0 mcg/mL, Tmax=12.5±4.2 hours.

A study in which Theo Salbid (Theophylline) 400 mg Tablets were administered to 17 fed adult asthmatics produced similar Theo Salbid (Theophylline) level-time curves when administered in the morning or evening. Serum levels were generally higher in the evening regimen but there were no statistically significant differences between the two regimens.

MORNING EVENING
AUC (0-24 hrs) (mcg hr/mL) 236.0±76.7 256.0±80.4
Cmax (mcg/mL) 14.5±4.1 16.3±4.5
Cmin (mcg/mL) 5.5±2.9 5.0±2.5
Tmax (hours) 8.1±3.7 10.1±4.1

A single-dose study in 15 normal fasting male volunteers whose Theo Salbid (Theophylline) inherent mean elimination half-life was verified by a liquid Theo Salbid (Theophylline) product to be 6.9±2.5 (SD) hours were administered two or three 400 mg Theo Salbid (Theophylline)® Tablets. The relative bioavailability of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) given in the fasting state in comparison to an immediate-release product was 59%. Peak serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) levels occurred at 6.9±5.2 (SD) hours, with a normalized (to 800 mg) peak level being 6.2±2.1 (SD). The apparent elimination half-life for the 400 mg Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets was 17.2±5.8 (SD) hours.

Steady-state pharmacokinetics were determined in a study in 12 fasted patients with chronic reversible obstructive pulmonary disease. All were dosed with two 400 mg Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets given once daily in the morning and a reference controlled-release BID product administered as two 200 mg tablets given 12 hours apart. The pharmacokinetic parameters obtained for Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets given at doses of 800 mg once daily in the morning were virtually identical to the corresponding parameters for the reference drug when given as 400 mg BID. In particular, the AUC, Cmax and Cmin values obtained in this study were as follows:

Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets

800 mg

Q24h±SD

Reference Drug

400 mg

Q12h±SD

AUC, (0-24 hours), mcg hr/mL 288.9±21.5 283.5±38.4
Cmax, mcg/mL 15.7±2.8 15.2±2.1
Cmin, mcg/mL 7.9±1.6 7.8±1.7
Cmax-Cmin diff. 7.7±1.5 7.4±1.5

Single-dose studies in which subjects were fasted for twelve (12) hours prior to and an additional four (4) hours following dosing, demonstrated reduced bioavailability as compared to dosing with food. One single-dose study in 20 normal volunteers dosed with two (2) 400 mg tablets in the morning, compared dosing under these fasting conditions with dosing immediately prior to a standardized breakfast (769 calories, consisting of 97 grams carbohydrates, 33 grams protein and 27 grams fat). Under fed conditions, the pharmacokinetic parameters were: AUC=231.7±92.4 mcg hr/mL, Cmax=8.4±2.6 mcg/mL, Tmax=17.3±6.7 hours. Under fasting conditions, these parameters were AUC=141.2±6.53 mcg hr/mL, Cmax=5.5±1.5 mcg/mL, Tmax=6.5±2.1 hours.

Another single-dose study in 21 normal male volunteers, dosed in the evening, compared fasting to a standardized high calorie, high fat meal (870-1,020 calories, consisting of 33 grams protein, 55-75 grams fat, 58 grams carbohydrates). In the fasting arm subjects received one Theo Salbid (Theophylline)® 400 mg Tablet at 8 p.m. after an eight hour fast followed by a further four hour fast. In the fed arm, subjects were again dosed with one 400 mg Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablet, but at 8 p.m. immediately after the high fat content standardized meal cited above. The pharmacokinetic parameters (normalized to 800 mg) fed were AUC=221.8±40.9 mcg hr/mL, Cmax=10.9±1.7 mcg/mL, Tmax=11.8±2.2 hours. In the fasting arm, the pharmacokinetic parameters (normalized to 800 mg) were AUC=146.4±40.9 mcg hr/mL, Cmax=6.7±1.7 mcg/mL, Tmax=7.3±2.2 hours.

Thus, administration of single Theo Salbid (Theophylline) doses to healthy normal volunteers, under prolonged fasted conditions (at least 10 hour overnight fast before dosing followed by an additional four (4) hour fast after dosing) results in decreased bioavailability. However, there was no failure of this delivery system leading to a sudden and unexpected release of a large quantity of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) with Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets even when they are administered with a high fat, high calorie meal.

Similar studies were conducted with the 600 mg Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablet. A single-dose study in 24 subjects with an established Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance of ≤4 L/hr, compared the pharmacokinetic evaluation of one 600 mg Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablet and one and one-half 400 mg Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets under fed (using a standard high fat diet) and fasted conditions. The results of this 4-way randomized crossover study demonstrate the bioequivalence of the 400 mg and 600 mg Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets. Under fed conditions, the pharmacokinetic results for the one and one-half 400 mg tablets were AUC=214.64±55.88 mcg hr/mL, Cmax=10.58±2.21 mcg/mL and Tmax=9.00±2.64 hours, and for the 600 mg tablet were AUC=207.85±48.9 mcg hr/mL, Cmax=10.39±1.91 mcg/mL and Tmax=9.58±1.86 hours. Under fasted conditions the pharmacokinetic results for the one and one-half 400 mg tablets were AUC=191.85 ±51.1 mcg hr/mL, Cmax= 7.37±1.83 mcg/mL and Tmax=8.08±4.39 hours; and for the 600 mg tablet were AUC=199.39±70.27 mcg hr/mL, Cmax=7.66±2.09 mcg/mL and Tmax=9.67±4.89 hours.

In this study the mean fed/fasted ratios for the one and one-half 400 mg tablets and the 600 mg tablet were about 112% and 104%, respectively.

In another study, the bioavailability of the 600 mg Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablet was examined with morning and evening administration. This single-dose, crossover study in 22 healthy males was conducted under fed (standard high fat diet) conditions. The results demonstrated no clinically significant difference in the bioavailability of the 600 mg Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablet administered in the morning or in the evening. The results were: AUC=233.6±45.1 mcg hr/mL, Cmax=10.6±1.3 mcg/mL and Tmax=12.5±3.2 hours with morning dosing; AUC=209.8±46.2 mcg hr/mL, Cmax=9.7±1.4 mcg/mL and Tmax=13.7±3.3 hours with evening dosing. The PM/AM ratio was 89.3%.

The absorption characteristics of Theo Salbid (Theophylline)® Tablets (theophylline, anhydrous) have been extensively studied. A steady-state crossover bioavailability study in 22 normal males compared two Theo Salbid (Theophylline) 400 mg Tablets administered q24h at 8 a.m. immediately after breakfast with a reference controlled-release Theo Salbid (Theophylline) product administered BID in fed subjects at 8 a.m. immediately after breakfast and 8 p.m. immediately after dinner (769 calories, consisting of 97 grams carbohydrates, 33 grams protein and 27 grams fat).

The pharmacokinetic parameters for Theo Salbid (Theophylline) 400 mg Tablets under these steady-state conditions were AUC=203.3±87.1 mcg hr/mL, Cmax=12.1±3.8 mcg/mL, Cmin=4.50±3.6, Tmax=8.8±4.6 hours. For the reference BID product, the pharmacokinetic parameters were AUC=219.2±88.4 mcg hr/mL, Cmax =11.0±4.1 mcg/mL, Cmin=7.28±3.5, Tmax=6.9±3.4 hours. The mean percent fluctuation [(Cmax-Cmin/Cmin)x100]=169% for the once-daily regimen and 51% for the reference product BID regimen.

The bioavailability of the 600 mg Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablet was further evaluated in a multiple dose, steady-state study in 26 healthy males comparing the 600 mg Tablet to one and one-half 400 mg Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets. All subjects had previously established Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearances of ≤4 L/hr and were dosed once-daily for 6 days under fed conditions. The results showed no clinically significant difference between the 600 mg and one and one-half 400 mg Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablet regimens. Steady-state results were:

600 MG TABLET

FED

600 MG

(ONE+ONE-HALF

400 MG TABLETS)

FED

AUC 0-24hrs (mcg hr/mL) 209.77±51.04 212.32±56.29
Cmax (mcg/mL) 12.91±2.46 13.17±3.11
Cmin (mcg/mL) 5.52±1.79 5.39±1.95
Tmax (hours) 8.62±3.21 7.23±2.35
Percent Fluctuation 183.73±54.02 179.72±28.86

The bioavailability ratio for the 600/400 mg tablets was 98.8%. Thus, under all study conditions the 600 mg tablet is bioequivalent to one and one-half 400 mg tablets.

Studies demonstrate that as long as subjects were either consistently fed or consistently fasted, there is similar bioavailability with once-daily administration of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets whether dosed in the morning or evening.

Distribution

Once Theo Salbid enters the systemic circulation, about 40% is bound to plasma protein, primarily albumin. Unbound Theo Salbid (Theophylline) distributes throughout body water, but distributes poorly into body fat. The apparent volume of distribution of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) is approximately 0.45 L/kg (range 0.3-0.7 L/kg) based on ideal body weight. Theo Salbid (Theophylline) passes freely across the placenta, into breast milk and into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Saliva Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations approximate unbound serum concentrations, but are not reliable for routine or therapeutic monitoring unless special techniques are used. An increase in the volume of distribution of Theo Salbid (Theophylline), primarily due to reduction in plasma protein binding, occurs in premature neonates, patients with hepatic cirrhosis, uncorrected acidemia, the elderly and in women during the third trimester of pregnancy. In such cases, the patient may show signs of toxicity at total (bound+unbound) serum concentrations of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) in the therapeutic range (10-20 mcg/mL) due to elevated concentrations of the pharmacologically active unbound drug. Similarly, a patient with decreased Theo Salbid (Theophylline) binding may have a sub-therapeutic total drug concentration while the pharmacologically active unbound concentration is in the therapeutic range. If only total serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration is measured, this may lead to an unnecessary and potentially dangerous dose increase. In patients with reduced protein binding, measurement of unbound serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration provides a more reliable means of dosage adjustment than measurement of total serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration. Generally, concentrations of unbound Theo Salbid (Theophylline) should be maintained in the range of 6-12 mcg/mL.

Metabolism

Following oral dosing, Theo Salbid (Theophylline) does not undergo any measurable first-pass elimination. In adults and children beyond one year of age, approximately 90% of the dose is metabolized in the liver. Biotransformation takes place through demethylation to 1-methylxanthine and 3-methylxanthine and hydroxylation to 1,3-dimethyluric acid. 1-methylxanthine is further hydroxylated, by xanthine oxidase, to 1-methyluric acid. About 6% of a Theo Salbid (Theophylline) dose is N-methylated to caffeine. Theo Salbid (Theophylline) demethylation to 3-methylxanthine is catalyzed by cytochrome P-450 1A2, while cytochromes P-450 2E1 and P-450 3A3 catalyze the hydroxylation to 1,3-dimethyluric acid. Demethylation to 1-methylxanthine appears to be catalyzed either by cytochrome P-450 1A2 or a closely related cytochrome. In neonates, the N-demethylation pathway is absent while the function of the hydroxylation pathway is markedly deficient. The activity of these pathways slowly increases to maximal levels by one year of age.

Caffeine and 3-methylxanthine are the only Theo Salbid (Theophylline) metabolites with pharmacologic activity. 3-methylxanthine has approximately one tenth the pharmacologic activity of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) and serum concentrations in adults with normal renal function are <1 mcg/mL. In patients with end-stage renal disease, 3-methylxanthine may accumulate to concentrations that approximate the unmetabolized Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration. Caffeine concentrations are usually undetectable in adults regardless of renal function. In neonates, caffeine may accumulate to concentrations that approximate the unmetabolized Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration and thus, exert a pharmacologic effect.

Both the N-demethylation and hydroxylation pathways of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) biotransformation are capacity-limited. Due to the wide intersubject variability of the rate of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) metabolism, non-linearity of elimination may begin in some patients at serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations <10 mcg/mL. Since this non-linearity results in more than proportional changes in serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations with changes in dose, it is advisable to make increases or decreases in dose in small increments in order to achieve desired changes in serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Table VI ). Accurate prediction of dose-dependency of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) metabolism in patients a priori is not possible, but patients with very high initial clearance rates (i.e., low steady-state serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations at above average doses) have the greatest likelihood of experiencing large changes in serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration in response to dosage changes.

Excretion

In neonates, approximately 50% of the Theo Salbid dose is excreted unchanged in the urine. Beyond the first three months of life, approximately 10% of the Theo Salbid (Theophylline) dose is excreted unchanged in the urine. The remainder is excreted in the urine mainly as 1,3-dimethyluric acid (35-40%), 1-methyluric acid (20-25%) and 3-methylxanthine (15-20%). Since little Theo Salbid (Theophylline) is excreted unchanged in the urine and since active metabolites of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) (i.e., caffeine, 3-methylxanthine) do not accumulate to clinically significant levels even in the face of end-stage renal disease, no dosage adjustment for renal insufficiency is necessary in adults and children >3 months of age. In contrast, the large fraction of the Theo Salbid (Theophylline) dose excreted in the urine as unchanged Theo Salbid (Theophylline) and caffeine in neonates requires careful attention to dose reduction and frequent monitoring of serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations in neonates with reduced renal function (See WARNINGS ).

Serum Concentrations at Steady-State

After multiple doses of Theo Salbid (Theophylline), steady-state is reached in 30-65 hours (average 40 hours) in adults. At steady-state, on a dosage regimen with 24-hour intervals, the expected mean trough concentration is approximately 50% of the mean peak concentration, assuming a mean Theo Salbid (Theophylline) half-life of 8 hours. The difference between peak and trough concentrations is larger in patients with more rapid Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance. In these patients administration of Theo Salbid (Theophylline)® may be required more frequently (every 12 hours).

Special Populations


Geriatric

The clearance of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) is decreased by an average of 30% in healthy elderly adults (>60 yrs) compared to healthy young adults. Careful attention to dose reduction and frequent monitoring of serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations are required in elderly patients (see WARNINGS ).

Pediatrics

The clearance of Theo Salbid is very low in neonates (see WARNINGS ). Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance reaches maximal values by one year of age, remains relatively constant until about 9 years of age and then slowly decreases by approximately 50% to adult values at about age 16. Renal excretion of unchanged Theo Salbid (Theophylline) in neonates amounts to about 50% of the dose, compared to about 10% in children older than three months and in adults. Careful attention to dosage selection and monitoring of serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations are required in pediatric patients (see WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).

Gender

Gender differences in Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance are relatively small and unlikely to be of clinical significance. Significant reduction in Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance, however, has been reported in women on the 20th day of the menstrual cycle and during the third trimester of pregnancy.

Race

Pharmacokinetic differences in Theo Salbid clearance due to race have not been studied.

Renal Insufficiency

Only a small fraction, e.g., about 10%, of the administered Theo Salbid (Theophylline) dose is excreted unchanged in the urine of children greater than three months of age and adults. Since little Theo Salbid (Theophylline) is excreted unchanged in the urine and since active metabolites of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) (i.e., caffeine, 3-methylxanthine) do not accumulate to clinically significant levels even in the face of end-stage renal disease, no dosage adjustment for renal insufficiency is necessary in adults and children >3 months of age. In contrast, approximately 50% of the administered Theo Salbid (Theophylline) dose is excreted unchanged in the urine in neonates. Careful attention to dose reduction and frequent monitoring of serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations are required in neonates with decreased renal function (see WARNINGS ).

Hepatic Insufficiency

Theo Salbid clearance is decreased by 50% or more in patients with hepatic insufficiency (e.g., cirrhosis, acute hepatitis, cholestasis). Careful attention to dose reduction and frequent monitoring of serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations are required in patients with reduced hepatic function (see WARNINGS ).

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)

Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance is decreased by 50% or more in patients with CHF. The extent of reduction in Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance in patients with CHF appears to be directly correlated to the severity of the cardiac disease. Since Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance is independent of liver blood flow, the reduction in clearance appears to be due to impaired hepatocyte function rather than reduced perfusion. Careful attention to dose reduction and frequent monitoring of serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations are required in patients with CHF (see WARNINGS ).

Smokers

Tobacco and marijuana smoking appears to increase the clearance of Theo Salbid by induction of metabolic pathways. Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance has been shown to increase by approximately 50% in young adult tobacco smokers and by approximately 80% in elderly tobacco smokers compared to non-smoking subjects. Passive smoke exposure has also been shown to increase Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance by up to 50%. Abstinence from tobacco smoking for one week causes a reduction of approximately 40% in Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance. Careful attention to dose reduction and frequent monitoring of serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations are required in patients who stop smoking (see WARNINGS ). Use of nicotine gum has been shown to have no effect on Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance.

Fever

Fever, regardless of its underlying cause, can decrease the clearance of Theo Salbid (Theophylline). The magnitude and duration of the fever appear to be directly correlated to the degree of decrease of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance. Precise data are lacking, but a temperature of 39°C (102°F) for at least 24 hours is probably required to produce a clinically significant increase in serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations. Children with rapid rates of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance (i.e., those who require a dose that is substantially larger than average [e.g., >22 mg/kg/day] to achieve a therapeutic peak serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration when afebrile) may be at greater risk of toxic effects from decreased clearance during sustained fever. Careful attention to dose reduction and frequent monitoring of serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations are required in patients with sustained fever (see WARNINGS ).

Miscellaneous

Other factors associated with decreased Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance include the third trimester of pregnancy, sepsis with multiple organ failure, and hypothyroidism. Careful attention to dose reduction and frequent monitoring of serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations are required in patients with any of these conditions (see WARNINGS ). Other factors associated with increased Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance include hyperthyroidism and cystic fibrosis.

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CLINICAL STUDIES

In patients with chronic asthma, including patients with severe asthma requiring inhaled corticosteroids or alternate-day oral corticosteroids, many clinical studies have shown that Theo Salbid (Theophylline) decreases the frequency and severity of symptoms, including nocturnal exacerbations, and decreases the “as needed” use of inhaled beta-2 agonists. Theo Salbid (Theophylline) has also been shown to reduce the need for short courses of daily oral prednisone to relieve exacerbations of airway obstruction that are unresponsive to bronchodilators in asthmatics.

In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), clinical studies have shown that Theo Salbid (Theophylline) decreases dyspnea, air trapping, the work of breathing, and improves contractility of diaphragmatic muscles with little or no improvement in pulmonary function measurements.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Theo Salbid (Theophylline) is indicated for the treatment of the symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction associated with chronic asthma and other chronic lung diseases, e.g., emphysema and chronic bronchitis.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Theo Salbid (Theophylline)® is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to Theo Salbid (Theophylline) or other components in the product.

WARNINGS

Concurrent Illness

Theo Salbid should be used with extreme caution in patients with the following clinical conditions due to the increased risk of exacerbation of the concurrent condition:

Active peptic ulcer disease

Seizure disorders

Cardiac arrhythmias (not including bradyarrhythmias)

Conditions That Reduce Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Clearance

There are several readily identifiable causes of reduced Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance. If the total daily dose is not appropriately reduced in the presence of these risk factors, severe and potentially fatal Theo Salbid (Theophylline) toxicity can occur . Careful consideration must be given to the benefits and risks of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) use and the need for more intensive monitoring of serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations in patients with the following risk factors:

Age

  • Neonates (term and premature)
  • Children <1 year
  • Elderly (>60 years)

Concurrent Diseases

  • Acute pulmonary edema
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Cor-pulmonale
  • Fever; ≥102° for 24 hours or more; or lesser temperature elevations for longer periods
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Liver disease; cirrhosis, acute hepatitis
  • Reduced renal function in infants <3 months of age
  • Sepsis with multi-organ failure
  • Shock

Cessation of Smoking

Drug Interactions

Adding a drug that inhibits Theo Salbid metabolism (e.g., cimetidine, erythromycin, tacrine) or stopping a concurrently administered drug that enhances Theo Salbid (Theophylline) metabolism (e.g., carbamazepine, rifampin). (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions, Table II ).

When Signs or Symptoms of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Toxicity Are Present

Whenever a patient receiving Theo Salbid (Theophylline) develops nausea or vomiting, particularly repetitive vomiting, or other signs or symptoms consistent with Theo Salbid (Theophylline) toxicity (even if another cause may be suspected), additional doses of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) should be withheld and a serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration measured immediately . Patients should be instructed not to continue any dosage that causes adverse effects and to withhold subsequent doses until the symptoms have resolved, at which time the healthcare professional may instruct the patient to resume the drug at a lower dosage (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Dosing Guidelines, Table VI ).

Dosage Increases

Increases in the dose of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) should not be made in response to an acute exacerbation of symptoms of chronic lung disease since Theo Salbid (Theophylline) provides little added benefit to inhaled beta2-selective agonists and systemically administered corticosteroids in this circumstance and increases the risk of adverse effects. A peak steady-state serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration should be measured before increasing the dose in response to persistent chronic symptoms to ascertain whether an increase in dose is safe. Before increasing the Theo Salbid (Theophylline) dose on the basis of a low serum concentration, the healthcare professional should consider whether the blood sample was obtained at an appropriate time in relationship to the dose and whether the patient has adhered to the prescribed regimen (see PRECAUTIONS, Laboratory Tests ).

As the rate of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance may be dose-dependent (i.e., steady-state serum concentrations may increase disproportionately to the increase in dose), an increase in dose based upon a sub-therapeutic serum concentration measurement should be conservative. In general, limiting dose increases to about 25% of the previous total daily dose will reduce the risk of unintended excessive increases in serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Table VI ).

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PRECAUTIONS

General

Careful consideration of the various interacting drugs and physiologic conditions that can alter Theo Salbid clearance and require dosage adjustment should occur prior to initiation of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) therapy, prior to increases in Theo Salbid (Theophylline) dose, and during follow up (see WARNINGS ). The dose of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) selected for initiation of therapy should be low and, if tolerated , increased slowly over a period of a week or longer with the final dose guided by monitoring serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations and the patient’s clinical response (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION , Table V).

Monitoring Serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Concentrations

Serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration measurements are readily available and should be used to determine whether the dosage is appropriate. Specifically, the serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration should be measured as follows:

  • When initiating therapy to guide final dosage adjustment after titration.
  • Before making a dose increase to determine whether the serum concentration is sub-therapeutic in a patient who continues to be symptomatic.
  • Whenever signs or symptoms of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) toxicity are present.
  • Whenever there is a new illness, worsening of a chronic illness or a change in the patient’s treatment regimen that may alter Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance (e.g., fever >102°F sustained for ≥24 hours, hepatitis, or drugs listed in Table II are added or discontinued).

To guide a dose increase, the blood sample should be obtained at the time of the expected peak serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration; 12 hours after an evening dose or 9 hours after a morning dose at steady-state. For most patients, steady-state will be reached after 3 days of dosing when no doses have been missed, no extra doses have been added, and none of the doses have been taken at unequal intervals. A trough concentration (i.e., at the end of the dosing interval) provides no additional useful information and may lead to an inappropriate dose increase since the peak serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration can be two or more times greater than the trough concentration with an immediate-release formulation. If the serum sample is drawn more than 12 hours after the evening dose, or more than 9 hours after a morning dose, the results must be interpreted with caution since the concentration may not be reflective of the peak concentration. In contrast, when signs or symptoms of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) toxicity are present, a serum sample should be obtained as soon as possible, analyzed immediately, and the result reported to the healthcare professional without delay. In patients in whom decreased serum protein binding is suspected (e.g., cirrhosis, women during the third trimester of pregnancy), the concentration of unbound Theo Salbid (Theophylline) should be measured and the dosage adjusted to achieve an unbound concentration of 6-12 mcg/mL.

Saliva concentrations of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) cannot be used reliably to adjust dosage without special techniques.

Effects on Laboratory Tests

As a result of its pharmacological effects, Theo Salbid at serum concentrations within the 10-20 mcg/mL range modestly increases plasma glucose (from a mean of 88 mg% to 98 mg%), uric acid (from a mean of 4 mg/dL to 6 mg/dL), free fatty acids (from a mean of 451 µEq/L to 800 µEq/L, total cholesterol (from a mean of 140 vs 160 mg/dL), HDL (from a mean of 36 to 50 mg/dL), HDL/LDL ratio (from a mean of 0.5 to 0.7), and urinary free cortisol excretion (from a mean of 44 to 63 mcg/24 hr). Theo Salbid (Theophylline) at serum concentrations within the 10-20 mcg/mL range may also transiently decrease serum concentrations of triiodothyronine (144 before, 131 after one week and 142 ng/dL after 4 weeks of Theo Salbid (Theophylline)). The clinical importance of these changes should be weighed against the potential therapeutic benefit of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) in individual patients.

Information for Patients

The patient (or parent/caregiver) should be instructed to seek medical advice whenever nausea, vomiting, persistent headache, insomnia or rapid heartbeat occurs during treatment with Theo Salbid (Theophylline), even if another cause is suspected. The patient should be instructed to contact their healthcare professional if they develop a new illness, especially if accompanied by a persistent fever, if they experience worsening of a chronic illness, if they start or stop smoking cigarettes or marijuana, or if another healthcare professional adds a new medication or discontinues a previously prescribed medication. Patients should be informed that Theo Salbid (Theophylline) interacts with a wide variety of drugs. The dietary supplement St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) should not be taken at the same time as Theo Salbid (Theophylline), since it may result in decreased Theo Salbid (Theophylline) levels. If patients are already taking St. John’s Wort and Theo Salbid (Theophylline) together, they should consult their healthcare professional before stopping the St. John’s Wort, since their Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations may rise when this is done, resulting in toxicity. Patients should be instructed to inform all healthcare professionals involved in their care that they are taking Theo Salbid (Theophylline), especially when a medication is being added or deleted from their treatment. Patients should be instructed to not alter the dose, timing of the dose, or frequency of administration without first consulting their healthcare professional. If a dose is missed, the patient should be instructed to take the next dose at the usually scheduled time and to not attempt to make up for the missed dose.

Theo Salbid (Theophylline)® Tablets can be taken once a day in the morning or evening. It is recommended that Theo Salbid (Theophylline) be taken with meals. Patients should be advised that if they choose to take Theo Salbid (Theophylline) with food it should be taken consistently with food and if they take it in a fasted condition it should routinely be taken fasted. It is important that the product whenever dosed be dosed consistently with or without food.

Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets are not to be chewed or crushed because it may lead to a rapid release of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) with the potential for toxicity. The scored tablet may be split. Patients receiving Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets may pass an intact matrix tablet in the stool or via colostomy. These matrix tablets usually contain little or no residual Theo Salbid (Theophylline).

Drug Interactions

Theo Salbid interacts with a wide variety of drugs. The interaction may be pharmacodynamic, i.e., alterations in the therapeutic response to Theo Salbid (Theophylline) or another drug or occurrence of adverse effects without a change in serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration. More frequently, however, the interaction is pharmacokinetic, i.e., the rate of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance is altered by another drug resulting in increased or decreased serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations. Theo Salbid (Theophylline) only rarely alters the pharmacokinetics of other drugs.

The drugs listed in Table II have the potential to produce clinically significant pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic interactions with Theo Salbid (Theophylline). The information in the “Effect” column of Table II assumes that the interacting drug is being added to a steady-state Theo Salbid (Theophylline) regimen. If Theo Salbid (Theophylline) is being initiated in a patient who is already taking a drug that inhibits Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance (e.g., cimetidine, erythromycin), the dose of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) required to achieve a therapeutic serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration will be smaller. Conversely, if Theo Salbid (Theophylline) is being initiated in a patient who is already taking a drug that enhances Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance (e.g., rifampin), the dose of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) required to achieve a therapeutic serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration will be larger. Discontinuation of a concomitant drug that increases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance will result in accumulation of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) to potentially toxic levels, unless the Theo Salbid (Theophylline) dose is appropriately reduced. Discontinuation of a concomitant drug that inhibits Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance will result in decreased serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations, unless the Theo Salbid (Theophylline) dose is appropriately increased.

The drugs listed in Table III have either been documented not to interact with Theo Salbid (Theophylline) or do not produce a clinically significant interaction (i.e., <15% change in Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance).

The listing of drugs in Tables II and III are current as of February 9, 1995. New interactions are continuously being reported for Theo Salbid (Theophylline), especially with new chemical entities. The healthcare professional should not assume that a drug does not interact with Theo Salbid (Theophylline) if it is not listed in Table II. Before addition of a newly available drug in a patient receiving Theo Salbid (Theophylline), the package insert of the new drug and/or the medical literature should be consulted to determine if an interaction between the new drug and Theo Salbid (Theophylline) has been reported.

Drug Type of Interaction Effect**
*Refer to PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions for further information regarding table.
**Average effect on steady-state Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration or other clinical effect for pharmacologic interactions. Individual patients may experience larger changes in serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration than the value listed.
Adenosine Theo Salbid (Theophylline) blocks adenosine receptors. Higher doses of adenosine may be required to achieve desired effect.
Alcohol A single large dose of alcohol (3 mL/kg of whiskey) decreases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance for up to 24 hours. 30% increase
Allopurinol Decreases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance at allopurinol doses ≥600 mg/day. 25% increase
Aminoglutethimide Increases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance by induction of microsomal enzyme activity. 25% decrease
Carbamazepine Similar to aminoglutethimide. 30% decrease
Cimetidine Decreases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance by inhibiting cytochrome P450 1A2. 70% increase
Ciprofloxacin Similar to cimetidine. 40% increase
Clarithromycin Similar to erythromycin. 25% increase
Diazepam Benzodiazepines increase CNS concentrations of adenosine, a potent CNS depressant, while Theo Salbid (Theophylline) blocks adenosine receptors. Larger diazepam doses may be required to produce desired level of sedation. Discontinuation of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) without reduction of diazepam dose may result in respiratory depression.
Disulfiram Decreases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance by inhibiting hydroxylation and demethylation. 50% increase
Enoxacin Similar to cimetidine. 300% increase
Ephedrine Synergistic CNS effects. Increased frequency of nausea, nervousness, and insomnia.
Erythromycin Erythromycin metabolite decreases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance by inhibiting cytochrome P450 3A3. 35% increase. Erythromycin steady-state serum concentrations decrease by a similar amount.
Estrogen Estrogen containing oral contraceptives decrease Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance in a dose-dependent fashion. The effect of progesterone on Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance is unknown. 30% increase
Flurazepam Similar to diazepam. Similar to diazepam.
Fluvoxamine Similar to cimetidine. Similar to cimetidine.
Halothane Halothane sensitizes the myocardium to catecholamines, Theo Salbid (Theophylline) increases release of endogenous catecholamines. Increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias.
Interferon, human recombinant alpha-A Decreases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance. 100% increase
Isoproterenol (IV) Increases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance. 20% decrease
Ketamine Pharmacologic May lower Theo Salbid (Theophylline) seizure threshold.
Lithium Theo Salbid (Theophylline) increases renal lithium clearance. Lithium dose required to achieve a therapeutic serum concentration increased an average of 60%.
Lorazepam Similar to diazepam. Similar to diazepam.
Methotrexate (MTX) Decreases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance. 20% increase after low dose MTX, higher dose MTX may have a greater effect.
Mexiletine Similar to disulfiram. 80% increase
Midazolam Similar to diazepam. Similar to diazepam.
Moricizine Increases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance. 25% decrease
Pancuronium Theo Salbid (Theophylline) may antagonize non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking effects; possibly due to phosphodiesterase inhibition. Larger dose of pancuronium may be required to achieve neuromuscular blockade.
Pentoxifylline Decreases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance. 30% increase
Phenobarbital (PB) Similar to aminoglutethimide. 25% decrease after two weeks of concurrent PB.
Phenytoin Phenytoin increases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance by increasing microsomal enzyme activity. Theo Salbid (Theophylline) decreases phenytoin absorption. Serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) and phenytoin concentrations decrease about 40%.
Propafenone Decreases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance and pharmacologic interaction. 40% increase. Beta-2 blocking effect may decrease efficacy of Theo Salbid (Theophylline).
Propranolol Similar to cimetidine and pharmacologic interaction. 100% increase. Beta-2 blocking effect may decrease efficacy of Theo Salbid (Theophylline).
Rifampin Increases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance by increasing cytochrome P450 1A2 and 3A3 activity. 20-40% decrease
St. John’s Wort (Hypericum Perforatum) Decrease in Theo Salbid (Theophylline) plasma concentrations. Higher doses of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) may be required to achieve desired effect. Stopping St. John’s Wort may result in Theo Salbid (Theophylline) toxicity.
Sulfinpyrazone Increases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance by increasing demethylation and hydroxylation. Decreases renal clearance of Theo Salbid (Theophylline). 20% decrease
Tacrine Similar to cimetidine, also increases renal clearance of Theo Salbid (Theophylline). 90% increase
Thiabendazole Decreases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance. 190% increase
Ticlopidine Decreases Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance. 60% increase
Troleandomycin Similar to erythromycin. 33-100% increase depending on troleandomycin dose.
Verapamil Similar to disulfiram. 20% increase
*Refer to PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions for information regarding table.
albuterol, systemic and inhaled mebendazole
amoxicillin medroxyprogesterone
ampicillin, with or without

sulbactam

methylprednisolone

metronidazole

atenolol metoprolol
azithromycin nadolol
caffeine, dietary ingestion nifedipine
cefaclor nizatidine
co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim and

sulfamethoxazole)

norfloxacin

ofloxacin

diltiazem omeprazole
dirithromycin prednisone, prednisolone
enflurane ranitidine
famotidine rifabutin
felodipine roxithromycin
finasteride sorbitol (purgative doses do not inhibit
hydrocortisone Theo Salbid (Theophylline) absorption)
isoflurane sucralfate
isoniazid terbutaline, systemic
isradipine terfenadine
influenza vaccine tetracycline
ketoconazole tocainide
lomefloxacin

Drug-Food Interactions

The bioavailability of Theo Salbid (Theophylline)® Tablets (theophylline, anhydrous) has been studied with co-administration of food. In three single-dose studies, subjects given Theo Salbid (Theophylline) 400 mg or 600 mg Tablets with a standardized high-fat meal were compared to fasted conditions. Under fed conditions, the peak plasma concentration and bioavailability were increased; however, a precipitous increase in the rate and extent of absorption was not evident (see Pharmacokinetics , Absorption). The increased peak and extent of absorption under fed conditions suggests that dosing should be ideally administered consistently either with or without food.

The Effect of Other Drugs on Theo Salbid Serum Concentration Measurements

Most serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) assays in clinical use are immunoassays which are specific for Theo Salbid (Theophylline). Other xanthines such as caffeine, dyphylline, and pentoxifylline are not detected by these assays. Some drugs (e.g., cefazolin, cephalothin), however, may interfere with certain HPLC techniques. Caffeine and xanthine metabolites in neonates or patients with renal dysfunction may cause the reading from some dry reagent office methods to be higher than the actual serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility

Long term carcinogenicity studies have been carried out in mice and rats (oral doses 5-75 mg/kg). Results are pending.

Theo Salbid (Theophylline) has been studied in Ames salmonella, in vivo and in vitro cytogenetics, micronucleus and Chinese hamster ovary test systems and has not been shown to be genotoxic.

In a 14 week continuous breeding study, Theo Salbid (Theophylline), administered to mating pairs of B6C3F1 mice at oral doses of 120, 270 and 500 mg/kg (approximately 1.0-3.0 times the human dose on a mg/m2 basis) impaired fertility, as evidenced by decreases in the number of live pups per litter, decreases in the mean number of litters per fertile pair, and increases in the gestation period at the high dose as well as decreases in the proportion of pups born alive at the mid and high dose. In 13 week toxicity studies, Theo Salbid (Theophylline) was administered to F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice at oral doses of 40-300 mg/kg (approximately 2.0 times the human dose on a mg/m2 basis). At the high dose, systemic toxicity was observed in both species including decreases in testicular weight.

Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects: Category C

In studies in which pregnant mice, rats and rabbits were dosed during the period of organogenesis, Theo Salbid (Theophylline) produced teratogenic effects.

In studies with mice, a single intraperitoneal dose at and above 100 mg/kg (approximately equal to the maximum recommended oral dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis) during organogenesis produced cleft palate and digital abnormalities. Micromelia, micrognathia, clubfoot, subcutaneous hematoma, open eyelids, and embryolethality were observed at doses that are approximately 2 times the maximum recommended oral dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis.

In a study with rats dosed from conception through organogenesis, an oral dose of 150 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times the maximum recommended oral dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis) produced digital abnormalities. Embryolethality was observed with a subcutaneous dose of 200 mg/kg/day (approximately 4 times the maximum recommended oral dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis).

In a study in which pregnant rabbits were dosed throughout organogenesis, an intravenous dose of 60 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times the maximum recommended oral dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis), which caused the death of one doe and clinical signs in others, produced cleft palate and was embryolethal. Doses at and above 15 mg/kg/day (less than the maximum recommended oral dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis) increased the incidence of skeletal variations.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Theo Salbid (Theophylline) should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nursing Mothers

Theo Salbid is excreted into breast milk and may cause irritability or other signs of mild toxicity in nursing human infants. The concentration of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) in breast milk is about equivalent to the maternal serum concentration. An infant ingesting a liter of breast milk containing 10-20 mcg/mL of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) per day is likely to receive 10-20 mg of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) per day. Serious adverse effects in the infant are unlikely unless the mother has toxic serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations.

Pediatric Use

Theo Salbid (Theophylline) is safe and effective for the approved indications in pediatric patients. The maintenance dose of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) must be selected with caution in pediatric patients since the rate of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance is highly variable across the pediatric age range (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, Table I, WARNINGS, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Table V ).

Geriatric Use

Elderly patients are at a significantly greater risk of experiencing serious toxicity from Theo Salbid (Theophylline) than younger patients due to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes associated with aging. The clearance of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) is decreased by an average of 30% in healthy elderly adults (>60 yrs) compared to healthy young adults. Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance may be further reduced by concomitant diseases prevalent in the elderly, which further impair clearance of this drug and have the potential to increase serum levels and potential toxicity. These conditions include impaired renal function, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, hepatic disease and an increased prevalence of use of certain medications (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions ) with the potential for pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction. Protein binding may be decreased in the elderly resulting in an increased proportion of the total serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration in the pharmacologically active unbound form. Elderly patients also appear to be more sensitive to the toxic effects of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) after chronic overdosage than younger patients. Careful attention to dose reduction and frequent monitoring of serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations are required in elderly patients (see PRECAUTIONS, Monitoring Serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Concentrations, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). The maximum daily dose of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) in patients greater than 60 years of age ordinarily should not exceed 400 mg/day unless the patient continues to be symptomatic and the peak steady-state serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration is <10 mcg/mL (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Theo Salbid (Theophylline) doses greater than 400 mg/d should be prescribed with caution in elderly patients. Theo Salbid (Theophylline) should be prescribed with caution in elderly male patients with pre-existing partial outflow obstruction, such as prostatic enlargement, due to the risk of urinary retention.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Adverse reactions associated with Theo Salbid (Theophylline) are generally mild when peak serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations are <20 mcg/mL and mainly consist of transient caffeine-like adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, headache, and insomnia. When peak serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations exceed 20 mcg/mL, however, Theo Salbid (Theophylline) produces a wide range of adverse reactions including persistent vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, and intractable seizures which can be lethal (see OVERDOSAGE ). The transient caffeine-like adverse reactions occur in about 50% of patients when Theo Salbid (Theophylline) therapy is initiated at doses higher than recommended initial doses (e.g., >300 mg/day in adults and >12 mg/kg/day in children beyond >1 year of age). During the initiation of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) therapy, caffeine-like adverse effects may transiently alter patient behavior, especially in school age children, but this response rarely persists. Initiation of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) therapy at a low dose with subsequent slow titration to a predetermined age-related maximum dose will significantly reduce the frequency of these transient adverse effects (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Table V ). In a small percentage of patients (<3% of children and <10% of adults) the caffeine-like adverse effects persist during maintenance therapy, even at peak serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations within the therapeutic range (i.e., 10-20 mcg/mL). Dosage reduction may alleviate the caffeine-like adverse effects in these patients, however, persistent adverse effects should result in a reevaluation of the need for continued Theo Salbid (Theophylline) therapy and the potential therapeutic benefit of alternative treatment.

Other adverse reactions that have been reported at serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations <20 mcg/mL include abdominal pain, agitation, anaphylactic reaction, anaphylactoid reaction, anxiety, cardiac arrhythmias, diarrhea, dizziness, fine skeletal muscle tremors, gastric irritation, gastroesophageal reflux, hyperuricemia, irritability, palpitations, pruritus, rash, sinus tachycardia, restlessness, transient diuresis, urinary retention and urticaria. In patients with hypoxia secondary to COPD, multifocal atrial tachycardia and flutter have been reported at serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations ≥15 mcg/mL. There have been a few isolated reports of seizures at serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations <20 mcg/mL in patients with an underlying neurological disease or in elderly patients. The occurrence of seizures in elderly patients with serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations <20 mcg/mL may be secondary to decreased protein binding resulting in a larger proportion of the total serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration in the pharmacologically active unbound form. The clinical characteristics of the seizures reported in patients with serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations <20 mcg/mL have generally been milder than seizures associated with excessive serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations resulting from an overdose (i.e., they have generally been transient, often stopped without anticonvulsant therapy, and did not result in neurological residua).

Percentage of patients reported with sign or symptom
Sign/Symptom Acute Overdose Chronic Overdosage
(Large Single Ingestion) (Multiple Excessive Doses)
Study 1 Study 2 Study 1 Study 2
(n=157) (n=14) (n=92) (n=102)
*These data are derived from two studies in patients with serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations >30 mcg/mL. In the first study (Study #1-Shanon, Ann Intern Med 1993;119:1161-67), data were prospectively collected from 249 consecutive cases of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) toxicity referred to a regional poison center for consultation. In the second study (Study #2-Sessler, Am J Med 1990;88:567-76), data were retrospectively collected from 116 cases with serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations >30 mcg/mL among 6000 blood samples obtained for measurement of serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations in three emergency departments. Differences in the incidence of manifestations of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) toxicity between the two studies may reflect sample selection as a result of study design (e.g., in Study #1, 48% of the patients had acute intoxications versus only 10% in Study #2) and different methods of reporting results.
**NR=Not reported in a comparable manner.
Asymptomatic NR** 0 NR** 6
Gastrointestinal
Vomiting 73 93 30 61
Abdominal Pain NR** 21 NR** 12
Diarrhea NR** 0 NR** 14
Hematemesis NR** 0 NR** 2
Metabolic/Other
Hypokalemia 85 79 44 43
Hyperglycemia 98 NR** 18 NR**
Acid/base disturbance 34 21 9 5
Rhabdomyolysis NR** 7 NR** 0
Cardiovascular
Sinus tachycardia 100 86 100 62
Other supraventricular
tachycardias 2 21 12 14
Ventricular premature beats 3 21 10 19
Atrial fibrillation or flutter 1 NR** 12 NR**
Multifocal atrial tachycardia 0 NR** 2 NR**
Ventricular arrhythmias with

hemodynamic instability

7 14 40 0
Hypotension/shock NR** 21 NR** 8
Neurologic
Nervousness NR** 64 NR** 21
Tremors 38 29 16 14
Disorientation NR** 7 NR** 11
Seizures 5 14 14 5
Death 3 21 10 4

OVERDOSAGE

General

The chronicity and pattern of Theo Salbid overdosage significantly influences clinical manifestations of toxicity, management and outcome. There are two common presentations: (1) acute overdose, i.e., ingestion of a single large excessive dose (>10 mg/kg), as occurs in the context of an attempted suicide or isolated medication error, and (2) chronic overdosage, i.e., ingestion of repeated doses that are excessive for the patient’s rate of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance. The most common causes of chronic Theo Salbid (Theophylline) overdosage include patient or caregiver error in dosing, healthcare professional prescribing of an excessive dose or a normal dose in the presence of factors known to decrease the rate of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance, and increasing the dose in response to an exacerbation of symptoms without first measuring the serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration to determine whether a dose increase is safe.

Severe toxicity from Theo Salbid (Theophylline) overdose is a relatively rare event. In one health maintenance organization, the frequency of hospital admissions for chronic overdosage of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) was about 1 per 1000 person-years exposure. In another study, among 6000 blood samples obtained for measurement of serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration, for any reason, from patients treated in an emergency department, 7% were in the 20-30 mcg/mL range and 3% were >30 mcg/mL. Approximately two-thirds of the patients with serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations in the 20-30 mcg/mL range had one or more manifestations of toxicity while >90% of patients with serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations >30 mcg/mL were clinically intoxicated. Similarly, in other reports, serious toxicity from Theo Salbid (Theophylline) is seen principally at serum concentrations >30 mcg/mL.

Several studies have described the clinical manifestations of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) overdose and attempted to determine the factors that predict life-threatening toxicity. In general, patients who experience an acute overdose are less likely to experience seizures than patients who have experienced a chronic overdosage, unless the peak serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration is >100 mcg/mL. After a chronic overdosage, generalized seizures, life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, and death may occur at serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations >30 mcg/mL. The severity of toxicity after chronic overdosage is more strongly correlated with the patient’s age than the peak serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration; patients >60 years are at the greatest risk for severe toxicity and mortality after a chronic overdosage. Pre-existing or concurrent disease may also significantly increase the susceptibility of a patient to a particular toxic manifestation, e.g., patients with neurologic disorders have an increased risk of seizures and patients with cardiac disease have an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias for a given serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration compared to patients without the underlying disease.

The frequency of various reported manifestations of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) overdose according to the mode of overdose are listed in Table IV.

Other manifestations of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) toxicity include increases in serum calcium, creatine kinase, myoglobin and leukocyte count, decreases in serum phosphate and magnesium, acute myocardial infarction, and urinary retention in men with obstructive uropathy.

Seizures associated with serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations >30 mcg/mL are often resistant to anticonvulsant therapy and may result in irreversible brain injury if not rapidly controlled. Death from Theo Salbid (Theophylline) toxicity is most often secondary to cardiorespiratory arrest and/or hypoxic encephalopathy following prolonged generalized seizures or intractable cardiac arrhythmias causing hemodynamic compromise.

Overdose Management

General Recommendations for Patients with Symptoms of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Overdose or Serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Concentrations >30 mcg/mL (Note: Serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations may continue to increase after presentation of the patient for medical care.)

  • While simultaneously instituting treatment, contact a regional poison center to obtain updated information and advice on individualizing the recommendations that follow.
  • Institute supportive care, including establishment of intravenous access, maintenance of the airway, and electrocardiographic monitoring.
  • Treatment of seizures Because of the high morbidity and mortality associated with theophylline-induced seizures, treatment should be rapid and aggressive. Anticonvulsant therapy should be initiated with an intravenous benzodiazepine, e.g., diazepam, in increments of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg every 1-3 minutes until seizures are terminated. Repetitive seizures should be treated with a loading dose of phenobarbital (20 mg/kg infused over 30-60 minutes). Case reports of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) overdose in humans and animal studies suggest that phenytoin is ineffective in terminating theophylline-induced seizures. The doses of benzodiazepines and phenobarbital required to terminate theophylline-induced seizures are close to the doses that may cause severe respiratory depression or respiratory arrest; the healthcare professional should therefore be prepared to provide assisted ventilation. Elderly patients and patients with COPD may be more susceptible to the respiratory depressant effects of anticonvulsants. Barbiturate-induced coma or administration of general anesthesia may be required to terminate repetitive seizures or status epilepticus. General anesthesia should be used with caution in patients with Theo Salbid (Theophylline) overdose because fluorinated volatile anesthetics may sensitize the myocardium to endogenous catecholamines released by Theo Salbid (Theophylline). Enflurane appears less likely to be associated with this effect than halothane and may, therefore, be safer. Neuromuscular blocking agents alone should not be used to terminate seizures since they abolish the musculoskeletal manifestations without terminating seizure activity in the brain.
  • Anticipate Need for Anticonvulsants In patients with Theo Salbid (Theophylline) overdose who are at high risk for theophylline-induced seizures, e.g., patients with acute overdoses and serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations >100 mcg/mL or chronic overdosage in patients >60 years of age with serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations >30 mcg/mL, the need for anticonvulsant therapy should be anticipated. A benzodiazepine such as diazepam should be drawn into a syringe and kept at the patient’s bedside and medical personnel qualified to treat seizures should be immediately available. In selected patients at high risk for theophylline-induced seizures, consideration should be given to the administration of prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy. Situations where prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy should be considered in high risk patients include anticipated delays in instituting methods for extracorporeal removal of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) (e.g., transfer of a high risk patient from one healthcare facility to another for extracorporeal removal) and clinical circumstances that significantly interfere with efforts to enhance Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance (e.g., a neonate where dialysis may not be technically feasible or a patient with vomiting unresponsive to antiemetics who is unable to tolerate multiple-dose oral activated charcoal). In animal studies, prophylactic administration of phenobarbital, but not phenytoin, has been shown to delay the onset of theophylline-induced generalized seizures and to increase the dose of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) required to induce seizures (i.e., markedly increases the LD50). Although there are no controlled studies in humans, a loading dose of intravenous phenobarbital (20 mg/kg infused over 60 minutes) may delay or prevent life-threatening seizures in high risk patients while efforts to enhance Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance are continued. Phenobarbital may cause respiratory depression, particularly in elderly patients and patients with COPD.
  • Treatment of cardiac arrhythmias Sinus tachycardia and simple ventricular premature beats are not harbingers of life-threatening arrhythmias, they do not require treatment in the absence of hemodynamic compromise, and they resolve with declining serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations. Other arrhythmias, especially those associated with hemodynamic compromise, should be treated with antiarrhythmic therapy appropriate for the type of arrhythmia.
  • Gastrointestinal decontamination Oral activated charcoal (0.5 g/kg up to 20 g and repeat at least once 1-2 hours after the first dose) is extremely effective in blocking the absorption of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) throughout the gastrointestinal tract, even when administered several hours after ingestion. If the patient is vomiting, the charcoal should be administered through a nasogastric tube or after administration of an antiemetic. Phenothiazine antiemetics such as prochlorperazine or perphenazine should be avoided since they can lower the seizure threshold and frequently cause dystonic reactions. A single dose of sorbitol may be used to promote stooling to facilitate removal of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) bound to charcoal from the gastrointestinal tract. Sorbitol, however, should be dosed with caution since it is a potent purgative which can cause profound fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, particularly after multiple doses. Commercially available fixed combinations of liquid charcoal and sorbitol should be avoided in young children and after the first dose in adolescents and adults since they do not allow for individualization of charcoal and sorbitol dosing. Ipecac syrup should be avoided in Theo Salbid (Theophylline) overdoses. Although ipecac induces emesis, it does not reduce the absorption of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) unless administered within 5 minutes of ingestion and even then is less effective than oral activated charcoal. Moreover, ipecac induced emesis may persist for several hours after a single dose and significantly decrease the retention and the effectiveness of oral activated charcoal.
  • Serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Concentration Monitoring The serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration should be measured immediately upon presentation, 2-4 hours later, and then at sufficient intervals, e.g., every 4 hours, to guide treatment decisions and to assess the effectiveness of therapy. Serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations may continue to increase after presentation of the patient for medical care as a result of continued absorption of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) from the gastrointestinal tract. Serial monitoring of serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) serum concentrations should be continued until it is clear that the concentration is no longer rising and has returned to non-toxic levels.
  • General Monitoring Procedures Electrocardiographic monitoring should be initiated on presentation and continued until the serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) level has returned to a non-toxic level. Serum electrolytes and glucose should be measured on presentation and at appropriate intervals indicated by clinical circumstances. Fluid and electrolyte abnormalities should be promptly corrected. Monitoring and treatment should be continued until the serum concentration decreases below 20 mcg/mL.
  • Enhance clearance of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Multiple-dose oral activated charcoal (e.g., 0.5 mg/kg up to 20 g, every two hours) increases the clearance of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) at least twofold by adsorption of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) secreted into gastrointestinal fluids. Charcoal must be retained in, and pass through, the gastrointestinal tract to be effective; emesis should therefore be controlled by administration of appropriate antiemetics. Alternatively, the charcoal can be administered continuously through a nasogastric tube in conjunction with appropriate antiemetics. A single dose of sorbitol may be administered with the activated charcoal to promote stooling to facilitate clearance of the adsorbed Theo Salbid (Theophylline) from the gastrointestinal tract. Sorbitol alone does not enhance clearance of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) and should be dosed with caution to prevent excessive stooling which can result in severe fluid and electrolyte imbalances. Commercially available fixed combinations of liquid charcoal and sorbitol should be avoided in young children and after the first dose in adolescents and adults since they do not allow for individualization of charcoal and sorbitol dosing. In patients with intractable vomiting, extracorporeal methods of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) removal should be instituted (see OVERDOSAGE, Extracorporeal Removal ).

Specific Recommendations

Acute Overdose

  • Serum Concentration >20<30 mcg/mL
    • Administer a single dose of oral activated charcoal.
    • Monitor the patient and obtain a serum Theo Salbid concentration in 2-4 hours to insure that the concentration is not increasing.
  • Serum Concentration >30<100 mcg/mL
    • Administer multiple dose oral activated charcoal and measures to control emesis.
    • Monitor the patient and obtain serial Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations every 2-4 hours to gauge the effectiveness of therapy and to guide further treatment decisions.
    • Institute extracorporeal removal if emesis, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias cannot be adequately controlled (see OVERDOSAGE, Extracorporeal Removal ).
  • Serum Concentration>100 mcg/mL
    • Consider prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy.
    • Administer multiple-dose oral activated charcoal and measures to control emesis.
    • Consider extracorporeal removal, even if the patient has not experienced a seizure (see OVERDOSAGE, Extracorporeal Removal ).
    • Monitor the patient and obtain serial Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations every 2-4 hours to gauge the effectiveness of therapy and to guide further treatment decisions.

Chronic Overdosage

  • Serum Concentration >20<30 mcg/mL (with manifestations of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) toxicity)
    • Administer a single dose of oral activated charcoal.
    • Monitor the patient and obtain a serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration in 2-4 hours to insure that the concentration is not increasing.
  • Serum Concentration >30 mcg/mL in patients <60 years of age
    • Administer multiple-dose oral activated charcoal and measures to control emesis.
    • Monitor the patient and obtain serial Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations every 2-4 hours to gauge the effectiveness of therapy and to guide further treatment decisions.
    • Institute extracorporeal removal if emesis, seizures, or cardiac arrhythmias cannot be adequately controlled (see OVERDOSAGE, Extracorporeal Removal ).
  • Serum Concentration >30 mcg/mL in patients ≥ 60 years of age
    • Consider prophylactic anticonvulsant therapy.
    • Administer multiple-dose oral activated charcoal and measures to control emesis.
    • Consider extracorporeal removal even if the patient has not experienced a seizure.
    • Monitor the patient and obtain serial Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations every 2-4 hours to gauge the effectiveness of therapy and to guide further treatment decisions.

Extracorporeal Removal

Increasing the rate of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance by extracorporeal methods may rapidly decrease serum concentrations, but the risks of the procedure must be weighed against the potential benefit. Charcoal hemoperfusion is the most effective method of extracorporeal removal, increasing Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance up to sixfold, but serious complications, including hypotension, hypocalcemia, platelet consumption and bleeding diatheses may occur. Hemodialysis is about as efficient as multiple-dose oral activated charcoal and has a lower risk of serious complications than charcoal hemoperfusion. Hemodialysis should be considered as an alternative when charcoal hemoperfusion is not feasible and multiple-dose oral charcoal is ineffective because of intractable emesis. Serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations may rebound 5-10 mcg/mL after discontinuation of charcoal hemoperfusion or hemodialysis due to redistribution of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) from the tissue compartment. Peritoneal dialysis is ineffective for Theo Salbid (Theophylline) removal; exchange transfusions in neonates have been minimally effective.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Theo Salbid ® 400 or 600 mg Tablets can be taken once a day in the morning or evening. It is recommended that Theo Salbid (Theophylline) be taken with meals. Patients should be advised that if they choose to take Theo Salbid (Theophylline) with food it should be taken consistently with food and if they take it in a fasted condition it should routinely be taken fasted. It is important that the product whenever dosed be dosed consistently with or without food.

Theo Salbid (Theophylline)® Tablets are not to be chewed or crushed because it may lead to a rapid release of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) with the potential for toxicity. The scored tablet may be split. Infrequently, patients receiving Theo Salbid (Theophylline) 400 or 600 mg Tablets may pass an intact matrix tablet in the stool or via colostomy. These matrix tablets usually contain little or no residual Theo Salbid (Theophylline).

Stabilized patients, 12 years of age or older, who are taking an immediate-release or controlled-release Theo Salbid (Theophylline) product may be transferred to once-daily administration of 400 mg or 600 mg Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets on a mg-for-mg basis.

It must be recognized that the peak and trough serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) levels produced by the once-daily dosing may vary from those produced by the previous product and/or regimen.

General Considerations

The steady-state peak serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration is a function of the dose, the dosing interval, and the rate of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) absorption and clearance in the individual patient. Because of marked individual differences in the rate of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance, the dose required to achieve a peak serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration in the 10-20 mcg/mL range varies fourfold among otherwise similar patients in the absence of factors known to alter Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance (e.g., 400-1600 mg/day in adults <60 years old and 10-36 mg/kg/day in children 1-9 years old). For a given population there is no single Theo Salbid (Theophylline) dose that will provide both safe and effective serum concentrations for all patients. Administration of the median Theo Salbid (Theophylline) dose required to achieve a therapeutic serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration in a given population may result in either sub-therapeutic or potentially toxic serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations in individual patients. For example, at a dose of 900 mg/d in adults <60 years or 22 mg/kg/d in children 1-9 years, the steady-state peak serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration will be <10 mcg/mL in about 30% of patients, 10-20 mcg/mL in about 50% and 20-30 mcg/mL in about 20% of patients. The dose of Theo Salbid (Theophylline) must be individualized on the basis of peak serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration measurements in order to achieve a dose that will provide maximum potential benefit with minimal risk of adverse effects.

Transient caffeine-like adverse effects and excessive serum concentrations in slow metabolizers can be avoided in most patients by starting with a sufficiently low dose and slowly increasing the dose, if judged to be clinically indicated, in small increments (see Table V ). Dose increases should only be made if the previous dosage is well tolerated and at intervals of no less than 3 days to allow serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations to reach the new steady-state. Dosage adjustment should be guided by serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration measurement (see PRECAUTIONS, Laboratory Tests and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, Table VI ). Healthcare providers should instruct patients and caregivers to discontinue any dosage that causes adverse effects, to withhold the medication until these symptoms are gone and to then resume therapy at a lower, previously tolerated dosage (see WARNINGS ).

If the patient’s symptoms are well controlled, there are no apparent adverse effects, and no intervening factors that might alter dosage requirements (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS ), serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations should be monitored at 6 month intervals for rapidly growing children and at yearly intervals for all others. In acutely ill patients, serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations should be monitored at frequent intervals, e.g., every 24 hours.

Theo Salbid (Theophylline) distributes poorly into body fat, therefore, mg/kg dose should be calculated on the basis of ideal body weight.

Table V contains Theo Salbid (Theophylline) dosing titration schema recommended for patients in various age groups and clinical circumstances. Table VI contains recommendations for Theo Salbid (Theophylline) dosage adjustment based upon serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations. Application of these general dosing recommendations to individual patients must take into account the unique clinical characteristics of each patient. In general, these recommendations should serve as the upper limit for dosage adjustments in order to decrease the risk of potentially serious adverse events associated with unexpected large increases in serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration.

Table V. Dosing initiation and titration (as anhydrous Theo Salbid (Theophylline)). *

  • A. Children (12-15 years) and adults (16-60 years) without risk factors for impaired clearance.
Titration Step Children <45 kg Children >45 kg and adults
1If caffeine-like adverse effects occur, then consideration should be given to a lower dose and titrating the dose more slowly (see ADVERSE REACTIONS ).
  • Starting Dosage
12-14 mg/kg/day up to a maximum of 300 mg/day admin. QD* 300-400 mg/day1 admin. QD*
  • After 3 days, if tolerated, increase dose to:
16 mg/kg/day up to a maximum of 400 mg/day admin. QD* 400-600 mg/day1 admin. QD*
  • After 3 more days, if tolerated, and if needed increase dose to:
20 mg/kg/day up to a maximum of 600 mg/day admin. QD* As with all Theo Salbid (Theophylline) products, doses greater than 600 mg should be titrated according to blood level
  • B. Patients With Risk Factors For Impaired Clearance, The Elderly (>60 Years), And Those In Whom It Is Not Feasible To Monitor Serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Concentrations:

    • In children 12-15 years of age, the Theo Salbid (Theophylline) dose should not exceed 16 mg/kg/day up to a maximum of 400 mg/day in the presence of risk factors for reduced Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance (see WARNINGS ) or if it is not feasible to monitor serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations.

    • In adolescents ≥16 years and adults, including the elderly, the Theo Salbid (Theophylline) dose should not exceed 400 mg/day in the presence of risk factors for reduced Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance (see WARNINGS ) or if it is not feasible to monitor serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentrations.

*Patients with more rapid metabolism clinically identified by higher than average dose requirements, should receive a smaller dose more frequently (every 12 hours) to prevent breakthrough symptoms resulting from low trough concentrations before the next dose.

Peak Serum

Concentration

Dosage Adjustment
¶Dose reduction and/or serum Theo Salbid (Theophylline) concentration measurement is indicated whenever adverse effects are present physiologic abnormalities that can reduce Theo Salbid (Theophylline) clearance occur (e.g. sustained fever), or a drug that interacts with Theo Salbid (Theophylline) is added or discontinued (see WARNINGS ).
<9.9 mcg/mL If symptoms are not controlled and current dosage is tolerated, increase dose about 25%. Recheck serum concentration after three days for further dosage adjustment.
10-14.9 mcg/mL If symptoms are controlled and current dosage is tolerated, maintain dose and recheck serum concentration at 6-12 month intervals.¶ If symptoms are not controlled and current dosage is tolerated consider adding additional medication(s) to treatment regimen.
15-19.9 mcg/mL Consider 10% decrease in dose to provide greater margin of safety even if current dosage is tolerated. ¶
20-24.9 mcg/mL Decrease dose by 25% even if no adverse effects are present. Recheck serum concentration after 3 days to guide further dosage adjustment.
25-30 mcg/mL Skip next dose and decrease subsequent doses at least 25% even if no adverse effects are present. Recheck serum concentration after 3 days to guide further dosage adjustment. If symptomatic, consider whether overdose treatment is indicated.
>30 mcg/mL Treat overdose as indicated. If Theo Salbid (Theophylline) is subsequently resumed, decrease dose by at least 50% and recheck serum concentration after 3 days to guide further dosage adjustment.

HOW SUPPLIED

Theo Salbid (Theophylline)® (theophylline, anhydrous) Controlled-Release Tablets 400 mg are supplied in white, opaque plastic, child-resistant bottles containing 100 tablets (NDC 67781-251-01) or 500 tablets (NDC 67781-251-05). Each round, white 400 mg tablet bears the symbol PF on the scored side and U400 on the other side.

Theo Salbid (Theophylline)® (theophylline, anhydrous) Controlled-Release Tablets 600 mg are supplied in white, opaque plastic, child-resistant bottles containing 100 tablets (NDC 67781-252-01). Each rectangular, concave, white 600 mg tablet bears the symbol PF on the scored side and U 600 on the other side.

Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted between 15°-30°C (59°-86°F).

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container.

©2011, Purdue Pharmaceutical Products L.P.

Dist. by: Purdue Pharmaceutical Products L.P.

Stamford, CT 06901-3431

Revised 10/2011

300945-0B

Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets

400 mg Tablets

NDC 677781-251-01

Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets 400 mg Tablets NDC 677781-251-01

Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets

600 mg Tablets

NDC 677781-252-01

Theo Salbid (Theophylline) Tablets 600 mg Tablets NDC 677781-252-01

Theo Salbid pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

infoActive ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Theo Salbid available forms, composition, doses:

infoForm of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Theo Salbid destination | category:

infoDestination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Theo Salbid Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

infoA medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Theo Salbid pharmaceutical companies:

infoPharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."THEOPHYLLINE SOLUTION [SILARX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."THEOPHYLLINE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "theophylline". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Theo Salbid?

Depending on the reaction of the Theo Salbid after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Theo Salbid not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Theo Salbid addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sDrugs.com conducted a study on Theo Salbid, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Theo Salbid consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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