Streptomycin

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Streptomycin uses


INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Streptomycin is indicated for the treatment of individuals with moderate to severe infections caused by susceptibile strains of microorganisms in the specific conditions listed below:


  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis: The Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis, the American Thoracic Society, and the Center for Disease Control recommend that either Streptomycin or ethambutol be added as a fourth drug in a regimen containing isoniazid (INH), rifampin and pyrazinamide for initial treatment of tuberculosis unless the likelihood of INH or rifampin resistance is very low. The need for a fourth drug should be reassessed when the results of susceptibility testing are known. In the past when the national rate of primary drug resistance to isoniazid was known to be less than 4% and was either stable or declining, therapy with two and three drug regimens was considered adequate. If community rates of INH resistance are currently less than 4%, an initial treatment regimen with less than four drugs may be considered. Streptomycin is also indicated for therapy of tuberculosis when one or more of the above drugs is contraindicated because of toxicity or intolerance. The management of tuberculosis has become more complex as a consequence of increasing rates of drug resistance and concomitant HIV infection. Additional consultation from experts in the treatment of tuberculosis may be desirable in those settings.


  • Non-tuberculosis infections: The use of Streptomycin should be limited to the treatment of infections caused by bacteria which have been shown to be susceptible to the antibacterial effects of Streptomycin and which are not amenable to therapy with less potentially toxic agents.


    • Pasteurella pestis (plague),


    • Francisella tularensis (tularemia),


    • Brucella,


    • Calymmatobacterium granulomatis (donovanosis, granuloma inguinale),


    • H. ducreyi (chancroid),


    • H. influenzae (in respiratory, endocardial, and meningeal infections-concomitantly with another antibacterial agent),


    • K. pneumoniae pneumonia (concomitantly with another antibacterial agent),


    • E.coli, Proteus, A. aerogenes, K. pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis in urinary tract infections,


    • Streptococcus viridans, Enterococcus faecalis (in endocardial infections -concomitantly with penicillin),


    • Gram-negative bacillary bacteremia (concomitantly with another antibacterial agent).


To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Streptomycin and other antibacterial drugs, Streptomycin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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CONTRAINDICATIONS

A history of clinically significant hypersensitivity to Streptomycin is a contraindication to its use. Clinically significant hypersensitivity to other aminoglycosides may contraindicate the use of Streptomycin because of the known cross-sensitivity of patients to drugs in this class.

WARNINGS

Ototoxicity: Both vestibular and auditory dysfunction can follow the administration of Streptomycin. The degree of impairment is directly proportional to the dose and duration of Streptomycin administration, to the age of the patient, to the level of renal function and to the amount of underlying existing auditory dysfunction. The ototoxic effects of the aminoglycosides, including Streptomycin, are potentiated by the co-administration of ethacrynic acid, mannitol, furosemide and possibly other diuretics.

The vestibulotoxic potential of Streptomycin exceeds that of its capacity for cochlear toxicity. Vestibular damage is heralded by headache, nausea, vomiting and disequilibrium. Early cochlear injury is demonstrated by the loss of high frequency hearing. Appropriate monitoring and early discontinuation of the drug may permit recovery prior to irreversible damage to the sensorineural cells.

Pregnancy: Streptomycin can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Because Streptomycin readily crosses the placental barrier, caution in use of the drug is important to prevent ototoxicity in the fetus. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Streptomycin for Injection, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difjicile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C difjicile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

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PRECAUTIONS

General

Prescribing Streptomycin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Baseline and periodic caloric stimulation tests and audiometric tests are advisable with extended Streptomycin therapy. Tinnitus, roaring noises, or a sense of fullness in the ears indicates need for audiometric examination or termination of Streptomycin therapy or both.

Care should be taken by individuals handling Streptomycin for injection to avoid skin sensitivity reactions. As with all intramuscular preparations, Streptomycin Sulfate Injection should be injected well within the body of a relatively large muscle and care should be taken to minimize the possibility of damage to peripheral nerves.

Extreme caution must be exercised in selecting a dosage regimen in the presence of pre-existing renal insufficiency. In severely uremic patients a single dose may produce high blood levels for several days and the cumulative effect may produce ototoxic sequelae. When Streptomycin must be given for prolonged periods of time alkalinization of the urine may minimize or prevent renal irritation.

A syndrome of apparent central nervous system depression, characterized by stupor and flaccidity, occasionally coma and deep respiratory depression, has been reported in very young infants in whom Streptomycin dosage had exceeded the recommended limits. Thus, infants should not receive Streptomycin in excess of the recommended dosage.

In the treatment of venereal infections such as granuloma inguinale, and chancroid, if concomitant syphilis is suspected, suitable laboratory procedures such as a dark field examination should be performed before the start of treatment, and monthly serologic tests should be done for at least four months.

As with other antibiotics, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, appropriate therapy should be instituted.

Information for Patients

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Streptomycin should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Streptomycin is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Streptomycin or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose ofthe antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

Drug Interactions

The ototoxic effects of the aminoglycosides, including Streptomycin, are potentiated by the co-administration of ethacrynic acid, furosemide, mannitol and possibly other diuretics.

Pregnancy

Category D: See WARNINGS section.

Nursing Mothers

Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from Streptomycin, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

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ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following reactions are common: vestibular ototoxicity (nausea, vomiting, and vertigo); paresthesia of face; rash; fever; urticaria; angioneurotic edema; and eosinophilia.

The following reactions are less frequent: cochlear ototoxicity (deafness); exfoliative dermatitis; anaphylaxis; azotemia; leucopenia; thrombocytopenia; pancytopenia; hemolytic anemia; muscular weakness; and amblyopia.

Vestibular dysfunction resulting from the parenteral administration of Streptomycin is cumulatively related to the total daily dose. When 1.8 to 2 g/day are given, symptoms are likely to develop in the large percentage of patients - especially in the elderly or patients with impaired renal function - within four weeks. Therefore, it is recommended that caloric and audiometric tests be done prior to, during, and following intensive therapy with Streptomycin in order to facilitate detection of any vestibular dysfunction and/or impairment of hearing which may occur.

Vestibular symptoms generally appear early and usually are reversible with early detection and cessation of Streptomycin administration. Two to three months after stopping the drug, gross vestibular symptoms usually disappear, except from the relative inability to walk in total darkness or on very rough terrain.

Although Streptomycin is the least nephrotoxic of the aminoglycosides, nephrotoxicity does occur rarely.

Clinical judgment as to termination of therapy must be exercised when side effects occur.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Intramuscular Route Only

Adults: The preferred site is the upper outer quadrant of the buttock, (i.e., gluteus maximus), or the mid-lateral thigh.

Children: It is recommended that intramuscular injections be given preferably in the mid-lateral muscles of the thigh. In infants and small children the periphery of the upper outer quadrant of the gluteal region should be used only when necessary, such as in burn patients, in order to minimize the possibility of damage to the sciatic nerve.

The deltoid area should be used only if well developed such as in certain adults and older children, and then only with caution to avoid radial nerve injury. Intramuscular injections should not be made into the lower and mid-third of the upper arm. As with all intramuscular injections, aspiration is necessary to help avoid inadvertent injection into a blood vessel.

Injection sites should be alternated. As higher doses or more prolonged therapy with Streptomycin may be indicated for more severe or fulminating infections (endocarditis, meningitis, etc.), the physician should always take adequate measures to be immediately aware of any toxic signs or symptoms occurring in the patient as a result of Streptomycin therapy.

1. TUBERCULOSIS: The standard regimen for the treatment of drug susceptible tuberculosis has been two months of INH, rifampin and pyrazinamide followed by four months of INH and rifampin (patients with concomitant infection with tuberculosis and HIV may require treatment for a longer period). When Streptomycin is added to this regimen because of suspected or proven drug resistance, the recommended dosing for Streptomycin is as follows:

Daily Twice Weekly Thrice Weekly
Children 20-40 mg/kg 25-30 mg/kg 25-30 mg/kg
Max 1 g 1.5 g 1.5 g
Adults 15 mg/kg 25-30 mg/kg 25-30 mg/kg
Max 1 g 1.5 g 1.5 g

Streptomycin is usually administered daily as a single intramuscular injection. A total dose of not more than 120 g over the course of therapy should be given unless there are no other therapeutic options. In patients older than 60 years of age the drug should be used at a reduced dosage due to the risk of increased toxicity.

Therapy with Streptomycin may be terminated when toxic symptoms have appeared, when impending toxicity is feared, when organisms become resistant, or when full treatment effect has been obtained. The total period of drug treatment of tuberculosis is a minimum of 1 year; however, indications for terminating therapy with Streptomycin may occur at any time as noted above.

2. TULAREMIA: One to 2 g daily in divided doses for 7 to 14 days until the patient is afebrile for 5 to 7 days.

3. PLAGUE: Two grams of Streptomycin daily in two divided doses should be administered intramuscularly. A minimum of 10 days of therapy is recommended.

4. BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS:

a. Streptococcal endocarditis; in penicillin-sensitive alpha and non-hemolytic streptococcal endocarditis (penicillin MIC<0.1 mcg/mL), streptomycin may be used for 2-week treatment concomitantly with penicillin. The Streptomycin regimen is 1 g b.i.d. for the first week, and 500 mg b.i.d. for the second week. If the patient is over 60 years of age, the dosage should be 500 mg b.i.d. for the entire 2- week period.

b. Enterococcal endocarditis: Streptomycin in doses of 1 g b.i.d. for 2 weeks and 500 mg b.i.d. for an additional 4 weeks is given in combination with penicillin. Ototoxicity may require termination of the Streptomycin prior to completion of the 6-week course of treatment.

5. CONCOMITANT USE WITH OTHER AGENTS: For concomitant use with other agents to which the infecting organism is also sensitive: Streptomycin is considered a secondline agent for the treatment of gram-negative bacillary bactermia, meningitis, and pneumonia; brucellosis; granuloma inguinale; chancroid, and urinary tract infection.

For adults: 1 to 2 grams in divided doses every six to twelve hours for moderate to severe infections. Doses should generally not exceed 2 grams per day.

For children: 20 to 40 mg/kg/day (8 to 20 mg/lb/day) in divided doses every 6 to 12 hours. (Particular care should be taken to avoid excessive dosage in children).

The dry lyophillized cake is dissolved by adding Water for Injection USP in an amount to yield the desired concentration as indicated in the following table:

Approx. Conc. mg/mL Volume (mL) of Solvent
200 4.2
250 3.2
400 1.8

Sterile reconstituted solutions should be protected from light and may be stored at room temperature for one week without significant loss of potency

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit

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HOW SUPPLIED

Streptomycin for Injection USP is available in single vials containing 1 gram NDC 39822-0706-1 packaged as boxes of ten vials NDC 39822-0706-2.

STORAGE

Store dry powder under controlled room temperature 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).

PROTECT FROM LIGHT

REFERENCES

1 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptability Tests

Approved Standard-Tenth Edition. CLSI Document M02-A10. Vol. 29 No. 1, CLSI, Wayne, PA 2009.

2 Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptability Testing;

Twenty-First Informational Supplement. CLSI Document M100-S21 Vol. 31 No. 1, CLSI, Wayne, PA 2011.

Manufactured for:

X-Gen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Big Flats, NY 14814

Revised December 2012

STRP-PI-01

NDC 39822-0706-1

Streptomycin for Injection, USP

1 gram*/ vial

For Intramuscular Use

Rx Only

1 Vial

X-GEN Pharmaceuticals, Inc.


NDC 39822-0706-2

Streptomycin for Injection, USP

1 gram*/ vial

For Intramuscular Use

Rx Only

10 Vial carton

X-GEN Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

strp-exla-vial strp-exla-10pkcarton

Streptomycin pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Streptomycin available forms, composition, doses:

Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.

Price
Injectable; Injection; Streptomycin 1 g
Injectable; Injection; Streptomycin 500 mg
Streptomycin sulf 1 gm vial14.65 USD
Streptomycin sulfate powder0.82 USD

Streptomycin destination | category:

Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Streptomycin Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Streptomycin pharmaceutical companies:

Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."STREPTOMYCIN INJECTION, POWDER, LYOPHILIZED, FOR SOLUTION [X-GEN PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."STREPTOMYCIN SULFATE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "streptomycin". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Streptomycin?

Depending on the reaction of the Streptomycin after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Streptomycin not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Streptomycin addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sdrugs.com conducted a study on Streptomycin, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Streptomycin consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

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One visitor reported useful

How is the drug Streptomycin useful in reducing or relieving the symptoms? How useful is it?
According to the survey conducted by the website sdrugs.com, there are variable results and below are the percentages of the users that say the medicine is useful to them and that say it is not helping them much. It is not ideal to continue taking the medication if you feel it is not helping you much. Contact your healthcare provider to check if there is a need to change the medicine or if there is a need to re-evaluate your condition. The usefulness of the medicine may vary from patient to patient, depending on the other diseases he is suffering from and slightly depends on the brand name.
Visitors%
Useful1
100.0%

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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