Stopayne Syrup

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Stopayne Syrup uses

Stopayne Syrup consists of Acetaminophen, Codeine Phosphate, Promethazine Hydrochloride.

Acetaminophen:


Pharmacological action

Stopayne Syrup is an analgesic-antipyretic. It has analgesic, antipyretic and weak anti-inflammatory action. The mechanism of action is associated with inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, the predominant influence on the thermoregulation center in the hypothalamus, enhances heat transfer.

Why is Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen) prescribed?

Pain weak and moderate intensity of different genesis (including headache, migraine, toothache, neuralgia, myalgia, algomenorrhea; pain in trauma, burns). Fever in infectious and inflammatory diseases.

Stopayne Syrup dosage and administration

Oral or rectally adults and adolescents with a body weight over 60 kg is used in a single dose of 500 mg, the multiplicity of admission - up to 4 times / Maximum duration of treatment - 5-7 days.

Maximum dose: single - 1 g, daily - 4 g.

Single dose for oral administration for children aged 6-12 years - 250-500 mg, 1-5 years - 120-250 mg, from 3 months to 1 year - 60-120 mg, up to 3 months - 10 mg / kg. Single dose rectal in children aged 6-12 years - 250-500 mg, 1-5 years - 125-250 mg.

Multiplicity - 4 at intervals of not less than 4 h. The maximum duration of treatment - 3 days.

Maximum dose: 4 single dose per day.

Stopayne Syrup side effects, adverse reactions

Digestive system: rarely - dyspepsia; long-term use at high doses - hepatotoxic effects, methemoglobinemia, renal dysfunction and liver, hypochromic anemia. Hemopoietic system: rarely - thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis. Allergic reactions: rarely - skin rash, itching, hives.

Contraindications

Chronic active alcoholism, increased sensitivity to Stopayne Syrup, marked disturbances of liver function and / or kidney disease, anemia, pregnancy (I term).

Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen) crosses the placental barrier. So far, no observed adverse effects of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen) on the fetus in humans.

Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen) is excreted in breast milk: the content in milk was 0.04-0.23% of the dose adopted mother.

If necessary, use of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen) during pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding) should carefully weigh the potential benefits of therapy for the mother and the potential risk to the fetus or child.

In experimental studies found no embryotoxic, teratogenic and mutagenic action of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen).

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Special Instructions

Stopayne Syrup is used with caution in patients with disorders of the liver and kidneys, with benign hyperbilirubinemia, as well as in elderly patients.

With prolonged use of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen) is necessary to monitor patterns of peripheral blood and functional state of the liver.

Used for treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome in combination with pamabrom (diuretic, a derivative of xanthine) and mepyramine (Histamine H1-receptors blocker).

Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen) Drug Interactions

With the simultaneous use with inducers of microsomal liver enzymes, means having hepatotoxic effect, increasing the risk of hepatotoxic action of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen).

With the simultaneous use of anticoagulants may be slight to moderate increase in prothrombin time.

With the simultaneous use of anticholinergics may decrease absorption of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen).

With the simultaneous use of oral contraceptives accelerated excretion of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen) from the body and may reduce its analgesic action.

With the simultaneous use with urological means reduced their effectiveness.

With the simultaneous use of activated charcoal reduced bioavailability of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen).

When Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen) applied simultaneously with diazepam may decrease excretion of diazepam.

There have been reports about the possibility of enhancing mielodepression effect of zidovudine while applying with Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen). A case of severe toxic liver injury.

Described cases of toxic effects of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen), while the use of isoniazid.

When applied simultaneously with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidonom decreases the effectiveness of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen), which is caused by an increase in its metabolism and excretion from the body. Cases of hepatotoxicity, while the use of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen) and phenobarbital.

In applying cholestyramine a period of less than 1 h after administration of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen) may decrease of its absorption.

At simultaneous application with lamotrigine moderately increased excretion of lamotrigine from the body.

With the simultaneous use of metoclopramide may increase absorption of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen) and its increased concentration in blood plasma.

When applied simultaneously with probenecid may decrease clearance of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen), with rifampicin, sulfinpyrazone - may increase clearance of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen) due to increasing its metabolism in the liver.

At simultaneous application of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen) with ethinylestradiol increases absorption of Stopayne Syrup (Acetaminophen) from the gut.

Enhances the effect of indirect anticoagulants (coumarin derivatives and indandione). Antipyretic and analgesic activity of caffeine increases, reduce - rifampicin, phenobarbital and alcohol (accelerated biotransformation, inducing microsomal liver enzymes).

Stopayne Syrup in case of emergency / overdose

At a reception in toxic doses (10-15 g in adults) may develop liver necrosis.

Symptoms of overdose may include: nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, sweating, extreme tiredness, unusual bleeding or bruising, pain in the upper right part of the stomach, yellowing of the skin or eyes, flu-like symptoms

Codeine Phosphate:


1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are indicated for the management of mild to moderate pain, where treatment with an opioid is appropriate and for which alternative treatments are inadequate.

Limitations of Use

Because of the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse with opioids, even at recommended doses , reserve Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options [e.g., non-opioid analgesics or opioid combination products]:

  • Have not been tolerated, or are not expected to be tolerated,
  • Have not provided adequate analgesia, or are not expected to provide adequate analgesia.

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are an opioid agonist, indicated for the management of mild to moderate pain, where treatment with an opioid is appropriate and for which alternative treatments are inadequate. (1)

Limitations of Use (1)

Because of the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse with opioids, even at recommended doses, reserve Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options [e.g., non-opioid analgesics or opioid combination products]:

  • Have not been tolerated, or are not expected to be tolerated,
  • Have not provided adequate analgesia, or are not expected to provide adequate analgesia.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

  • Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals.
  • Individualize dosing based on the severity of pain, patient response, prior analgesic experience, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse. (2.1)
  • Initiate treatment with 15 to 60 mg every 4 hours as needed. (2.2)
  • Do not stop Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets abruptly in a physically dependent patient. (2.4)

2.1 Important Dosage and Administration Instructions

Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals .

Initiate the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient's severity of pain, patient response, prior analgesic treatment experience, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse .

Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24 to 72 hours of initiating therapy and following dosage increases with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets and adjust the dosage accordingly .

2.2 Initial Dosage

Initiating Treatment with Stopayne Syrup Sulfate Tablets

Initiate treatment with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets in a dosing range of 15 to 60 mg every 4 hours as needed for pain.

Adult doses of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets higher than 60 mg provide no further efficacy but are associated with greater adverse reactions. The maximum 24 hour dose is 360 mg.

Conversion from Other Opioids to Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets

There is inter-patient variability in the potency of opioid drugs and opioid formulations. Therefore, a conservative approach is advised when determining the total daily dosage of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets. It is safer to underestimate a patient’s 24-hour Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets dosage than to overestimate the 24-hour Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets dosage and manage an adverse reaction due to overdose.

2.3 Titration and Maintenance of Therapy

Individually titrate Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets to a dose that provides adequate analgesia and minimizes adverse reactions. Continually reevaluate patients receiving Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate to assess the maintenance of pain control and the relative incidence of adverse reactions, as well as monitoring for the development of addiction, abuse, or misuse . Frequent communication is important among the prescriber, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family during periods of changing analgesic requirements, including initial titration.

If the level of pain increases after dosage stabilization, attempt to identify the source of increased pain before increasing the Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets dosage. If unacceptable opioid-related adverse reactions are observed, consider reducing the dosage. Adjust the dosage to obtain an appropriate balance between management of pain and opioid-related adverse reactions.

2.4 Discontinuation of Stopayne Syrup Sulfate Tablets

When a patient who has been taking Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets regularly and may be physically dependent no longer requires therapy with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets, taper the dose gradually, by 25% to 50% every 2 to 4 days, while monitoring carefully for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. If the patient develops these signs or symptoms, raise the dose to the previous level and taper more slowly, either by increasing the interval between decreases, decreasing the amount of change in dose, or both. Do not abruptly discontinue Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets in a physically-dependent patient .

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3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Each 15 mg tablet for oral administration contains 15 mg of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate USP. It is a white to off-white biconvex tablet with “15” debossed on the scored side and “54 613” debossed on the other side.

Each 30 mg tablet for oral administration contains 30 mg of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate USP. It is a white to off-white biconvex tablet with “30” debossed on the scored side and “54 783” debossed on the other side.

Each 60 mg tablet for oral administration contains 60 mg of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate USP. It is a white to off-white biconvex tablet with “60” debossed on the scored side and “54 412” debossed on the other side.

Tablets: 15 mg, 30 mg, and 60 mg (3)

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are contraindicated for:

  • All children younger than 12 years of age .
  • Post-operative management in children younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy .

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are also contraindicated in patients with:

  • Significant respiratory depression .
  • Acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment .
  • Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or use of MAOIs within the last 14 days .
  • Known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus .
  • Hypersensitivity to Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) (e.g., anaphylaxis) .
  • Children younger than 12 years of age.
  • Postoperative management in children younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy. (4)
  • Significant respiratory depression. (4)
  • Acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in absence of resuscitative equipment. (4)
  • Concurrent use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) or use of MAOIs within the last 14 days. (4)
  • Known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus. (4)
  • Hypersensitivity to Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate). (4)
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5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease or in Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients: Monitor closely, particularly during initiation and titration.
  • Adrenal Insufficiency: If diagnosed, treat with physiologic replacement of corticosteroids, and wean patient off of the opioid. (5.9)
  • Severe Hypotension: Monitor during dosage initiation and titration. Avoid use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets in patients with circulatory shock. (5.10)
  • Risks of Use in Patients with Increased Intracranial Pressure, Brain Tumors, Head Injury, or Impaired Consciousness: Monitor for sedation and respiratory depression. Avoid use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets in patients with impaired consciousness or coma. (5.11)

5.1 Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets contain Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate), a Schedule II controlled substance. As an opioid, Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets exposes users to the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse .

Although the risk of addiction in any individual is unknown, it can occur in patients appropriately prescribed Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets. Addiction can occur at recommended dosages and if the drug is misused or abused.

Assess each patient’s risk for opioid addiction, abuse, or misuse prior to prescribing Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets, and monitor all patients receiving Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets for the development of these behaviors and conditions. Risks are increased in patients with a personal or family history of substance abuse (including drug or alcohol abuse or addiction) or mental illness (e.g., major depression). The potential for these risks should not, however, prevent the proper management of pain in any given patient. Patients at increased risk may be prescribed opioids such as Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets, but use in such patients necessitates intensive counseling about the risks and proper use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets along with intensive monitoring for signs of addiction, abuse, and misuse.

Opioids are sought by drug abusers and people with addiction disorders and are subject to criminal diversion. Consider these risks when prescribing or dispensing Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets. Strategies to reduce these risks include prescribing the drug in the smallest appropriate quantity and advising the patient on the proper disposal of unused drug . Contact local state professional licensing board or state controlled substances authority for information on how to prevent and detect abuse or diversion of this product.

5.2 Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression

Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression has been reported with the use of opioids, even when used as recommended. Respiratory depression, if not immediately recognized and treated, may lead to respiratory arrest and death. Management of respiratory depression may include close observation, supportive measures, and use of opioid antagonists, depending on the patient’s clinical status . Carbon dioxide (CO2) retention from opioid-induced respiratory depression can exacerbate the sedating effects of opioids.

While serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression can occur at any time during the use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets, the risk is greatest during the initiation of therapy or following a dosage increase. Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24 to 72 hours of initiating therapy with and following dosage increases of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets.

To reduce the risk of respiratory depression, proper dosing and titration of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are essential . Overestimating the Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets dosage when converting patients from another opioid product can result in a fatal overdose with the first dose.

Accidental ingestion of even one dose of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets, especially by children, can result in respiratory depression and death due to an overdose of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate).

5.3 Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) and Other Risk Factors for Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Children

Life-threatening respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate). Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) is subject to variability in metabolism based upon CYP2D6 genotype (described below), which can lead to an increased exposure to the active metabolite morphine. Based upon post-marketing reports, children younger than 12 years old appear to be more susceptible to the respiratory depressant effects of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate), particularly if there are risk factors for respiratory depression. For example, many reported cases of death occurred in the post-operative period following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy, and many of the children had evidence of being ultra-rapid metabolizers of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate). Furthermore, children with obstructive sleep apnea who are treated with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) for post-tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy pain may be particularly sensitive to its respiratory depressant effect. Because of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression and death:

  • Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are contraindicated for all children younger than 12 years of age .
  • Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are contraindicated for post-operative management in pediatric patients younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy .
  • Avoid the use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets in adolescents 12 to 18 years of age who have other risk factors that may increase their sensitivity to the respiratory depressant effects of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) unless the benefits outweigh the risks. Risk factors include conditions associated with hypoventilation, such as postoperative status, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, severe pulmonary disease, neuromuscular disease, and concomitant use of other medications that cause respiratory depression.
  • As with adults, when prescribing Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) for adolescents, healthcare providers should choose the lowest effective dose for the shortest period of time and inform patients and caregivers about these risks and the signs of morphine overdose .

Nursing Mothers

At least one death was reported in a nursing infant who was exposed to high levels of morphine in breast milk because the mother was an ultra-rapid metabolizer of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate). Breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets .

CYP2D6 Genetic Variability: Ultra-Rapid Metabolizers

Some individuals may be ultra-rapid metabolizers because of a specific CYP2D6 genotype (e.g., gene duplications denoted as *1/*1xN or *1/*2xN). The prevalence of this CYP2D6 phenotype varies widely and has been estimated at 1 to 10% for Whites (European, North American), 3 to 4% for Blacks (African Americans), 1 to 2% for East Asians (Chinese, Japanese, Korean), and may be greater than 10% in certain racial/ethnic groups (i.e., Oceanian, Northern African, Middle Eastern, Ashkenazi Jews, Puerto Rican).

These individuals convert Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) into its active metabolite, morphine, more rapidly and completely than other people. This rapid conversion results in higher than expected serum morphine levels. Even at labeled dosage regimens, individuals who are ultra-rapid metabolizers may have life-threatening or fatal respiratory depression or experience signs of overdose (such as extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing) . Therefore, individuals who are ultra-rapid metabolizers should not use Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets.

5.4 Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome

Prolonged use of Stopayne Syrup Sulfate Tablets during pregnancy can result in withdrawal in the neonate. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, unlike opioid withdrawal syndrome in adults, may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. Observe newborns for signs of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly. Advise pregnant women using opioids for a prolonged period of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available.

5.5 Risks of Interactions with Drugs Affecting Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes

The effects of concomitant use or discontinuation of cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers, 3A4 inhibitors, or 2D6 inhibitors with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) are complex. Use of cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers, 3A4 inhibitors, or 2D6 inhibitors with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets requires careful consideration of the effects on the parent drug, Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate), and the active metabolite, morphine.

Cytochrome P450 3A4 Interaction

The concomitant use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets with all cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitors, such as macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g., ketoconazole), and protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir) or discontinuation of a cytochrome P450 3A4 inducer such as rifampin, carbamazepine, and phenytoin, may result in an increase in Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) plasma concentrations with subsequently greater metabolism by cytochrome P450 2D6, resulting in greater morphine levels, which could increase or prolong adverse reactions and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression.

The concomitant use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets with all cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers or discontinuation of a cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor may result in lower Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) levels, greater norcodeine levels, and less metabolism via 2D6 with resultant lower morphine levels. This may be associated with a decrease in efficacy, and in some patients, may result in signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal. Follow patients receiving Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets and any CYP3A4 inhibitor or inducer for signs and symptoms that may reflect opioid toxicity and opioid withdrawal when Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are used in conjunction with inhibitors and inducers of CYP3A4.

If concomitant use of a CYP3A4 inhibitor is necessary or if a CYP3A4 inducer is discontinued, consider dosage reduction of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals.

If concomitant use of a CYP3A4 inducer is necessary or if a CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued, consider increasing the Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets dosage until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal [Drug Interactions (7)].

Risks of Concomitant Use or Discontinuation of Cytochrome P450 2D6 Inhibitors

The concomitant use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets with all cytochrome P450 2D6 inhibitors (e.g., amiodarone, quinidine) may result in an increase in Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) plasma concentrations and a decrease in active metabolite morphine plasma concentration which could result in an analgesic efficacy reduction or symptoms of opioid withdrawal.

Discontinuation of a concomitantly used cytochrome P450 2D6 inhibitor may result in a decrease in Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) plasma concentration and an increase in active metabolite morphine plasma concentration which could increase or prolong adverse reactions and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression.

Follow patients receiving Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets and any CYP2D6 inhibitor for signs and symptoms that may reflect opioid toxicity and opioid withdrawal when Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are used in conjunction with inhibitors of CYP2D6.

If concomitant use with a CYP2D6 inhibitor is necessary, follow the patient for signs of reduced efficacy or opioid withdrawal and consider increasing the Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets dosage. After stopping use of a CYP2D6 inhibitor, consider reducing the Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets dosage and follow the patient for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression or sedation .

5.6 Risks from Concomitant Use with Benzodiazepines or Other CNS Depressants

Profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death may result from the concomitant use of Stopayne Syrup Sulfate Tablets with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (e.g., non-benzodiazepine sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol). Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.

Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioid analgesics alone. Because of similar pharmacological properties, it is reasonable to expect similar risk with the concomitant use of other CNS depressant drugs with opioid analgesics .

If the decision is made to prescribe a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant concomitantly with an opioid analgesic, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use. In patients already receiving an opioid analgesic, prescribe a lower initial dose of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant than indicated in the absence of an opioid, and titrate based on clinical response. If an opioid analgesic is initiated in a patient already taking a benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant, prescribe a lower initial dose of the opioid analgesic, and titrate based on clinical response. Follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.

Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants (including alcohol and illicit drugs). Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use of the benzodiazepine or other CNS depressant have been determined. Screen patients for risk of substance use disorders, including opioid abuse and misuse, and warn them of the risk for overdose and death associated with the use of additional CNS depressants including alcohol and illicit drugs .

5.7 Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease or in Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients

The use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets in patients with acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment is contraindicated.

Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Disease

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets-treated patients with significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, and those with a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression are at increased risk of decreased respiratory drive including apnea, even at recommended dosages of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets .

Elderly, Cachectic, or Debilitated Patients

Life-threatening respiratory depression is more likely to occur in elderly, cachectic, or debilitated patients because they may have altered pharmacokinetics or altered clearance compared to younger, healthier patients .

Monitor such patients closely, particularly when initiating and titrating Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets and when Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are given concomitantly with other drugs that depress respiration . Alternatively, consider the use of non-opioid analgesics in these patients.

5.8 Interaction with Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors may potentiate the effects of morphine, codeine’s active metabolite, including respiratory depression, coma, and confusion. Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets should not be used in patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment .

5.9 Adrenal Insufficiency

Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use. Presentation of adrenal insufficiency may include non-specific symptoms and signs including nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. If adrenal insufficiency is suspected, confirm the diagnosis with diagnostic testing as soon as possible. If adrenal insufficiency is diagnosed, treat with physiologic replacement doses of corticosteroids. Wean the patient off of the opioid to allow adrenal function to recover and continue corticosteroid treatment until adrenal function recovers. Other opioids may be tried as some cases reported use of a different opioid without recurrence of adrenal insufficiency. The information available does not identify any particular opioids as being more likely to be associated with adrenal insufficiency.

5.10 Severe Hypotension

Stopayne Syrup Sulfate Tablets may cause severe hypotension including orthostatic hypotension and syncope in ambulatory patients. There is increased risk in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has already been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (e.g., phenothiazines or general anesthetics) . Monitor these patients for signs of hypotension after initiating or titrating the dosage of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets. In patients with circulatory shock, Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets may cause vasodilation that can further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure. Avoid the use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets in patients with circulatory shock.

5.11 Risks of Use in Patients with Increased Intracranial Pressure, Brain Tumors, Head Injury, or Impaired Consciousness

In patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO2 retention (e.g., those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors), Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO2 retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Monitor such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets.

Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets in patients with impaired consciousness or coma.

5.12 Risks of Use in Patients with Gastrointestinal Conditions

Stopayne Syrup Sulfate Tablets are contraindicated in patients with known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus.

The Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) in Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Opioids may cause increases in serum amylase. Monitor patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis, for worsening symptoms.

5.13 Increased Risk of Seizures in Patients with Seizure Disorders

The Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) in Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets may increase the frequency of seizures in patients with seizure disorders, and may increase the risk of seizures occurring in other clinical settings associated with seizures. Monitor patients with a history of seizure disorders for worsened seizure control during Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets therapy.

5.14 Withdrawal

Avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist or partial agonist (e.g., buprenorphine) analgesics in patients who are receiving a full opioid agonist analgesic, including Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets. In these patients, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms .

When discontinuing Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets in a physically-dependent patient, gradually taper the dosage . Do not abruptly discontinue Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets in these patients .

5.15 Risks of Driving and Operating Machinery

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets may impair the mental or physical abilities needed to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating machinery. Warn patients not to drive or operate dangerous machinery unless they are tolerant to the effects of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets and know how they will react to the medication .

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6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following serious adverse reactions are described, or described in greater detail, in other sections:

  • Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse
  • Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
  • Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) and Other Risk Factors for Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Children
  • Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
  • Interactions with Benzodiazepines and Other CNS Depressants
  • Adrenal Insufficiency
  • Severe Hypotension
  • Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions
  • Seizures
  • Withdrawal

    The following adverse reactions associated with the use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) were identified in clinical studies or postmarketing reports. Because some of these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

    Serious adverse reactions associated with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) were respiratory depression and, to a lesser degree, circulatory depression, respiratory arrest, shock, and cardiac arrest.


The most frequently observed adverse reactions with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) administration included drowsiness, lightheadedness, dizziness, sedation, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and constipation.

Other adverse reactions included allergic reactions, euphoria, dysphoria, abdominal pain, and pruritis.

Other less frequently observed adverse reactions expected from opioid analgesics, including Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets, include:

Cardiovascular System: faintness, flushing, hypotension, palpitations, syncope

Digestive System: abdominal cramps, anorexia, diarrhea, dry mouth, gastrointestinal distress, pancreatitis

Nervous System: anxiety, drowsiness, fatigue, headache, insomnia, nervousness, shakiness, somnolence, vertigo, visual disturbances, weakness

Skin and Appendages: rash, sweating, urticaria

Serotonin Syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs.

Adrenal Insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use.

Anaphylaxis:Anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets.

Androgen Deficiency: Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with chronic use of opioids .

The most common adverse reactions include: drowsiness, lightheadedness, dizziness, sedation, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, and sweating. (6)

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp. at 1-800-962-8364 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Table 1 includes clinically significant drug interactions with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets.


Inhibitors of CYP3A4


Clinical Impact:


The concomitant use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets with CYP3A4 inhibitors, may result in an increase in Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) plasma concentrations with subsequently greater metabolism by cytochrome CYP2D6, resulting in greater morphine levels, which could increase or prolong adverse reactions and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression, particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets is achieved .

After stopping a CYP3A4 inhibitor, as the effects of the inhibitor decline, it may result in lower Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) levels, greater norcodeine levels, and less metabolism via CYP2D6 with resultant lower morphine levels , resulting in decreased opioid efficacy or a withdrawal syndrome in patients who had developed physical dependence to Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate).


Intervention:


If concomitant use of CYP3A4 inhibitor is necessary, consider dosage reduction of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor patients for respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals.

If a CYP3A4 inhibitor is discontinued, consider increasing the Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets dosage until stable drug effects are achieved. Monitor for signs of opioid withdrawal.


Examples:


Macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin), azole-antifungal agents (e.g. ketoconazole), protease inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir)


CYP3A4 Inducers


Clinical Impact:


The concomitant use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets and CYP3A4 inducers can result in lower Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) levels, greater norcodeine levels, and less metabolism via 2D6 with resultant lower morphine levels , resulting in decreased efficacy or onset of a withdrawal syndrome in patients who have developed physical dependence [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

After stopping a CYP3A4 inducer, as the effects of the inducer decline, Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) plasma concentrations may increase with subsequently greater metabolism by cytochrome CYP2D6, resulting in greater morphine levels [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)], which could increase or prolong both the therapeutic effects and adverse reactions, and may cause serious respiratory depression.


Intervention:


If concomitant use of a CYP3A4 inducer is necessary, follow the patient for reduced efficacy and signs of opioid withdrawal and consider increasing the Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets dosage as needed.

If a CYP3A4 inducer is discontinued, consider Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets dosage reduction and monitor for signs of respiratory depression and sedation at frequent intervals.


Examples:


Rifampin, carbamazepine, phenytoin


Inhibitors of CYP2D6


Clinical Impact:


Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) is metabolized by CYP2D6 to form morphine. The concomitant use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets and CYP2D6 inhibitors can increase the plasma concentration of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate), but can decrease the plasma concentration of active metabolite morphine, which could result in reduced analgesic efficacy or symptoms of opioid withdrawal, particularly when an inhibitor is added after a stable dose of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets is achieved .

After stopping a CYP2D6 inhibitor, as the effects of the inhibitor decline, the Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) plasma concentration will decrease but the active metabolite morphine plasma concentration will increase, which could increase or prolong adverse reactions and may cause potentially fatal respiratory depression .


Intervention:


If concomitant use with a CYP2D6 inhibitor is necessary, or if a CYP2D6 inhibitor is discontinued after concomitant use, consider dosage adjustment of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets and monitor patients closely at frequent intervals.

If concomitant use with CYP2D6 inhibitors is necessary, follow the patient for reduced efficacy or signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal and consider increasing the Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets as needed.

After stopping use of a CYP2D6 inhibitor, consider reducing the Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets and monitor the patient for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression or sedation.


Examples


Paroxetine, fluoxetine, bupropion, quinidine.


Benzodiazepines and Other Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants


Clinical Impact:


Due to additive pharmacologic effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death.


Intervention:


Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients closely for signs of respiratory depression and sedation .


Examples:


Benzodiazepines and other sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol.


Serotonergic Drugs


Clinical Impact:


The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.


Intervention:


If concomitant use is warranted, carefully observe the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets if serotonin syndrome is suspected.


Examples:


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that effect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).


Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)


Clinical Impact:


MAOI interactions with opioids may manifest as serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma) .


Intervention:


Do not use Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets in patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment.

If urgent use of an opioid is necessary, use test doses and frequent titration of small doses of other opioids (such as oxycodone, hydrocodone, oxymorphone, hydrocodone, or buprenorphine) to treat pain while closely monitoring blood pressure and signs and symptoms of CNS and respiratory depression.


Examples:


Phenelzine, tranylcypromine, linezolid.


Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics


Clinical Impact:


May reduce the analgesic effect of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.


Intervention:


Avoid concomitant use.


Examples:


Butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, buprenorphine.


Muscle Relaxants


Clinical Impact:


Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression.


Intervention:


Monitor patients for signs of respiratory depression that may be greater than otherwise expected and decrease the dosage of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary.


Diuretics


Clinical Impact:


Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone.


Intervention:


Monitor patients for signs of diminished diuresis and/or effects on blood pressure and increase the dosage of the diuretic as needed.


Anticholinergic Drugs


Clinical Impact:


The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.


Intervention:


Monitor patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.

  • Serotonergic Drugs: Concomitant use may result in serotonin syndrome. Discontinue Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate if serotonin syndrome is suspected. (7)
  • Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics: Avoid use with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets because they may reduce analgesic effect of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets or precipitate withdrawal symptoms. (7)

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

  • Pregnancy: May cause fetal harm.
  • Lactation: Breastfeeding not recommended. (8.2)

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C

Risk Summary

Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy may cause neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome . Available data with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. In animal reproduction studies, Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) administration during organogenesis has been shown to produce delayed ossification in the offspring of mice at 1.4 times maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 360 mg/day, embryolethal and fetotoxic effects in the offspring of rats and hamsters at approximately 2 to 3 times the MRHD, and cranial malformations/cranioschisis in the offspring of hamsters between 2 and 8 times the MRHD [see Data ].

All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions: Prolonged use of opioid analgesics during pregnancy for medical or nonmedical purposes can result in physical dependence in the neonate and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome shortly after birth.

Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. The onset, duration, and severity of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination of the drug by the newborn. Observe newborns for symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and manage accordingly .

Labor or Delivery: Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho-physiologic effects in neonates. An opioid antagonist, such as naloxone, must be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are not recommended for use in pregnant women during or immediately prior to labor, when other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioid analgesics, including Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets, can prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. However, this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilation, which tends to shorten labor. Monitor neonates exposed to opioid analgesics during labor for signs of excess sedation and respiratory depression.

Data

Animal Data: Studies on the reproductive and developmental effects of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) have been reported in the published literature in hamsters, rats, mice and rabbits.

In a study in which pregnant hamsters were administered 150 mg/kg twice daily of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) (oral; approximately 7 times the maximum recommended daily dose of 360 mg/day for adults on a mg/m2 basis) during organogenesis cranial malformations (i.e., meningoencephalocele) in several fetuses were reported; as well as the observation of increases in the percentage of resorptions per litter. Doses of 50 and 150 mg/kg, bid resulted in fetotoxicity as demonstrated by decreased fetal body weight. In an earlier study in hamsters, single oral doses of 73 to 360 mg/kg level on Gestation Day 8 (oral; approximately 2 to 8 times the maximum recommended daily dose of 360 mg/day for adults on a mg/m2 basis), reportedly produced cranioschisis in all of the fetuses examined.

In studies in rats, doses at the 120 mg/kg level (oral; approximately 3 times the maximum recommended daily dose of 360 mg/day for adults on a mg/m2 basis) during organogenesis, in the toxic range for the adult animal, were associated with an increase in embryo resorption at the time of implantation.

In pregnant mice, a single 100 mg/kg dose (subcutaneous; approximately 1.4 times the recommended daily dose of 360 mg/day for adults on a mg/mg2 basis) administered between Gestation Day 7 and 12 reportedly resulted in delayed ossification in the offspring.

No teratogenic effects were observed in rabbits administered up to 30 mg/kg (approximately 2 times the maximum recommended daily dose of 360 mg/day for adults on a mg/m2 basis) of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) during organogenesis.

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) (30 mg/kg) administered subcutaneously to pregnant rats during pregnancy and for 25 days after delivery increased neonatal mortality at birth. This dose is 0.8 times the maximum recommended human dose of 360 mg/day on a body surface area comparison.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

Stopayne Syrup and its active metabolite, morphine, are present in human milk. There are published studies and cases that have reported excessive sedation, respiratory depression, and death in infants exposed to Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) via breast milk. Women who are ultra-rapid metabolizers of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) achieve higher than expected serum levels of morphine, potentially leading to higher levels of morphine in breast milk that can be dangerous in their breastfed infants. In women with normal Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) metabolism (normal CYP2D6 activity), the amount of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) secreted into human milk is low and dose-dependent.

There is no information on the effects of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including excess sedation, respiratory depression, and death in a breastfed infant, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Clinical Considerations

If infants are exposed to Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets through breast milk, they should be monitored for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped, or when breastfeeding is stopped.

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

Infertility

Chronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility in females and males of reproductive potential. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible .

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of Stopayne Syrup Sulfate Tablets in pediatric patients have not been established.

Life-threatening respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) . In most of the reported cases, these events followed tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy, and many of the children had evidence of being ultra-rapid metabolizers of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) (i.e., multiple copies of the gene for cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2D6 or high morphine concentrations). Children with sleep apnea may be particularly sensitive to the respiratory depressant effects of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate). Because of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression and death:

  • Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are contraindicated for all children younger than 12 years of age .
  • Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are contraindicated for post-operative management in pediatric patients younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy .
  • Avoid the use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets in adolescents 12 to 18 years of age who have other risk factors that may increase their sensitivity to the respiratory depressant effects of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) unless the benefits outweigh the risks. Risk factors include conditions associated with hypoventilation, such as postoperative status, obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, severe pulmonary disease, neuromuscular disease, and concomitant use of other medications that cause respiratory depression .

8.5 Geriatric Use

Elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) may have increased sensitivity to Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate). In general, use caution when selecting a dosage for an elderly patient, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Respiratory depression is the chief risk for elderly patients treated with opioids, and has occurred after large initial doses were administered to patients who were not opioid-tolerant or when opioids were co-administered with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dosage of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets slowly in geriatric patients and monitor closely for signs of central nervous system and respiratory depression .

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

No formal studies have been conducted in patients with hepatic impairment so the pharmacokinetics of Stopayne Syrup in this patient population are unknown. Start these patients with a lower than normal dosage of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets or with longer dosing intervals and titrate slowly while monitoring for signs of respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension.

8.7 Renal Impairment

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) pharmacokinetics may be altered in patients with renal failure. Clearance may be decreased and the metabolites may accumulate to much higher plasma levels in patients with renal failure as compared to patients with normal renal function. Start these patients with a lower than normal dosage of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets or with longer dosing intervals and titrate slowly while monitoring for signs of respiratory depression, sedation, and hypotension.

9 DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

9.1 Controlled Substance

Stopayne Syrup Sulfate Tablets contain Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate), a Schedule II controlled substance.

9.2 Abuse

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets contains Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate), a substance with a high potential for abuse similar to other opioids including fentanyl, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and tapentadol. Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets can be abused and is subject to misuse, addiction, and criminal diversion .

All patients treated with opioids require careful monitoring for signs of abuse and addiction, because use of opioid analgesic products carry the risk of addiction even under appropriate medical use.

Prescription drug abuse is the intentional non-therapeutic use of a prescription drug, even once, for its rewarding psychological or physiological effects.

Drug addiction is a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and includes: a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal.

“Drug-seeking” behavior is very common in persons with substance use disorders. Drug-seeking tactics include emergency calls or visits near the end of office hours, refusal to undergo appropriate examination, testing, or referral, repeated “loss” of prescriptions, tampering with prescriptions, and reluctance to provide prior medical records or contact information for other treating healthcare provider(s). “Doctor shopping” (visiting multiple prescribers to obtain additional prescriptions) is common among drug abusers and people suffering from untreated addiction. Preoccupation with achieving adequate pain relief can be appropriate behavior in a patient with poor pain control.

Abuse and addiction are separate and distinct from physical dependence and tolerance. Healthcare providers should be aware that addiction may not be accompanied by concurrent tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence in all addicts. In addition, abuse of opioids can occur in the absence of true addiction.

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets, like other opioids, can be diverted for non-medical use into illicit channels of distribution. Careful record-keeping of prescribing information, including quantity, frequency, and renewal requests, as required by state and federal law, is strongly advised.

Proper assessment of the patient, proper prescribing practices, periodic re-evaluation of therapy, and proper dispensing and storage are appropriate measures that help to limit abuse of opioid drugs.

Risks Specific to Abuse of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are for oral use only. Abuse of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets poses a risk of overdose and death. The risk is increased with concurrent use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets with alcohol and other central nervous system depressants. Parenteral drug abuse is commonly associated with transmission of infection diseases such as hepatitis and HIV.

9.3 Dependence

Both tolerance and physical dependence can develop during chronic opioid therapy. Tolerance is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect such as analgesia (in the absence of disease progression or other external factors). Tolerance may occur to both the desired and undesired effects of drugs, and may develop at different rates for different effects.

Physical dependence results in withdrawal symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or a significant dosage reduction of a drug. Withdrawal also may be precipitated through the administration of drugs with opioid antagonist activity (e.g., naloxone, nalmefene), mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics (e.g., pentazocine, butorphanol, nalbuphine), or partial agonists (e.g., buprenorphine). Physical dependence may not occur to a clinically significant degree until after several days to weeks of continued opioid usage.

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets should not be abruptly discontinued in a physically-dependent patient . If Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are abruptly discontinued in a physically-dependent patient, a withdrawal syndrome may occur. Some or all of the following can characterize this syndrome: restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, and mydriasis. Other signs and symptoms also may develop, including irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, or heart rate.

Infants born to mothers physically dependent on opioids will also be physically dependent and may exhibit respiratory difficulties and withdrawal signs .

10 OVERDOSAGE

Clinical Presentation

Acute overdose with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets can be manifested by respiratory depression, somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, constricted pupils, and, in some cases, pulmonary edema, bradycardia, hypotension, partial or complete airway obstruction, atypical snoring, and death. Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen with hypoxia in overdose situations .

Treatment of Overdose

In case of overdose, priorities are the reestablishment of a patent and protected airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation, if needed. Employ other supportive measures (including oxygen and vasopressors) in the management of circulatory shock and pulmonary edema as indicated. Cardiac arrest or arrhythmias will require advanced life-support techniques.

The opioid antagonists, naloxone or nalmefene, are specific antidotes to respiratory depression resulting from opioid overdose. For clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) overdose, administer an opioid antagonist. Opioid antagonists should not be administered in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) overdose.

Because the duration of opioid reversal is expected to be less than the duration of action of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) in Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets, carefully monitor the patient until spontaneous respiration is reliably reestablished. If the response to an opioid antagonist is suboptimal or only brief in nature, administer additional antagonist as directed by the product’s prescribing information.

In an individual physically dependent on opioids, administration of the recommended usual dosage of the antagonist will precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome. The severity of the withdrawal symptoms experienced will depend on the degree of physical dependence and the dose of the antagonist administered. If a decision is made to treat serious respiratory depression in the physically dependent patient, administration of the antagonist should be begun with care and by titration with smaller than usual doses of the antagonist.

11 DESCRIPTION

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets USP contain Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate), an opioid agonist, available for oral administration containing either 15 mg, 30 mg, or 60 mg of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate USP. The chemical name is morphinan-6-ol,7,8-didehydro-4,5-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methyl-(5α,6α)-, sulfate (2:1) (salt), trihydrate. Its molecular formula is (C18H21NO3)2 - H2SO4 - 3H2O and its molecular weight is 750.85 g/mol.

Its structure is as follows:

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate trihydrate is a fine, white, crystalline powder which is soluble in water and insoluble in chloroform and ether.

The inactive ingredients in Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets USP include: colloidal silicon dioxide, microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized starch and stearic acid.

chem.jpg

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Stopayne Syrup sulfate is an opioid agonist relatively selective for the mu-opioid receptor, but with a much weaker affinity than morphine. The analgesic properties of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) have been speculated to come from its conversion to morphine, although the exact mechanism of analgesic action remains unknown.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Effects on the Central Nervous System

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) produces respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers. The respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to both increases in carbon dioxide tension and electrical stimulation.

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) causes miosis, even in total darkness. Pinpoint pupils are a sign of opioid overdose but are not pathognomonic (e.g., pontine lesions of hemorrhagic or ischemic origins may produce similar findings). Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen due to hypoxia in overdose situations.

Effects on the Gastrointestinal Tract and Other Smooth Muscle

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) causes a reduction in motility associated with an increase in smooth muscle tone in the antrum of the stomach and duodenum. Digestion of food in the small intestine is delayed and propulsive contractions are decreased. Propulsive peristaltic waves in the colon are decreased, while tone may be increased to the point of spasm, resulting in constipation. Other opioid-induced effects may include a reduction in biliary and pancreatic secretions, spasm of sphincter of Oddi, and transient elevations in serum amylase.

Effects on the Cardiovascular System

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) produces peripheral vasodilation which may result in orthostatic hypotension or syncope. Manifestations of histamine release and/or peripheral vasodilation may include pruritus, flushing, red eyes, sweating, and/or orthostatic hypotension.

Effects on the Endocrine System

Opioids inhibit the secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, and luteinizing hormone (LH) in humans . They also stimulate prolactin, growth hormone (GH) secretion, and pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon. Chronic use of opioids may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to androgen deficiency that may manifest as low libido, impotence, erectile dysfunction, amenorrhea, or infertility. The causal role of opioids in the clinical syndrome of hypogonadism is unknown because the various medical, physical, lifestyle, and psychological stressors that may influence gonadal hormone levels have not been adequately controlled for in studies conducted to date .

Effects on the Immune System

Opioids have been shown to have a variety of effects on components of the immune system in in vitro and animal models. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Overall, the effects of opioids appear to be modestly immunosuppressive.

Concentration–Efficacy Relationships

The minimum effective analgesic concentration will vary widely among patients, especially among patients who have been previously treated with potent agonist opioids. The minimum effective analgesic concentration of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) for any individual patient may increase over time due to an increase in pain, the development of a new pain syndrome, and/or the development of analgesic tolerance .

Concentration–Adverse Reaction Relationships

There is a relationship between increasing Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) plasma concentration and increasing frequency of dose-related opioid adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, CNS effects, and respiratory depression. In opioid-tolerant patients, the situation may be altered by the development of tolerance to opioid-related adverse reactions .

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with maximum plasma concentration occurring 60 minutes post administration. Administration of 15 mg of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate every four hours for 5 days resulted in steady-state concentrations of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate), morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) within 48 hours.

Food Effect: When 60 mg Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate was administered 30 minutes after ingesting a high fat/high calorie meal, there was no significant change in the rate and extent of absorption of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate).

Distribution

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) has been reported to have an apparent volume of distribution of approximately 3 to 6 L/kg, indicating extensive distribution of the drug into tissues. Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) has low plasma protein binding with about 7% to 25% of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) bound to plasma proteins.

Elimination

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) is metabolized by conjugation to codeine-6-glucuronide (70% to 80%), by O-demethylation to morphine (5% to 10%), and by N-demethylation to norcodeine (~10%). Approximately 90% of the total dose of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) is excreted through the kidneys. The plasma half-lives of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) and its metabolites have been reported to be approximately 3 hours.

Metabolism: About 70% to 80% of the administered dose of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) is metabolized by conjugation with glucuronic acid to codeine-6-glucuronide (C6G) and via O-demethylation to morphine (about 5% to 10%) and N-demethylation to norcodeine (about 10%) respectively. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B7 and 2B4 are the major enzymes mediating glucurodination of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) to C6G. Cytochrome P450 2D6 is the major enzyme responsible for conversion of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) to morphine and P450 3A4 is the major enzyme mediating conversion of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) to norcodeine. Morphine and norcodeine are further metabolized by conjugation with glucuronic acid. The glucuronide metabolites of morphine are morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G). Morphine and M6G are known to have analgesic activity in humans. The analgesic activity of C6G in humans is unknown. Norcodeine and M3G are generally not considered to possess analgesic properties.

Excretion: Approximately 90% of the total dose of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) is excreted through the kidneys, of which approximately 10% is unchanged Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate). Plasma half-lives of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) and its metabolites have been reported to be approximately 3 hours.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

Two-year carcinogenicity studies have been conducted in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity in male and female rats, respectively, at dietary doses up to 70 and 80 mg/kg/day of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) (approximately 2 times the maximum recommended daily dose of 360 mg/day for adults on a mg/m2 basis) for two years. Similarly there was no evidence of carcinogenicity activity in male and female mice at dietary doses up to 400 mg/kg/day of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) (approximately 5 times the maximum recommended daily dose of 360 mg/day for adults on a mg/m2 basis) for two years.

Mutagenesis

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay or clastogenic in the in vitro Chinese hamster ovary cell chromosome aberration assay.

Impairment of Fertility

No animal studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) on male or female fertility.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets USP

15 mg tablet: supplied as white to off-white biconvex tablets with “15” debossed on the scored side and “54 613” debossed on the other side.

NDC 0054-0243-24: 100 (4 blister packs per carton x 25 tablets per blister pack) Unit-Dose Tablets

30 mg tablet: supplied as white to off-white biconvex tablets with “30” debossed on the scored side and “54 783” debossed on the other side.

NDC 0054-0244-24: 100 (4 blister packs per carton x 25 tablets per blister pack) Unit-Dose Tablets

NDC 0054-0244-25: Bottle of 100 Tablets

60 mg tablet: supplied as white to off-white biconvex tablets with “60” debossed on the scored side and “54 412” debossed on the other side.

NDC 0054-0245-25: Bottle of 100 Tablets

Storage

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F), excursions permitted between 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).

Protect from moisture.

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP/NF.

Blisters are not child-resistant. Use child-resistant closure if dispensing to outpatient.

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).

Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse

Inform patients that the use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets, even when taken as recommended, can result in addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death . Instruct patients not to share Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets with others and to take steps to protect Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets from theft or misuse.

Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression

Inform patients of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression, including information that the risk is greatest when starting Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets or when the dosage is increased, and that it can occur even at recommended dosages . Advise patients how to recognize respiratory depression and to seek medical attention if breathing difficulties develop.

Accidental Ingestion

Inform patients that accidental ingestion, especially by children, may result in respiratory depression or death .

Instruct patients to take steps to store Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate securely and to properly dispose of unused Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets in accordance with the local state guidelines and/or regulations.

Ultra-Rapid Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Metabolism of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) and Other Risk Factors for Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Children

Advise caregivers that Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are contraindicated in all children younger than 12 years of age and in children younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy. Advise caregivers of children 12 to 18 years of age receiving Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets to monitor for signs of respiratory depression .

Interactions with Benzodiazepines and Other CNS Depressants

Inform patients and caregivers that potentially fatal additive effects may occur if Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, and not to use these concomitantly unless supervised by a healthcare provider .

Serotonin Syndrome

Inform patients that opioids could cause a rare but potentially life-threatening condition resulting from concomitant administration of serotonergic drugs. Warn patients of the symptoms of serotonin syndrome and to seek medical attention right away if symptoms develop. Instruct patients to inform their physicians if they are taking, or plan to take serotonergic medications .

MAOI Interaction

Inform patients not to take Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets while using any drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase. Patients should not start MAOIs while taking Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets .

Adrenal Insufficiency

Inform patients that opioids could cause adrenal insufficiency, a potentially life-threatening condition. Adrenal insufficiency may present with non-specific symptoms and signs such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. Advise patients to seek medical attention if they experience a constellation of these symptoms .

Important Administration Instructions

Instruct patients how to properly take Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets.

  • Advise patients not to adjust the dose of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets without consulting a physician or other healthcare professional.
  • If patients have been receiving treatment with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets for more than a few weeks and cessation of therapy is indicated, counsel them on the importance of safely tapering the dose and that abruptly discontinuing the medication could precipitate withdrawal symptoms. Provide a dose schedule to accomplish a gradual discontinuation of the medication .

Hypotension

Inform patients that Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets may cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope. Instruct patients how to recognize symptoms of low blood pressure and how to reduce the risk of serious consequences should hypotension occur (e.g., sit or lie down, carefully rise from a sitting or lying position) .

Anaphylaxis

Inform patients that anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets. Advise patients how to recognize such a reaction and when to seek medical attention .

Pregnancy

Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome: Inform female patients of reproductive potential that prolonged use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated .

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Inform female patients of reproductive potential that Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets can cause fetal harm and to inform the healthcare provider of a known or suspected pregnancy .

Lactation

Advise women that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].

Infertility

Inform patients that chronic use of opioids may cause reduced fertility. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3)].

Driving or Operating Heavy Machinery

Inform patients that Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets may impair the ability to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. Advise patients not to perform such tasks until they know how they will react to the medication .

Constipation

Advise patients of the potential for severe constipation, including management instructions and when to seek medical attention .

Disposal of Unused Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets

Advise patients to properly dispose of unused Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets. Advise patients to throw the drug in the household trash following these steps. 1) Remove them from their original containers and mix them with an undesirable substance, such as used coffee grounds or kitty litter (this makes the drug less appealing to children and pets, and unrecognizable to people who may intentionally go through the trash seeking drugs). 2) Place the mixture in a sealable bag, empty can, or other container to prevent the drug from leaking or breaking out of a garbage bag, or to dispose of in accordance with local state guidelines and/or regulations.

  • Distr. by West-Ward
  • Pharmaceuticals Corp.
  • Eatontown, NJ 07724
  • 10005657/10
  • Revised August 2017

Medication Guide


Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate (koe’ deen sul’ fate) Tablets USP CII


Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets are:

  • A strong prescription pain medicine that contains an opioid (narcotic) that is used to manage mild to moderate pain, where treatment with an opioid is appropriate, and when other pain treatments such as non-opioid pain medicines do not treat your pain well enough or you cannot tolerate them.
  • An opioid pain medicine that can put you at risk for overdose and death. Even if you take your dose correctly as prescribed you are at risk for opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse that can lead to death.

Important information about Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets:

  • Get emergency help right away if you take too much Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets (overdose). When you first start taking Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets, when your dose is changed, or if you take too much (overdose), serious or life-threatening breathing problems that can lead to death may occur.
  • Taking Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets with other opioid medicines, benzodiazepines, alcohol, or other central nervous system depressants (including street drugs) can cause severe drowsiness, decreased awareness, breathing problems, coma, and death.
  • Never give anyone else your Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets. They could die from taking it. Store Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets away from children and in a safe place to prevent stealing or abuse. Selling or giving away Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets is against the law.

Important Information Guiding Use in Pediatric Patients:

  • Do not give Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets to a child younger than 12 years of age.
  • Do not give Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets to a child younger than 18 years of age after surgery to remove the tonsils and/or adenoids.
  • Avoid giving Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets to children between 12 to 18 years of age who have risk factors for breathing problems such as obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, or underlying lung problems.

Do not take Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets if you have:

  • Severe asthma, trouble breathing, or other lung problems.
  • A bowel blockage or have narrowing of the stomach or intestines.
  • An allergy to Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets or any of the ingredients.

Before taking Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets, tell your healthcare provider if you have a history of:

  • Head injury, seizures
  • Problems urinating
  • Abuse of street or prescription drugs, alcohol addiction, or mental health problems.
  • Liver, kidney, thyroid problems
  • Pancreas or gallbladder problems
  • Have been told by your healthcare provider that you are a “rapid metabolizer” of certain medicines

Tell your healthcare provider if you are:

  • Pregnant or planning to become pregnant. Prolonged use of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate during pregnancy can cause withdrawal symptoms in your newborn baby that could be life-threatening if not recognized and treated.
  • Breastfeeding. Not recommended; may harm your baby.
  • Taking prescription or over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, or herbal supplements. Taking Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate with certain other medicines can cause serious side effects that could lead to death.

When taking Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets:

  • Do not change your dose. Take Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets exactly as prescribed by your healthcare provider. Use the lowest dose possible for the shortest time needed.
  • Take your prescribed dose every 4 hours as needed. Do not take more than your prescribed dose. If you miss a dose, take your next dose at your usual time.
  • Call your healthcare provider if the dose you are taking does not control your pain.
  • If you have been taking Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets regularly, do not stop taking Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate without talking to your healthcare provider.
  • After you stop taking Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets, dispose the unused Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets in accordance with the local state guidelines and/or regulations.

While taking Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets DO NOT:

  • Drive or operate heavy machinery, until you know how Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate affects you. Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate can make you sleepy, dizzy, or lightheaded.
  • Drink alcohol or use prescription or over-the-counter medicines that contain alcohol. Using products containing alcohol during treatment with Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate may cause you to overdose and die.

The possible side effects of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets:

  • Constipation, nausea, sleepiness, vomiting, tiredness, headache, dizziness, abdominal pain. Call your healthcare provider if you have any of these symptoms and they are severe.

Get emergency medical help if you have:

  • Trouble breathing, shortness of breath, fast heartbeat, chest pain, swelling of your face, tongue, or throat, extreme drowsiness, light-headedness when changing positions, feeling faint, agitation, high body temperature, trouble walking, stiff muscles, or mental changes such as confusion.
  • If you are a nursing mother taking Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) Sulfate Tablets and your breastfeeding baby has: increased sleepiness, confusion, difficulty breathing, shallow breathing, limpness, or difficulty breastfeeding.

These are not all the possible side effects of Stopayne Syrup (Codeine Phosphate) sulfate. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. For more information go to dailymed.nlm.nih.gov


Distr. by: West-Ward

Pharmaceuticals Corp.

Eatontown, NJ 07724

For more information, please call West-Ward Pharmaceuticals at 1-800-962-8364.


This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration


10005657/10

Revised August 2017

carton-15mg-tab-07.jpg

Promethazine Hydrochloride:


INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) with codeine syrup is indicated for the temporary relief of coughs and upper respiratory symptoms associated with allergy or the common cold.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

The combination of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride and codeine phosphate is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age, because the combination may cause fatal respiratory depression in this age population.

Codeine is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to the drug.

Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) is contraindicated in comatose states, and in individuals known to be hypersensitive or to have had an idiosyncratic reaction to Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) or to other phenothiazines.

Antihistamines and codeine are both contraindicated for use in the treatment of lower respiratory tract symptoms, including asthma.

WARNINGS

WARNING:

The combination of Stopayne Syrup hydrochloride and codeine phosphate is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age. Concomitant administration of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) products with other respiratory depressants has an association with respiratory depression, and sometimes death, in pediatric patients.

Postmarketing cases of respiratory depression, including fatalities, have been reported with use of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride in pediatric patients less than 2 years of age. A wide range of weight-based doses of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride have resulted in respiratory depression in these patients.

Codeine:

Dosage of codeine SHOULD NOT BE INCREASED if cough fails to respond; an unresponsive cough should be reevaluated in 5 days or sooner for possible underlying pathology, such as foreign body or lower respiratory tract disease.

Codeine may cause or aggravate constipation.

Respiratory depression leading to arrest, coma, and death has occurred with the use of codeine antitussives in young children, particularly in the under-one-year infants whose ability to deactivate the drug is not fully developed.

Administration of codeine may be accompanied by histamine release and should be used with caution in atopic children.

Head Injury And Increased Intracranial Pressure:

The respiratory-depressant effects of narcotic analgesics and their capacity to elevate cerebrospinal fluid pressure may be markedly exaggerated in the presence of head injury, intracranial lesions or a pre-existing increase in intracranial pressure. Narcotics may produce adverse reactions which may obscure the clinical course of patients with head injuries.

Asthma And Other Respiratory Conditions:

Narcotic analgesics or cough suppressants, including codeine, should not be used in asthmatic patients. Nor should they be used in acute febrile illness associated with productive cough or in chronic respiratory disease where interference with ability to clear the tracheobronchial tree of secretions would have a deleterious effect on the patient's respiratory function.

Hypotensive Effect:

Codeine may produce orthostatic hypotension in ambulatory patients.

Stopayne Syrup :

CNS Depression –

Stopayne Syrup may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a vehicle or operating machinery. The impairment may be amplified by concomitant use of other central-nervous-system depressants such as alcohol, sedatives/hypnotics (including barbiturates), narcotics, narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers; therefore, such agents should either be eliminated or given in reduced dosage in the presence of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl (see PRECAUTIONS - Information For Patients and Drug Interactions ).

Respiratory Depression –

Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) may lead to potentially fatal respiratory depression.

Use of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) in patients with compromised respiratory function (e.g., COPD, sleep apnea) should be avoided.

Lower Seizure Threshold –

Stopayne Syrup may lower seizure threshold. It should be used with caution in persons with seizure disorders or in persons who are using concomitant medications, such as narcotics or local anesthetics, which may also affect seizure threshold.

Bone-Marrow Depression –

Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) should be used with caution in patients with bone marrow depression. Leukopenia and agranulocytosis have been reported, usually when Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl has been used in association with other known marrow-toxic agents.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome –

A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl alone or in combination with antipsychotic drugs. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis and cardiac dysrhythmias).

The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to identify cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever and primary central nervous system (CNS) pathology.

The management of NMS should include 1) immediate discontinuation of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl, antipsychotic drugs, if any, and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for uncomplicated NMS.

Since recurrences of NMS have been reported with phenothiazines, the reintroduction of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl should be carefully considered.

Use In Pediatric Patients

The combination of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride and codeine phosphate is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age. Concomitant administration of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) products with other respiratory depressants has an association with respiratory depression, and sometimes death, in pediatric patients. The association does not directly relate to individualized weight-based dosing, which might otherwise permit safe administration.

Excessively large dosages of antihistamines, including Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride, in pediatric patients may cause sudden death (see OVERDOSAGE ). Hallucinations and convulsions have occurred with therapeutic doses and overdoses of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride in pediatric patients. In pediatric patients who are acutely ill associated with dehydration, there is an increased susceptibility to dystonias with the use of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl.

Other Considerations

Administration of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) has been associated with reported cholestatic jaundice.

PRECAUTIONS

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with the drug combination-promethazine and codeine. It is not known whether this drug combination can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Stopayne Syrup hydrochloride and codeine phosphate should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

General:

Narcotic analgesics, including codeine, should be administered with caution and the initial dose reduced in patients with acute abdominal conditions, convulsive disorders, significant hepatic or renal impairment, fever, hypothyroidism, Addison's disease, ulcerative colitis, prostatic hypertrophy, in patients with recent gastrointestinal or urinary tract surgery, and in the very young or elderly or debilitated patients.

Drugs having anticholinergic properties should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, stenosing peptic ulcer, pyloroduodenal obstruction, and bladder-neck obstruction.

Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) should be used cautiously in persons with cardiovascular disease or with impairment of liver function.

Ultra-Rapid Metabolizers of Codeine

Some individuals may be ultra-rapid metabolizers due to a specific CYP2D6*2x2 genotype. These individuals convert codeine into its active metabolite, morphine, more rapidly and completely than other people. This rapid conversion results in higher than expected serum morphine levels. Even at labeled dosage regimens, individuals who are ultra-rapid metabolizers may experience overdose symptoms such as extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing.

The prevalence of this CYP2D6 phenotype varies widely and has been estimated at 0.5 to 1% in Chinese and Japanese, 0.5 to 1% in Hispanics, 1–10% in Caucasians, 3% in African Americans, and 16–28% in North Africans, Ethiopians and Arabs. Data is not available for other ethnic groups.

When physicians prescribe codeine-containing drugs, they should choose the lowest effective dose for the shortest period of time and should inform their patients about these risks and the signs of morphine overdose.

Information For Patients:

Patients should be advised to measure Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) with codeine syrup with an accurate measuring device. A household teaspoon is not an accurate measuring device and could lead to overdosage, especially when a half a teaspoon is measured. A pharmacist can recommend an appropriate measuring device and can provide instructions for measuring the correct dose.

Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) and codeine may cause marked drowsiness or may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a vehicle or operating machinery. Ambulatory patients should be told to avoid engaging in such activities until it is known that they do not become drowsy or dizzy from Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) and codeine therapy. Pediatric patients should be supervised to avoid potential harm in bike riding or in other hazardous activities.

The concomitant use of alcohol or other central-nervous-system depressants, such as sedatives/hypnotics (including barbiturates), narcotics, narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers may enhance impairment and should be avoided or their dosage reduced (see WARNINGS -CNS Depression and PRECAUTIONS-Drug Interactions ).

Patients should be advised to report any involuntary muscle movements.

Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun.

Codeine, like other narcotic analgesics, may produce orthostatic hypotension in some ambulatory patients. Patients should be cautioned accordingly.

Caution patients that some people have a variation in a liver enzyme and change codeine into morphine more rapidly and completely than other people. These people are ultra-rapid metabolizers and are more likely to have higher-than-normal levels of morphine in their blood after taking codeine which can result in overdose symptoms such as extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing. In most cases, it is unknown if someone is an ultra-rapid codeine metabolizer.

Nursing mothers taking codeine can also have higher morphine levels in their breast milk if they are ultra-rapid metabolizers. These higher levels of morphine in breast milk may lead to life-threatening or fatal side effects in nursing babies. Instruct nursing mothers to watch for signs of morphine toxicity in their infants including increased sleepiness (more than usual), difficulty breastfeeding, breathing difficulties, or limpness. Instruct nursing mothers to talk to the baby's doctor immediately if they notice these signs and, if they cannot reach the doctor right away, to take the baby to an emergency room or call 911 (or local emergency services).

Drug Interactions:

Codeine:

In patients receiving MAO inhibitors, an initial small test dose is advisable to allow observation of any excessive narcotic effects or MAOI interaction.

Stopayne Syrup :

CNS Depressants –

Stopayne Syrup may increase, prolong, or intensify the sedative action of other central-nervous-system depressants, such as alcohol, sedatives/hypnotics (including barbiturates), narcotics, narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers; therefore, such agents should be avoided or administered in reduced dosage to patients receiving Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl. When given concomitantly with Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride), the dose of barbiturates should be reduced by at least one-half, and the dose of narcotics should be reduced by one-quarter to one-half. Dosage must be individualized. Excessive amounts of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl relative to a narcotic may lead to restlessness and motor hyperactivity in the patient with pain; these symptoms usually disappear with adequate control of the pain.

Epinephrine –

Because of the potential for Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) to reverse epinephrine's vasopressor effect, epinephrine should NOT be used to treat hypotension associated with Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) overdose.

Anticholinergics –

Concomitant use of other agents with anticholinergic properties should be undertaken with caution.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors –

Drug interactions, including an increased incidence of extrapyramidal effects, have been reported when some MAOI and phenothiazines are used concomitantly.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions:

Because narcotic analgesics may increase biliary tract pressure with resultant increases in plasma amylase or lipase levels, determination of these enzyme levels may be unreliable for 24 hours after a narcotic analgesic has been given.

The following laboratory tests may be affected in patients who are receiving therapy with Stopayne Syrup hydrochloride.

Pregnancy Tests:

Diagnostic pregnancy tests based on immunological reactions between HCG and anti-HCG may result in false-negative or false-positive interpretations.

Glucose Tolerance Test:

An increase in blood glucose has been reported in patients receiving Stopayne Syrup.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility:

Long-term animal studies have not been performed to assess the carcinogenic potential of codeine or of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride), nor are there other animal or human data concerning carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or impairment of fertility with these agents. Codeine has been reported to show no evidence of carcinogenicity or mutagenicity in a variety of test systems, including the micronucleus and sperm abnormality assays and the Salmonella assay. Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) was nonmutagenic in the Salmonella test system of Ames.

Pregnancy:

Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category C.

Codeine:

A study in rats and rabbits reported no teratogenic effect of codeine administered during the period of organogenesis in doses ranging from 5 to 120 mg/kg. In the rat, doses at the 120-mg/kg level, in the toxic range for the adult animal, were associated with an increase in embryo resorption at the time of implantation. In another study a single 100-mg/kg dose of codeine administered to pregnant mice reportedly resulted in delayed ossification in the offspring.

There are no studies in humans, and the significance of these findings to humans, if any, is not known.

Stopayne Syrup :

Teratogenic effects have not been demonstrated in rat-feeding studies at doses of 6.25 and 12.5 mg/kg of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl. These doses are from approximately 2.1 to 4.2 times the maximum recommended total daily dose of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) for a 50-kg subject, depending upon the indication for which the drug is prescribed. Daily doses of 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally have been found to produce fetal mortality in rats.

Specific studies to test the action of the drug on parturition, lactation, and development of the animal neonate were not done, but a general preliminary study in rats indicated no effect on these parameters. Although antihistamines have been found to produce fetal mortality in rodents, the pharmacological effects of histamine in the rodent do not parallel those in man. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) in pregnant women.

Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) and codeine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nonteratogenic Effects -

Dependence has been reported in newborns whose mothers took opiates regularly during pregnancy. Withdrawal signs include irritability, excessive crying, tremors, hyperreflexia, fever, vomiting, and diarrhea. Signs usually appear during the first few days of life.

Stopayne Syrup administered to a pregnant woman within two weeks of delivery may inhibit platelet aggregation in the newborn.

Labor And Delivery:

Narcotic analgesics cross the placental barrier. The closer to delivery and the larger the dose used, the greater the possibility of respiratory depression in the newborn. Narcotic analgesics should be avoided during labor if delivery of a premature infant is anticipated. If the mother has received narcotic analgesics during labor, newborn infants should be observed closely for signs of respiratory depression. Resuscitation may be required (see OVERDOSAGE ).

Limited data suggest that use of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride during labor and delivery does not have an appreciable effect on the duration of labor or delivery and does not increase the risk of need for intervention in the newborn.

The effect of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) and/or codeine on the later growth and development of the newborn is unknown.

Nursing Mothers:

It is not known whether Stopayne Syrup is excreted in human milk.

Codeine is secreted into human milk. In women with normal codeine metabolism (normal CYP2D6 activity), the amount of codeine secreted into human milk is low and dose-dependent. Despite the common use of codeine products to manage postpartum pain, reports of adverse events in infants are rare. However, some women are ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine. These women achieve higher-than-expected serum levels of codeine's active metabolite, morphine, leading to higher-than-expected levels of morphine in breast milk and potentially dangerously high serum morphine levels in their breastfed infants. Therefore, maternal use of codeine can potentially lead to serious adverse reactions, including death, in nursing infants.

The prevalence of this CYP2D6 phenotype varies widely and has been estimated at 0.5 to 1% in Chinese and Japanese, 0.5 to 1% in Hispanics, 1–10% in Caucasians, 3% in African Americans, and 16–28% in North Africans, Ethiopians and Arabs. Data is not available for other ethnic groups.

The risk of infant exposure to codeine and morphine through breast milk should be weighed against the benefits of breastfeeding for both the mother and baby. Caution should be exercised when codeine is administered to a nursing woman. If a codeine-containing product is selected, the lowest dose should be prescribed for the shortest period of time to achieve the desired clinical effect. Mothers using codeine should be informed about when to seek immediate medical care and how to identify the signs and symptoms of neonatal toxicity, such as drowsiness or sedation, difficulty breastfeeding, breathing difficulties, and decreased tone, in their baby. Nursing mothers who are ultra-rapid metabolizers may also experience overdose symptoms such as extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing. Prescribers should closely monitor mother-infant pairs and notify treating pediatricians about the use of codeine during breastfeeding (see PRECAUTIONS – General - Ultra-Rapid Metabolizers of Codeine ).

Caution should be exercised when Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) with codeine syrup is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use:

The combination of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride and codeine phosphate is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age, because the combination may cause fatal respiratory depression in this age population (see WARNINGS – Box Warning and Use In Pediatric Patients).

The combination of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride and codeine phosphate should be used with caution in pediatric patients 6 years and older (see Warnings-Use in Pediatric Patients ).

Geriatric Use:

Clinical studies of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride and codeine phosphate syrup did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Sedating drugs may cause confusion and over-sedation in the elderly; elderly patients generally should be started on low doses of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) with codeine syrup and observed closely.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Codeine:

Nervous System – CNS depression, particularly respiratory depression, and to a lesser extent circulatory depression; light-headedness, dizziness, sedation, euphoria, dysphoria, headache, transient hallucination, disorientation, visual disturbances, and convulsions.

Cardiovascular – Tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitation, faintness, syncope, orthostatic hypotension (common to narcotic analgesics).

Gastrointestinal – Nausea, vomiting, constipation, and biliary tract spasm. Patients with chronic ulcerative colitis may experience increased colonic motility; in patients with acute ulcerative colitis, toxic dilation has been reported.

Genitourinary – Oliguria, urinary retention; antidiuretic effect has been reported (common to narcotic analgesics).

Allergic – Infrequent pruritus, giant urticaria, angioneurotic edema, and laryngeal edema.

Other – Flushing of the face, sweating and pruritus (due to opiate-induced histamine release); weakness.

Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride):

Central Nervous System – Drowsiness is the most prominent CNS effect of this drug. Sedation, somnolence, blurred vision, dizziness; confusion, disorientation, and extrapyramidal symptoms such as oculogyric crisis, torticollis, and tongue protrusion; lassitude, tinnitus, incoordination, fatigue, euphoria, nervousness, diplopia, insomnia, tremors, convulsive seizures, excitation, catatonic-like states, hysteria. Hallucinations have also been reported.

Cardiovascular – Increased or decreased blood pressure, tachycardia, bradycardia, faintness.

Dermatologic – Dermatitis, photosensitivity, urticaria.

Hematologic – Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, agranulocytosis.

Gastrointestinal – Dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, jaundice.

Respiratory – Asthma, nasal stuffiness, respiratory depression (potentially fatal) and apnea (potentially fatal). (See WARNINGS - Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride); Respiratory Depression.)

Other – Angioneurotic edema. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (potentially fatal) has also been reported. (See WARNINGS - Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride); Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome.)

Paradoxical Reactions – Hyperexcitability and abnormal movements have been reported in patients following a single administration of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCI. Consideration should be given to the discontinuation of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl and to the use of other drugs if these reactions occur. Respiratory depression, nightmares, delirium, and agitated behavior have also been reported in some of these patients.

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

Controlled Substance:

Stopayne Syrup with codeine syrup is a Schedule V Controlled Substance.

Abuse:

Codeine is known to be subject to abuse; however, the abuse potential of oral codeine appears to be quite low. Even parenteral codeine does not appear to offer the psychic effects sought by addicts to the same degree as heroin or morphine. However, codeine must be administered only under close supervision to patients with a history of drug abuse or dependence.

Dependence:

Psychological dependence, physical dependence, and tolerance are known to occur with codeine.

OVERDOSAGE

Codeine:

Serious overdose with codeine is characterized by respiratory depression, extreme somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, and sometimes bradycardia and hypotension. The triad of coma, pinpoint pupils, and respiratory depression is strongly suggestive of opiate poisoning. In severe overdosage, particularly by the intravenous route, apnea, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest, and death may occur. Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) is additive to the depressant effects of codeine.

It is difficult to determine what constitutes a standard toxic or lethal dose. However, the lethal oral dose of codeine in an adult is reported to be in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 gram. Infants and children are believed to be relatively more sensitive to opiates on a body-weight basis. Elderly patients are also comparatively intolerant to opiates.

Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride):

Signs and symptoms of overdosage with Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl range from mild depression of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system to profound hypotension, respiratory depression, unconsciousness, and sudden death. Other reported reactions include hyperreflexia, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, and extensor-plantar reflexes (Babinski reflex).

Stimulation may be evident, especially in children and geriatric patients. Convulsions may rarely occur. A paradoxical-type reaction has been reported in children receiving single doses of 75 mg to 125 mg orally, characterized by hyperexcitability and nightmares.

Atropine-like signs and symptoms – dry mouth, fixed dilated pupils, flushing, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms may occur.

Treatment:

The treatment of overdosage with Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) and codeine is essentially symptomatic and supportive. Only in cases of extreme overdosage or individual sensitivity do vital signs including respiration, pulse, blood pressure, temperature, and EKG need to be monitored. Activated charcoal orally or by lavage may be given, or sodium or magnesium sulfate orally as a cathartic. Attention should be given to the reestablishment of adequate respiratory exchange through provision of a patent airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation. The narcotic antagonist, naloxone hydrochloride, may be administered when significant respiratory depression occurs with Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) and codeine; any depressant effects of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) are not reversed with naloxone. Diazepam may be used to control convulsions. Avoid analeptics, which may cause convulsions. Acidosis and electrolyte losses should be corrected. A rise in temperature or pulmonary complications may signal the need for institution of antibiotic therapy.

Severe hypotension usually responds to the administration of norepinephrine or phenylephrine. EPINEPHRINE SHOULD NOT BE USED, since its use in a patient with partial adrenergic blockade may further lower the blood pressure.

Limited experience with dialysis indicates that it is not helpful.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The combination of Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride and codeine phosphate is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age, because the combination may cause fatal respiratory depression in this age population.

It is important that Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) with codeine syrup is measured with an accurate measuring device (see PRECAUTIONS-Information For Patients ). A household teaspoon is not an accurate measuring device and could lead to overdosage, especially when half a teaspoon is to be measured. It is strongly recommended that an accurate measuring device be used. A pharmacist can provide an appropriate device and can provide instructions for measuring the correct dose.

The average effective dose for adults and children 12 years of age and over is: 1 teaspoonful (5 mL) every 4 to 6 hours, not to exceed 30 mL in 24 hours.

The average effective dose for children 6 years to under 12 years of age is 1/2 to 1 teaspoonful (2.5 mL to 5 mL) every 4 to 6 hours, not to exceed 30 mL in 24 hours.

HOW SUPPLIED

Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) with Codeine Syrup, a clear purple syrup with odor of grape menthol, contains Stopayne Syrup (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride 6.25 mg/5 mL, codeine phosphate 10 mg/5 mL and alcohol 7 percent, and is available in 4 fluid ounce (118 mL), 8 fluid ounce (237 mL) and pint (473 mL).

Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F).

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container with a child-resistant closure as defined in the USP.

Manufactured for:

QUALITEST PHARMACEUTICALS

Huntsville, AL 35811

8181652

R1/09-R4

Stopayne Syrup pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Stopayne Syrup available forms, composition, doses:

Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Stopayne Syrup destination | category:

Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Stopayne Syrup Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Stopayne Syrup pharmaceutical companies:

Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."NINJACOF-XG (CODEINE PHOSPHATE) LIQUID [CENTURION LABS, LLC]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."FEVERALL INFANTS (ACETAMINOPHEN) SUPPOSITORY [ACTAVIS MID ATLANTIC LLC]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. Dailymed."PROMETHAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE TABLET [BRYANT RANCH PREPACK]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Stopayne Syrup?

Depending on the reaction of the Stopayne Syrup after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Stopayne Syrup not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Stopayne Syrup addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sdrugs.com conducted a study on Stopayne Syrup, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Stopayne Syrup consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

Visitor reports

One visitor reported side effects

Did you get side effects while taking the Stopayne Syrup drug, or were there no side effects?
According to the survey conducted by website sdrugs.com users, the below-mentioned percentages indicate the number of people experiencing the side effects and the number of people not experiencing the side effects when taking Stopayne Syrup medicine. Every drug produces minimal side effects, and they are negligible most times, when compared to the desired effect [use] of the medicine. Side effects depend on the dose you are taking, any drug interactions that happen when you are on other medications, if the patient is sensitive, and other associated conditions. If you cannot tolerate the side effects, consult your doctor immediately, so he can either adjust the dose or change the medication.
Visitors%
No side effects1
100.0%

One visitor reported price estimates

What is your opinion about drug cost? Did you feel the cost is apt, or did you feel it is expensive?
The report given by the sdrugs.com website users shows the following figures about several people who felt the medicine Stopayne Syrup is expensive, and the medicine is not expensive. The results are mixed. The perception of the cost of the medicine to be expensive or not depends on the brand name of the medicine, country, and place where it is sold, and the affordability of the patient. You can choose a generic drug in the place of the branded drug to save the cost. The efficiency of the medicine will not vary if it is generic or a branded one.
Visitors%
Not expensive1
100.0%

One visitor reported frequency of use

How often in a day do you take the medicine?
Are you taking the Stopayne Syrup drug as prescribed by the doctor?

Few medications can be taken 3 times in a day more than prescribed when the doctor's advice mentions the medicine can be taken according to frequency or severity of symptoms. Most times, be very careful and clear about the number of times you are taking the medication. The report of sdrugs.com website users about the frequency of taking the drug Stopayne Syrup is mentioned below.
Visitors%
3 times in a day1
100.0%

Four visitors reported doses

What is the dose of Stopayne Syrup drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sdrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 1-5mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
Visitors%
1-5mg2
50.0%
51-100mg1
25.0%
201-500mg1
25.0%

One visitor reported time for results

What is the time duration Stopayne Syrup drug must be taken for it to be effective or for it to reduce the symptoms?
Most chronic conditions need at least some time so the dose and the drug action gets adjusted to the body to get the desired effect. The stastistics say sdrugs.com website users needed 3 month to notice the result from using Stopayne Syrup drug. The time needed to show improvement in health condition after using the medicine Stopayne Syrup need not be same for all the users. It varies based on other factors.
Visitors%
3 month1
100.0%

One visitor reported administration

The drugs are administered in various routes, like oral or injection form. They are administered before food or after food. How are you taking Stopayne Syrup drug, before food or after food?
Click here to find out how other users of our website are taking it. For any doubts or queries on how and when the medicine is administered, contact your health care provider immediately.
Visitors%
After food1
100.0%

29 visitors reported age

Visitors%
1-513
44.8%
6-158
27.6%
< 15
17.2%
30-452
6.9%
16-291
3.4%

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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