DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS

Spironol

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Spironol uses


Pharmacological action

Spironol is a potassium, magnesium sparing diuretic. This medication is a competitive antagonist of aldosterone on the effect on distal nephron, increases the excretion of Na+, Cl- and water and reduces the excretion of K+ and urea, reduces the titratable acidity of urine. Increased diuresis causes a hypotensive effect, which is unstable. The hypotensive effect is not dependent on the level of renin in the blood plasma and is not revealed in normal blood pressure.

The diuretic effect is seen at 2-5 days of treatment.

Pharmacokinetics

After oral administration Spironol absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, the absorption is 90%. This drug metabolized in the liver, the major active metabolite is canrenone. T1/2 is 13-24 hours. This medicine derived primarily by the kidneys, some is excreted in the bile.

Why is Spironol prescribed?

Edema in congestive heart failure, cirrhosis of the liver, in the nephrotic syndrome.

Swelling in the II and III trimester of pregnancy.

Hypertension, including with aldosterone producing adrenal adenoma (in combination therapy).

Primary hyperaldosteronism. Aldosterone produced adrenal adenoma (long-term maintenance therapy with contraindications to surgery or in case of refusal from it). Diagnosis of hyperaldosteronism.

Hypokalemia and its prevention in the treatment of saluretics.

Polycystic ovary syndrome, premenstrual syndrome.

Dosage and administration

The dosage regimen is set individually depending on the severity of violations of water-electrolyte metabolism and hormonal status.

In cases of edema - 100-200 mg / day (rare - 300 mg / day) in 2-3 recepts (usually in combination with the "loop" and / or thiazide diuretic) daily for 14-21 days. The correction of dose should be based on the values of potassium in the plasma. If necessary, repeat it every 10-14 days. In marked hyperaldosteronism and a reduced content of plasma potassium - 300 mg in 2-3 recepts.

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Spironol side effects, adverse reactions

Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, gastritis, ulcers and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, intestinal colic, diarrhea or constipation.

CNS: dizziness, drowsiness, lethargy, headache, lethargy, ataxia.

Metabolism: increased concentrations of urea, hypercreatininemia, hyperuricemia, impaired water-salt metabolism and KSCHR.

Hematopoietic system: megaloblastosis, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia.

Endocrine system: in long-term use - gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction in men; women - dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, metrorrhagia, menopause, hirsutism, deepening voice, breast tenderness, breast carcinoma.

Allergic reactions: urticaria, papular makulopapular and erythematous rash, drug fever, pruritus.

Other: muscle cramps, reduced potency.

Spironol contraindications

Addison's disease, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, hyponatremia, chronic renal failure, anuria, hepatic failure, diabetes mellitus with confirmed or suspected renal disease, diabetic nephropathy, I trimester of pregnancy, metabolic acidosis, menstrual disorders or breast enlargement, hypersensitivity to Spironol.

Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

There is no data on adverse effects of Spironol on pregnancy and fetal development.

However, in the I trimester of pregnancy this medication is contraindicated, in II and III trimester can be used for prescription. If necessary to use during lactation it should be considered that with breast milk in small amounts canrenone excretes.

Category of the fetus by FDA - C.

Special instructions

Use Spironol cautiously in AV block (the possibility of strengthening due to the development of hyperkalemia), decompensated cirrhosis, surgery, taking drugs that cause gynecomastia, while taking local and general anesthetics in elderly patients.

Against the background of Spironol it should not be given medications containing potassium and other diuretics that cause potassium retention in the body. Patients should avoid using this drug with carbenoxolone, causing sodium retention.

In the period of treatment should be periodic determination of electrolytes and urea in the blood.

If taking of Spironol in combination with other diuretics or antihypertensive the dose of latters is recommended to be reduced.

In the application of this medicatio in conjunction with digoxin it may be necessary to reduce both the saturation and maintenance dose of the latter.

Spironol drug interactions

When this drug applied simultaneously with:

- antihypertensive drugs potentiated the hypotensive effect of Spironol.

- ACE inhibitors may develop hyperkalemia, as ACE inhibitors reduce the content of aldosterone, resulting in a delay of potassium in the body against the removal of potassium restriction.

- preparations of potassium and other potassium-sparing diuretics, salt substitutes and food supplements containing potassium may develop hyperkalemia.

- salicylates decreases the diuretic effect of Spironol due to blockade of canrenone excretion by the kidneys.

- decreases hypoprothrombinemic effect of oral anticoagulants.

- digitoxin may gain as well as reducing the effects of digitoxin.

- Spironol inhibits the excretion of digoxin by the kidneys, and probably reduce its volume of distribution. This may cause an increased concentration of digoxin in plasma.

- candesartan, losartan, eprosartan is a risk of hyperkalemia.

- cholestyramine it been described a case of hypochloremic alkalosis.

- lithium carbonate may increase the concentration of lithium in blood plasma.

- norepinephrine may decrease the sensitivity of vessels to noradrenaline.

- amplified effect triptorelin, buserelin, gonadorelin. Indomethacin and mefenamic acid inhibit the excretion of canrenone by kidneys.

Spironol in case of emergency / overdose

Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, leg cramps, skin rash, diarrhea, dehydration may, disruption of water and electrolyte balance.

Treatment: discontinuation of the drug, induction of vomiting, gastric lavage, symptomatic treatment of dehydration and disorders of water and electrolyte balance, arterial hypotension, maintenance of vital functions; in the case of hyperkalemia - fast IV injection of 20-50% solution of glucose and insulin - 0.25-0.5 units / g of glucose. Used diuretics, and potassium carve ion exchange resins. Perhaps hemodialysis. There is no specific antidote for Spironol Quality Pharmaceutical Laboratory.

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Spironol pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

infoActive ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Spironol available forms, composition, doses:

infoForm of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Spironol destination | category:

infoDestination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Spironol Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

infoA medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Spironol pharmaceutical companies:

infoPharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."SPIRONOLACTONE TABLET, FILM COATED [BRYANT RANCH PREPACK]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE; SPIRONOLACTONE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "spironolactone". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Spironol?

Depending on the reaction of the Spironol after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Spironol not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Spironol addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sDrugs.com conducted a study on Spironol, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Spironol consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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