Salzmann Product M-1 Malena

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Salzmann Product M-1 Malena uses

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena consists of Potassium Nitrate, Potassium Phosphate Dibasic, Quinine Sulfate, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Sulfate, Sodium Sulfite.

Potassium Nitrate:



Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) CHLORIDE EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS USP 20 mEq K

Rx Only

DESCRIPTION

The Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq product is an immediately dispersing extended release oral dosage form of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride containing 1500 mg of microencapsulated Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride, USP equivalent to 20 mEq of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) in a tablet.

These formulations are intended to slow the release of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) so that the likelihood of a high localized concentration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride within the gastrointestinal tract is reduced.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is an electrolyte replenisher. The chemical name of the active ingredient is Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride, and the structural formula is KCl. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride, USP occurs as a white, granular powder or as colorless crystals. It is odorless and has a saline taste. Its solutions are neutral to litmus. It is freely soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is a tablet formulation (not enteric coated or wax matrix) containing individually microencapsulated Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride crystals which disperse upon tablet disintegration. In simulated gastric fluid at 37°C and in the absence of outside agitation, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq begin disintegrating into microencapsulated crystals within seconds and completely disintegrates within 1 minute. The microencapsulated crystals are formulated to provide an extended release of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride.

Inactive Ingredients: Colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl-cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose.

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CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

The Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) ion is the principal intracellular cation of most body tissues. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) ions participate in a number of essential physiological processes including the maintenance of intracellular tonicity; the transmission of nerve impulses; the contraction of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle; and the maintenance of normal renal function.

The intracellular concentration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) is approximately 150 to 160 mEq per liter. The normal adult plasma concentration is 3.5 to 5 mEq per liter. An active ion transport system maintains this gradient across the plasma membrane.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) is a normal dietary constituent and under steady-state conditions the amount of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract is equal to the amount excreted in the urine. The usual dietary intake of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) is 50 to 100 mEq per day.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) depletion will occur whenever the rate of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) loss through renal excretion and/or loss from the gastrointestinal tract exceeds the rate of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) intake. Such depletion usually develops as a consequence of therapy with diuretics, primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism, diabetic ketoacidosis, or inadequate replacement of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) in patients on prolonged parenteral nutrition. Depletion can develop rapidly with severe diarrhea, especially if associated with vomiting. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) depletion due to these causes is usually accompanied by a concomitant loss of chloride and is manifested by hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) depletion may produce weakness, fatigue, disturbances or cardiac rhythm (primarily ectopic beats), prominent U-waves in the electrocardiogram, and in advanced cases, flaccid paralysis and/or impaired ability to concentrate urine.

If Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) depletion associated with metabolic alkalosis cannot be managed by correcting the fundamental cause of the deficiency, eg, where the patient requires long-term diuretic therapy, supplemental Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) in the form of high Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) food or Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride may be able to restore normal Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) levels.

In rare circumstances (eg, patients with renal tubular acidosis) Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) depletion may be associated with metabolic acidosis and hyperchloremia. In such patients Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) replacement should be accomplished with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) salts other than the chloride, such as Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) bicarbonate, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) citrate, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) acetate, or Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) gluconate.

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INDICATIONS AND USAGE

BECAUSE OF REPORTS OF INTESTINAL AND GASTRIC ULCERATION AND BLEEDING WITH CONTROLLED-RELEASE Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) CHLORIDE PREPARATIONS, THESE DRUGS SHOULD BE RESERVED FOR THOSE PATIENTS WHO CANNOT TOLERATE OR REFUSE TO TAKE LIQUID OR EFFERVESCENT Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) PREPARATIONS OR FOR PATIENTS IN WHOM THERE IS A PROBLEM OF COMPLIANCE WITH THESE PREPARATIONS.

1. For the treatment of patients with hypokalemia with or without metabolic alkalosis, in digitalis intoxication, and in patients with hypokalemic familial periodic paralysis. If hypokalemia is the result of diuretic therapy, consideration should be given to the use of a lower dose of diuretic, which may be sufficient without leading to hypokalemia.

2. For the prevention of hypokalemia in patients who would be at particular risk if hypokalemia were to develop, eg, digitalized patients or patients with significant cardiac arrhythmias.

The use of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) salts in patients receiving diuretics for uncomplicated essential hypertension is often unnecessary when such patients have a normal dietary pattern and when low doses of the diuretic are used. Serum Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) should be checked periodically, however, and if hypokalemia occurs, dietary supplementation with potassium-containing foods may be adequate to control milder cases. In more severe cases, and if dose adjustment of the diuretic is ineffective or unwarranted, supplementation with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) salts may be indicated.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) supplements are contraindicated in patients with hyperkalemia since a further increase in serum Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) concentration in such patients can produce cardiac arrest. Hyperkalemia may complicate any of the following conditions: chronic renal failure, systemic acidosis, such as diabetic acidosis, acute dehydration, extensive tissue breakdown as in severe burns, adrenal insufficiency, or the administration of a potassium-sparing diuretic (eg, spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride) (see OVERDOSAGE ).

Controlled-release formulations of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride have produced esophageal ulceration in certain cardiac patients with esophageal compression due to enlarged left atrium. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) supplementation, when indicated in such patients, should be given as a liquid preparation or as an aqueous (water) suspension of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride (see PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients , and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections).

All solid oral dosage forms of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride are contraindicated in any patient in whom there is structural, pathological (eg, diabetic gastroparesis), or pharmacologic (use of anticholinergic agents or other agents with anticholinergic properties at sufficient doses to exert anticholinergic effects) cause for arrest or delay in tablet passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

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WARNINGS

Hyperkalemia (see OVERDOSAGE )

In patients with impaired mechanisms for excreting Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate), the administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) salts can produce hyperkalemia and cardiac arrest. This occurs most commonly in patients given Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) by the intravenous route but may also occur in patients given Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) orally. Potentially fatal hyperkalemia can develop rapidly and be asymptomatic. The use of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) salts in patients with chronic renal disease, or any other condition which impairs Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) excretion, requires particularly careful monitoring of the serum Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) concentration and appropriate dosage adjustment.

Interaction with Potassium-Sparing Diuretics

Hypokalemia should not be treated by the concomitant administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) salts and a potassium-sparing diuretic (eg, spironolactone, triamterene, or amiloride) since the simultaneous administration of these agents can produce severe hyperkalemia.

Interaction with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, captopril, enalapril) will produce some Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) retention by inhibiting aldosterone production. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) supplements should be given to patients receiving ACE inhibitors only with close monitoring.

Gastrointestinal Lesions

Solid oral dosage forms of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride can produce ulcerative and/or stenotic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Based on spontaneous adverse reaction reports, enteric-coated preparations of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride are associated with an increased frequency of small bowel lesions (40-50 per 100,000 patient years) compared to sustained release wax matrix formulations (less than one per 100,000 patient years). Because of the lack of extensive marketing experience with microencapsulated products, a comparison between such products and wax matrix or enteric-coated products is not available. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is a tablet formulated to provide a controlled rate of release of microencapsulated Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride and thus to minimize the possibility of a high local concentration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) near the gastrointestinal wall.

Prospective trials have been conducted in normal human volunteers in which the upper gastrointestinal tract was evaluated by endoscopic inspection before and after 1 week of solid oral Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride therapy. The ability of this model to predict events occurring in usual clinical practice is unknown. Trials which approximated usual clinical practice did not reveal any clear differences between the wax matrix and microencapsulated dosage forms. In contrast, there was a higher incidence of gastric and duodenal lesions in subjects receiving a high dose of a wax matrix controlled-release formulation under conditions which did not resemble usual or recommended clinical practice (ie, 96 mEq per day in divided doses of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride administered to fasted patients, in the presence of an anticholinergic drug to delay gastric emptying). The upper gastrointestinal lesions observed by endoscopy were asymptomatic and were not accompanied by evidence of bleeding (Hemoccult testing). The relevance of these findings to the usual conditions (ie, non-fasting, no anticholinergic agent, smaller doses) under which controlled-release Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride products are used is uncertain; epidemiologic studies have not identified an elevated risk, compared to microencapsulated products, for upper gastrointestinal lesions in patients receiving wax matrix formulations. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq should be discontinued immediately and the possibility of ulceration, obstruction, or perforation should be considered if severe vomiting, abdominal pain, distention, or gastrointestinal bleeding occurs.

Metabolic Acidosis

Hypokalemia in patients with metabolic acidosis should be treated with an alkalinizing Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) salt such as Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) bicarbonate, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) citrate, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) acetate, or Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) gluconate.

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PRECAUTIONS

General

The diagnosis of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena depletion is ordinarily made by demonstrating hypokalemia in a patient with a clinical history suggesting some cause for Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) depletion. In interpreting the serum Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) level, the physician should bear in mind that acute alkalosis per se can produce hypokalemia in the absence of a deficit in total body Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) while acute acidosis per se can increase the serum Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) concentration into the normal range even in the presence of a reduced total body Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate). The treatment of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) depletion, particularly in the presence of cardiac disease, renal disease, or acidosis requires careful attention to acid-base balance and appropriate monitoring of serum electrolytes, the electrocardiogram, and the clinical status of the patient.

Information for Patients

Physicians should consider reminding the patient of the following: To take each dose with meals and with a full glass of water or other liquid. To take each dose without crushing, chewing, or sucking the tablets. If those patients are having difficulty swallowing whole tablets, they may try one of the following alternate methods of administration:

  • Break the tablet in half, and take each half separately with a glass of water.
  • Prepare an aqueous (water) suspension as follows:

    1. Place the whole tablet(s) in approximately 1/2 glass of water (4 fluid ounces).

    2. Allow approximately 2 minutes for the tablet(s) to disintegrate.

    3. Stir for about half a minute after the tablet(s) has disintegrated.

    4. Swirl the suspension and consume the entire contents of the glass immediately by drinking or by the use of a straw.

    5. Add another 1 fluid ounce of water, swirl, and consume immediately.

    6. Then, add an additional 1 fluid ounce of water, swirl, and consume immediately.


Aqueous suspension of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride that is not taken immediately should be discarded. The use of other liquids for suspending Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is not recommended.

To take this medicine following the frequency and amount prescribed by the physician. This is especially important if the patient is also taking diuretics and/or digitalis preparations.

To check with the physician at once if tarry stools or other evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding is noticed.

Laboratory Tests

When blood is drawn for analysis of plasma Salzmann Product M-1 Malena it is important to recognize that artifactual elevations can occur after improper venipuncture technique or as a result of in vitro hemolysis of the sample.

Drug Interactions

Potassium-sparing diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (see WARNINGS ).

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and fertility studies in animals have not been performed. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena is a normal dietary constituent.

Pregnancy Category C

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq. It is unlikely that Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) supplementation that does not lead to hyperkalemia would have an adverse effect on the fetus or would affect reproductive capacity.

Nursing Mothers

The normal Salzmann Product M-1 Malena ion content of human milk is about 13 mEq per liter. Since oral Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) becomes part of the body Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) pool, so long as body Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) is not excessive, the contribution of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride supplementation should have little or no effect on the level in human milk.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection; and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

One of the most severe adverse effects is hyperkalemia (see CONTRAINDICATIONS , WARNINGS , and OVERDOSAGE ). There have also been reports of upper and lower gastrointestinal conditions including obstruction, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS ). The most common adverse reactions to oral Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) salts are nausea, vomiting, flatulence, abdominal pain/discomfort, and diarrhea. These symptoms are due to irritation of the gastrointestinal tract and are best managed by diluting the preparation further, taking the dose with meals or reducing the amount taken at one time.

OVERDOSAGE

The administration of oral Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) salts to persons with normal excretory mechanisms for Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) rarely causes serious hyperkalemia. However, if excretory mechanisms are impaired or if Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) is administered too rapidly intravenously, potentially fatal hyperkalemia can result (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS ). It is important to recognize that hyperkalemia is usually asymptomatic and may be manifested only by an increased serum Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) concentration (6.5-8.0 mEq/L) and characteristic electrocardiographic changes (peaking of T-waves, loss of P-waves, depression of S-T segment, and prolongation of the QT-interval). Late manifestations include muscle paralysis and cardiovascular collapse from cardiac arrest (9-12 mEq/L).

Treatment measures for hyperkalemia include the following:

  • Patients should be closely monitored for arrhythmias and electrolyte changes.
  • Elimination of foods and medications containing Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) and of any agents with potassium-sparing properties such as potassium-sparing diuretics, ARBS, ACE inhibitors, NSAIDS, certain nutritional supplements and many others.
  • Intravenous calcium gluconate if the patient is at no risk of developing digitalis toxicity.
  • Intravenous administration of 300 to 500 mL/hr of 10% dextrose solution containing 10-20 units of crystalline insulin per 1,000 mL.
  • Correction of acidosis, if present, with intravenous sodium bicarbonate.
  • Use of exchange resins, hemodialysis, or peritoneal dialysis.

In treating hyperkalemia, it should be recalled that in patients who have been stabilized on digitalis, too rapid a lowering of the serum Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) concentration can produce digitalis toxicity.

The extended release feature means that absorption and toxic effects may be delayed for hours.

Consider standard measures to remove any unabsorbed drug.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The usual dietary intake of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) by the average adult is 50 to 100 mEq per day. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) depletion sufficient to cause hypokalemia usually requires the loss of 200 or more mEq of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) from the total body store.

Dosage must be adjusted to the individual needs of each patient. The dose for the prevention of hypokalemia is typically in the range of 20 mEq per day. Doses of 40-100 mEq per day or more are used for the treatment of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) depletion. Dosage should be divided if more than 20 mEq per day is given such that no more than 20 mEq is given in a single dose.

Each Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride Extended Release Tablet USP, 20 mEq provides 20 mEq of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq should be taken with meals and with a glass of water or other liquid. This product should not be taken on an empty stomach because of its potential for gastric irritation (see WARNINGS ).

Patients having difficulty swallowing whole tablets may try one of the following alternate methods of administration:

  • Break the tablet in half, and take each half separately with a glass of water.
  • Prepare an aqueous (water) suspension as follows:
    • Place the whole tablet(s) in approximately 1/2 glass of water (4 fluid ounces).
    • Allow approximately 2 minutes for the tablet(s) to disintegrate.
    • Stir for about half a minute after the tablet(s) has disintegrated.
    • Swirl the suspension and consume the entire contents of the glass immediately by drinking or by the use of a straw.
    • Add another 1 fluid ounce of water, swirl, and consume immediately.
    • Then, add an additional 1 fluid ounce of water, swirl, and consume immediately.

Aqueous suspension of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride that is not taken immediately should be discarded. The use of other liquids for suspending Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is not recommended.

HOW SUPPLIED

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq are available in bottles of 100 (NDC 62037-999-01), bottles of 500 (NDC 62037-999-05), and bottles of 1000 (NDC 62037-999-10). Potassium Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq are capsule shaped, white to off-white tablets, with “ABRS-123” imprinted on one side and scored on the other side for flexibility of dosing.

Storage Conditions

Keep tightly closed. Store at controlled room temperature, 20°-25°C (68°-77°F).

Manufactured by:

Eurand, Inc.

Vandalia, OH 45377 USA

Distributed by:

Watson Pharma, Inc.

Rev. Date (01/09) 173714

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Potassium Nitrate) chloride 20 Meq

Quinine Sulfate:


WARNING:

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® use for the treatment or prevention of nocturnal leg cramps may result in serious and life-threatening hematologic reactions, including thrombocytopenia and hemolytic uremic syndrome/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (HUS/TTP). Chronic renal impairment associated with the development of TTP has been reported. The risk associated with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) use in the absence of evidence of its effectiveness in the treatment or prevention of nocturnal leg cramps outweighs any potential benefit.

WARNING:

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® use for the treatment or prevention of nocturnal leg cramps may result in serious and life-threatening hematologic reactions, including thrombocytopenia and hemolytic uremic syndrome/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (HUS/TTP). Chronic renal impairment associated with the development of TTP has been reported. The risk associated with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) use in the absence of evidence of its effectiveness in the treatment or prevention of nocturnal leg cramps outweighs any potential benefit.

Dose and Administration
Hepatic Impairment (2.3) 4/2013
Warnings and Precautions
QT Prolongation and Ventricular Arrhythmias (5.3) 9/2012

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) (quinine sulfate) is an antimalarial drug indicated only for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) has been shown to be effective in geographical regions where resistance to chloroquine has been documented [see Clinical Studies (14) ].

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) oral capsules are not approved for:

  • Treatment of severe or complicated P. falciparum malaria.
  • Prevention of malaria.
  • Treatment or prevention of nocturnal leg cramps [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® (quinine sulfate) is a cinchona alkaloid indicated for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria (1).

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

  • Adults : 648 mg (two capsules) every 8 hours for 7 days (2.1).
  • Patients with severe chronic renal impairment: one loading dose of 648 mg (two capsules) followed 12 hours later by 324 mg (one capsule) every 12 hours for 7 days (2.2).

2.1 Treatment of Uncomplicated P. falciparum Malaria

For treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in adults: Orally, 648 mg (two capsules) every 8 hours for 7 days [see Clinical Studies (14) ].

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) should be taken with food to minimize gastric upset [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

2.2 Renal Impairment

In patients with acute uncomplicated malaria and severe chronic renal impairment, the following dosage regimen is recommended: one loading dose of 648 mg Salzmann Product M-1 Malena followed 12 hours later by maintenance doses of 324 mg every 12 hours.

The effects of mild and moderate renal impairment on the safety and pharmacokinetics of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) are not known [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

2.3 Hepatic Impairment

Adjustment of the recommended dose is not required in mild (Child-Pugh A) or moderate (Child-Pugh B) hepatic impairment, but patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects of quinine. Quinine should not be administered in patients with severe (Child-Pugh C) hepatic impairment [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

324 mg capsules - hard gelatin, clear cap/clear body, imprinted with 'AR 102'

  • 324 mg hard gelatin, clear cap/clear body capsules, imprinted with 'AR 102' (3).

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) is contraindicated in patients with the following:

  • Prolonged QT interval. One case of a fatal ventricular arrhythmia was reported in an elderly patient with a prolonged QT interval at baseline, who received Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) intravenously for P. falciparum malaria [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ].
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency.
  • Hemolysis can occur in patients with G6PD deficiency receiving quinine.
  • Known hypersensitivity reactions to quinine.
    • These include, but are not limited to, the following [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ]:
      • Thrombocytopenia
      • Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP) and Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)
      • Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)
      • Blackwater fever (acute intravascular hemolysis, hemoglobinuria, and hemoglobinemia)
  • Known hypersensitivity to mefloquine or quinidine: cross-sensitivity to quinine has been documented [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ].
    • Myasthenia gravis. Quinine has neuromuscular blocking activity, and may exacerbate muscle weakness.
    • Optic neuritis. Quinine may exacerbate active optic neuritis [see Adverse Reactions (6) ].

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) is contraindicated in patients with the following:

  • Prolongation of QT interval (4)
  • Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency (4)
  • Myasthenia gravis (4)
  • Known hypersensitivity to quinine, mefloquine, or quinidine (4)
  • Optic neuritis (4)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Not indicated for the prevention or treatment of nocturnal leg cramps. Risk of serious and life-threatening adverse reactions.
  • Thrombocytopenia, including ITP and HUS/TTP, has been reported. Discontinue drug (5.2).
  • QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias. Avoid concomitant use with drugs known to prolong QT interval (5.3).
  • Avoid concomitant use with rifampin. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) treatment failures have been reported (5.4).
  • Avoid concomitant use with neuromuscular blocking agents. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) may potentiate neuromuscular blockade and cause respiratory depression (5.5).
  • Serious and life threatening hypersensitivity reactions. Discontinue drug (4, 5.6).
  • Atrial fibrillation and flutter. Paradoxical increase in ventricular rate may occur. Closely monitor digoxin levels if used concomitantly (5.7).
  • Hypoglycemia. Monitor for signs and symptoms (5.8).

5.1 Use of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) for Treatment or Prevention of Nocturnal Leg Cramps

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) may cause unpredictable serious and life-threatening hematologic reactions including thrombocytopenia and hemolytic-uremic syndrome/thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (HUS/TTP) in addition to hypersensitivity reactions, QT prolongation, serious cardiac arrhythmias including torsades de pointes, and other serious adverse events requiring medical intervention and hospitalization. Chronic renal impairment associated with the development of TTP, and fatalities have also been reported. The risk associated with the use of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) in the absence of evidence of its effectiveness for treatment or prevention of nocturnal leg cramps, outweighs any potential benefit in treating and/or preventing this benign, self-limiting condition [see Boxed Warning and Contraindications (4) ].

5.2 Thrombocytopenia

Quinine-induced thrombocytopenia is an immune-mediated disorder. Severe cases of thrombocytopenia that are fatal or life threatening have been reported, including cases of HUS/TTP. Chronic renal impairment associated with the development of TTP has also been reported. Thrombocytopenia usually resolves within a week upon discontinuation of quinine. If quinine is not stopped, a patient is at risk for fatal hemorrhage. Upon re-exposure to quinine from any source, a patient with quinine-dependent antibodies could develop thrombocytopenia that is more rapid in onset and more severe than the original episode.

5.3 QT Prolongation and Ventricular Arrhythmias

QT interval prolongation has been a consistent finding in studies which evaluated electrocardiographic changes with oral or parenteral quinine administration, regardless of age, clinical status, or severity of disease. The maximum increase in QT interval has been shown to correspond with peak quinine plasma concentration [see Clinical Pharmacology ]. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) has been rarely associated with potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias, including torsades de pointes, and ventricular fibrillation.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) has been shown to cause concentration-dependent prolongation of the PR and QRS interval. At particular risk are patients with underlying structural heart disease and preexisting conduction system abnormalities, elderly patients with sick sinus syndrome, patients with atrial fibrillation with slow ventricular response, patients with myocardial ischemia or patients receiving drugs known to prolong the PR interval (e.g. verapamil) or QRS interval (e.g. flecainide or quinidine) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2) ].

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) is not recommended for use with other drugs known to cause QT prolongation, including Class IA antiarrhythmic agents (e.g., quinidine, procainamide, disopyramide), and Class III antiarrhythmic agents (e.g., amiodarone, sotalol, dofetilide).

The use of macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin should be avoided in patients receiving Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate). Fatal torsades de pointes was reported in an elderly patient who received concomitant quinine, erythromycin, and dopamine. Although a causal relationship between a specific drug and the arrhythmia was not established in this case, erythromycin is a CYP3A4 inhibitor and has been shown to increase quinine plasma levels when used concomitantly. A related macrolide antibiotic, troleandomycin, has also been shown to increase quinine exposure in a pharmacokinetic study [see Drug Interactions (7.1) ].

Quinine may inhibit the metabolism of certain drugs that are CYP3A4 substrates and are known to cause QT prolongation, e.g., astemizole, cisapride, terfenadine, pimozide, halofantrine and quinidine. Torsades de pointes has been reported in patients who received concomitant quinine and astemizole. Therefore, concurrent use of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) with these medications, or drugs with similar properties, should be avoided [see Drug Interactions (7.2) ].

Concomitant administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) with the antimalarial drugs, mefloquine or halofantrine, may result in electrocardiographic abnormalities, including QT prolongation, and increase the risk for torsades de pointes or other serious ventricular arrhythmias. Concurrent use of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) and mefloquine may also increase the risk of seizures [see Drug Interactions (7.2) ].

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) should also be avoided in patients with known prolongation of QT interval and in patients with clinical conditions known to prolong the QT interval, such as uncorrected hypokalemia, bradycardia, and certain cardiac conditions [see Contraindications (4) ].

5.4 Concomitant Use of Rifampin

Treatment failures may result from the concurrent use of rifampin with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate), due to decreased plasma concentrations of quinine, and concomitant use of these medications should be avoided [see Drug Interactions (7.1) ].

5.5 Concomitant Use of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents

The use of neuromuscular blocking agents should be avoided in patients receiving Salzmann Product M-1 Malena. In one patient who received pancuronium during an operative procedure, subsequent administration of quinine resulted in respiratory depression and apnea. Although there are no clinical reports with succinylcholine or tubocurarine, quinine may also potentiate neuromuscular blockade when used with these drugs [see Drug Interactions (7.2) ].

5.6 Hypersensitivity

Serious hypersensitivity reactions reported with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) include anaphylactic shock, anaphylactoid reactions, urticaria, serious skin rashes, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, angioedema, facial edema, bronchospasm, and pruritus.

A number of other serious adverse reactions reported with quinine, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), thrombocytopenia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), blackwater fever, disseminated intravascular coagulation, leukopenia, neutropenia, granulomatous hepatitis, and acute interstitial nephritis may also be due to hypersensitivity reactions.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) should be discontinued in case of any signs or symptoms of hypersensitivity [see Contraindications (4) ].

5.7 Atrial Fibrillation and Flutter

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena should be used with caution in patients with atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter. A paradoxical increase in ventricular response rate may occur with quinine, similar to that observed with quinidine. If digoxin is used to prevent a rapid ventricular response, serum digoxin levels should be closely monitored, because digoxin levels may be increased with use of quinine [see Drug Interactions (7.2) ].

5.8 Hypoglycemia

Quinine stimulates release of insulin from the pancreas, and patients, especially pregnant women, may experience clinically significant hypoglycemia.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

Most common adverse reactions are a cluster of symptoms called "cinchonism", which occurs to some degree in almost all patients taking quinine: headache, vasodilation and sweating, nausea, tinnitus, hearing impairment, vertigo or dizziness, blurred vision, disturbance in color perception, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, deafness, blindness, and disturbances in cardiac rhythm or conduction.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Mutual Pharmaceutical Company, Inc. at 1-888-351-3786 or drugsafetySalzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)urlpharma.com or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

6.1 Overall

Quinine can adversely affect almost every body system. The most common adverse events associated with quinine use are a cluster of symptoms called "cinchonism", which occurs to some degree in almost all patients taking quinine. Symptoms of mild cinchonism include headache, vasodilation and sweating, nausea, tinnitus, hearing impairment, vertigo or dizziness, blurred vision, and disturbance in color perception. More severe symptoms of cinchonism are vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, deafness, blindness, and disturbances in cardiac rhythm or conduction. Most symptoms of cinchonism are reversible and resolve with discontinuation of quinine.

The following ADVERSE REACTIONS have been reported with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate). Most of these reactions are thought to be uncommon, but the actual incidence is unknown:

General: fever, chills, sweating, flushing, asthenia, lupus-like syndrome, and hypersensitivity reactions.

Hematologic: agranulocytosis, hypoprothrombinemia, thrombocytopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, hemolytic anemia; hemolytic uremic syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, petechiae, ecchymosis, hemorrhage, coagulopathy, blackwater fever, leukopenia, neutropenia, pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, and lupus anticoagulant.

Neuropsychiatric: headache, diplopia, confusion, altered mental status, seizures, coma, disorientation, tremors, restlessness, ataxia, acute dystonic reaction, aphasia, and suicide.

Dermatologic: cutaneous rashes, including urticarial, papular, or scarlatinal rashes, pruritus, bullous dermatitis, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, fixed drug eruption, photosensitivity reactions, allergic contact dermatitis, acral necrosis, and cutaneous vasculitis.

Respiratory: asthma, dyspnea, pulmonary edema.

Cardiovascular: chest pain, vasodilatation, hypotension, postural hypotension, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitations, syncope, atrioventricular block, atrial fibrillation, irregular rhythm, unifocal premature ventricular contractions, nodal escape beats, U waves, QT prolongation, ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, torsades de pointes, and cardiac arrest.

Gastrointestinal: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, gastric irritation, and esophagitis.

Hepatobiliary: granulomatous hepatitis, hepatitis, jaundice, and abnormal liver function tests.

Metabolic: hypoglycemia and anorexia.

Musculoskeletal: myalgias and muscle weakness.

Renal: hemoglobinuria, renal failure, renal impairment, and acute interstitial nephritis.

Special Senses: visual disturbances, including blurred vision with scotomata, sudden loss of vision, photophobia, diplopia, night blindness, diminished visual fields, fixed pupillary dilatation, disturbed color vision, optic neuritis, blindness, vertigo, tinnitus, hearing impairment, and deafness.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Interacting Drug Interaction
Drugs known to prolong QT interval. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) prolongs QT interval, ECG abnormalities including QT prolongation and Torsades de Pointes. Avoid concomitant use (5.3).
Other antimalarials (e.g., halofantrine, mefloquine). ECG abnormalities including QT prolongation. Avoid concomitant use (5.3, 7.2).
CYP3A4 inducers or inhibitors Alteration in plasma quinine concentration. Monitor for lack of efficacy or increased adverse events of quinine (7.1).
CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 substrates Quinine is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Monitor for lack of efficacy or increased adverse events of the co-administered drug (7.2).
Digoxin Increased digoxin plasma concentration (5.8, 7.1).

7.1 Effects of Drugs and Other Substances on Quinine Pharmacokinetics

Quinine is a P-gp substrate and is primarily metabolized by CYP3A4. Other enzymes, including CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 may contribute to the metabolism of quinine [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

Antacids: Antacids containing aluminum and/or magnesium may delay or decrease absorption of quinine. Concomitant administration of these antacids with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) should be avoided.

Antiepileptics (AEDs) (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and phenytoin): Carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and phenytoin are CYP3A4 inducers and may decrease quinine plasma concentrations if used concurrently with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate).

Cholestyramine: In 8 healthy subjects who received Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) 600 mg with or without 8 grams of cholestyramine resin, no significant difference in quinine pharmacokinetic parameters was seen.

Cigarette Smoking (CYP1A2 inducer): In healthy male heavy smokers, the mean quinine AUC following a single 600 mg dose was 44% lower, the mean Cmax was 18% lower, and the elimination half-life was shorter (7.5 hours versus 12 hours) than in their non-smoking counterparts. However, in malaria patients who received the full 7-day course of quinine therapy, cigarette smoking produced only a 25% decrease in median quinine AUC and a 16.5% decrease in median Cmax, suggesting that the already reduced clearance of quinine in acute malaria could have diminished the metabolic induction effect of smoking. Because smoking did not appear to influence the therapeutic outcome in malaria patients, it is not necessary to increase the dose of quinine in the treatment of acute malaria in heavy cigarette smokers.

Grapefruit juice (P-gp/CYP3A4 inhibitor): In a pharmacokinetic study involving 10 healthy subjects, the administration of a single 600 mg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) with grapefruit juice (full-strength or half-strength) did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic parameters of quinine. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) may be taken with grapefruit juice.

Histamine H2-receptor blockers [cimetidine, ranitidine (nonspecific CYP450 inhibitors)]: In healthy subjects who were given a single oral 600 mg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) after pretreatment with cimetidine (200 mg three times daily and 400 mg at bedtime for 7 days) or ranitidine (150 mg twice daily for 7 days), the apparent oral clearance of quinine decreased and the mean elimination half-life increased significantly when given with cimetidine but not with ranitidine. Compared to untreated controls, the mean AUC of quinine increased by 20% with ranitidine and by 42% with cimetidine (p<0.05) without a significant change in mean quinine Cmax. When quinine is to be given concomitantly with a histamine H2-receptor blocker, the use of ranitidine is preferred over cimetidine. Although cimetidine and ranitidine may be used concomitantly with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate), patients should be monitored closely for adverse events associated with quinine.

Isoniazid: Isoniazid 300 mg/day pretreatment for 1 week did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic parameter values of quinine. Adjustment of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) dosage is not necessary when isoniazid is given concomitantly.

Ketoconazole (CYP3A4 inhibitor): In a crossover study, healthy subjects (N=9) who received a single oral dose of quinine hydrochloride (500 mg) concomitantly with ketoconazole (100 mg twice daily for 3 days) had a mean quinine AUC that was higher by 45% and a mean oral clearance of quinine that was 31% lower than after receiving quinine alone. Although no change in the Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) dosage regimen is necessary with concomitant ketoconazole, patients should be monitored closely for adverse reactions associated with quinine.

Macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, troleandomycin) (CYP3A4 inhibitors): In a crossover study (N=10), healthy subjects who received a single oral 600 mg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) with the macrolide antibiotic, troleandomycin (500 mg every 8 hours) exhibited a 87% higher mean quinine AUC, a 45% lower mean oral clearance of quinine, and a 81% lower formation clearance of the main metabolite, 3-hydroxyquinine, than when quinine was given alone.

Erythromycin was shown to inhibit the in vitro metabolism of quinine in human liver microsomes, an observation confirmed by an in vivo interaction study. In a crossover study (N=10), healthy subjects who received a single oral 500 mg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) with erythromycin (600 mg every 8 hours for four days) showed a decrease in quinine oral clearance (CL/F), an increase in half-life, and a decreased metabolite (3-hydroxyquinine) to quinine AUC ratio, as compared to when quinine was given with placebo.

Therefore, concomitant administration of macrolide antibiotics such as erythromycin or troleandomycin with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) should be avoided [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ].

Oral contraceptives (estrogen, progestin): In 7 healthy females who were using single-ingredient progestin or combination estrogen-containing oral contraceptives, the pharmacokinetic parameters of a single 600 mg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) were not altered in comparison to those observed in 7 age-matched female control subjects not using oral contraceptives.

Rifampin (CYP3A4 inducer): In patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria who received Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) 10 mg/kg concomitantly with rifampin 15 mg/kg/day for 7 days (N=29), the median AUC of quinine between days 3 and 7 of therapy was 75% lower as compared to those who received quinine monotherapy. In healthy subjects (N=9) who received a single oral 600 mg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) after 2 weeks of pretreatment with rifampin 600 mg/day, the mean quinine AUC and Cmax decreased by 85% and 55%, respectively. Therefore, the concomitant administration of rifampin with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) should be avoided [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ].

Ritonavir: In healthy subjects who received a single oral 600 mg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) with the 15th dose of ritonavir (200 mg every 12 hours for 9 days), there were 4-fold increases in the mean quinine AUC and Cmax, and an increase in the mean elimination half-life (13.4 hours versus 11.2 hours), compared to when quinine was given alone. Therefore, the concomitant administration of ritonavir with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) capsules should be avoided [see also Drug Interactions (7.2) ].

Tetracycline: In 8 patients with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria who were treated with oral Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) (600 mg every 8 hours for 7 days) in combination with oral tetracycline (250 mg every 6 hours for 7 days), the mean plasma quinine concentrations were about two-fold higher than in 8 patients who received quinine monotherapy. Although tetracycline may be concomitantly administered with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate), patients should be monitored closely for adverse reactions associated with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate).

Theophylline or aminophylline: In 20 healthy subjects who received multiple doses of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) (648 mg every 8 hours × 7 days) with a single 300 mg oral dose of theophylline, the quinine mean Cmax and AUC were increased by 13% and 14% respectively. Although no change in the Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) dosage regimen is necessary with concomitant theophylline or aminophylline, patients should be monitored closely for adverse reactions associated with quinine.

Urinary alkalizers (acetazolamide, sodium bicarbonate): Urinary alkalinizing agents may increase plasma quinine concentrations.

7.2 Effects of Quinine on the Pharmacokinetics of Other Drugs

Results of in vivo drug interaction studies suggest that quinine has the potential to inhibit the metabolism of drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Quinine inhibits P-gp and has the potential to affect the transport of drugs that are P-gp substrates.

Anticonvulsants : A single 600 mg oral dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) increased the mean plasma Cmax, and AUC0–24 of single oral doses of carbamazepine (200 mg) and phenobarbital (120 mg) but not phenytoin (200 mg) in 8 healthy subjects. The mean AUC increases of carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin were 104%, 81% and 4%, respectively; the mean increases in Cmax were 56%, 53%, and 4%, respectively. Mean urinary recoveries of the three antiepileptics over 24 hours were also profoundly increased by quinine. If concomitant administration with carbamazepine or phenobarbital cannot be avoided, frequent monitoring of anticonvulsant drug concentrations is recommended. Additionally, patients should be monitored closely for adverse reactions associated with these anticonvulsants.

Astemizole (CYP3A4 substrate): Elevated plasma astemizole concentrations were reported in a subject who experienced torsades de pointes after receiving three doses of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) for nocturnal leg cramps concomitantly with chronic astemizole 10 mg/day. The concurrent use of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) with astemizole and other CYP3A4 substrates with QT prolongation potential (e.g., cisapride, terfenadine, halofantrine, pimozide and quinidine) should also be avoided [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ].

Atorvastatin (CYP3A4 substrate): Rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria was reported in a patient taking atorvastatin administered with a single dose of quinine. Quinine may increase plasma concentrations of atorvastatin, thereby increasing the risk of myopathy or rhabdomyolysis. Thus, clinicians considering combined therapy of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) with atorvastatin or other HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors ("statins") that are CYP3A4 substrates (e.g., simvastatin, lovastatin) should carefully weigh the potential benefits and risks of each medication. If Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) is used concomitantly with any of these statins, lower starting and maintenance doses of the statin should be considered. Patients should also be monitored closely for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly during initial therapy. If marked creatine phosphokinase (CPK) elevation occurs or myopathy (defined as muscle aches or muscle weakness in conjunction with CPK values >10 times the upper limit of normal) is diagnosed or suspected, atorvastatin or other statin should be discontinued.

Desipramine (CYP2D6 substrate): Quinine (750 mg/day for 2 days) decreased the metabolism of desipramine in patients who were extensive CYP2D6 metabolizers, but had no effect in patients who were poor CYP2D6 metabolizers. Lower doses (80 mg to 400 mg) of quinine did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of other CYP2D6 substrates, namely, debrisoquine, dextromethorphan, and methoxyphenamine. Although clinical drug interaction studies have not been performed, antimalarial doses (greater than or equal to 600 mg) of quinine may inhibit the metabolism of other drugs that are CYP2D6 substrates (e.g., flecainide, debrisoquine, dextromethorphan, metoprolol, paroxetine). Patients taking medications that are CYP2D6 substrates with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) should be monitored closely for adverse reactions associated with these medications.

Digoxin (P-gp substrate): In 4 healthy subjects who received digoxin (0.5 to 0.75 mg/day) during treatment with quinine (750 mg/day), a 33% increase in mean steady state AUC of digoxin and a 35% reduction in the steady state biliary clearance of digoxin were observed compared to digoxin alone. Thus, if Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) is administered to patients receiving digoxin, plasma digoxin concentrations should be closely monitored, and the digoxin dose adjusted, as necessary [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ].

Halofantrine: Although not studied clinically, quinine was shown to inhibit the metabolism of halofantrine in vitro using human liver microsomes. Therefore, concomitant administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) is likely to increase plasma halofantrine concentrations [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ].

Mefloquine: In 7 healthy subjects who received mefloquine (750 mg) at 24 hours before an oral 600 mg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate), the AUC of mefloquine was increased by 22% compared to mefloquine alone. In this study, the QTc interval was significantly prolonged in the subjects who received mefloquine and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) 24 hours apart. The concomitant administration of mefloquine and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) may produce electrocardiographic abnormalities (including QTc prolongation) and may increase the risk of seizures [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ].

Midazolam (CYP3A4 substrate): In 23 healthy subjects who received multiple doses of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) 324 mg three times daily × 7 days with a single oral 2 mg dose of midazolam, the mean AUC and Cmax of midazolam and 1-hydroxymidazolam were not significantly affected. This finding indicates that 7-day dosing with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) 324 mg every 8 hours did not induce the metabolism of midazolam.

Neuromuscular blocking agents (pancuronium, succinylcholine, tubocurarine): In one report, quinine potentiated neuromuscular blockade in a patient who received pancuronium during an operative procedure, and subsequently (3 hours after receiving pancuronium) received quinine 1800 mg daily. Quinine may also enhance the neuromuscular blocking effects of succinylcholine and tubocurarine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ].

Ritonavir: In healthy subjects who received a single oral 600 mg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) with the 15th dose of ritonavir (200 mg every 12 hours for 9 days), the mean ritonavir AUC, Cmax, and elimination half-life were slightly but not significantly increased compared to when ritonavir was given alone. However, due to the significant effect of ritonavir on quinine pharmacokinetics, the concomitant administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) capsules with ritonavir should be avoided [see also Drug Interactions (7.1) ].

Theophylline or aminophylline (CYP1A2 substrate): In 19 healthy subjects who received multiple doses of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) 648 mg every 8 hours x 7 days with a single 300 mg oral dose of theophylline, the mean theophylline AUC was 10% lower than when theophylline was given alone. There was no significant effect on mean theophylline Cmax. Therefore, if Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) is co-administered to patients receiving theophylline or aminophylline, plasma theophylline concentrations should be monitored frequently to ensure therapeutic concentrations.

Warfarin and oral anticoagulants: Cinchona alkaloids, including quinine, may have the potential to depress hepatic enzyme synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation pathway proteins and may enhance the action of warfarin and other oral anticoagulants. Quinine may also interfere with the anticoagulant effect of heparin. Thus, in patients receiving these anticoagulants, the prothrombin time (PT), partial thromboplastin time (PTT), or international normalization ratio (INR) should be closely monitored as appropriate, during concurrent therapy with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate).

7.3 Drug/Laboratory Interactions

Quinine may produce an elevated value for urinary 17-ketogenic steroids when the Zimmerman method is used.

Quinine may interfere with urine qualitative dipstick protein assays as well as quantitative methods (e.g., pyrogallol red-molybdate).

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

  • Renal impairment: Reduce dose and dosing frequency for patients with severe chronic renal impairment.
  • Hepatic impairment: Closely monitor for adverse events. Quinine should not be administered in patients with severe (Child-Pugh C) hepatic impairment (2.3, 8.7, 12.3).
  • Pregnancy: Based on animal data may cause fetal harm. Use only if the potential benefit justifies the risk (8.1).
  • Nursing Mothers: Exercise caution when administering to a nursing woman (8.3).

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C

There are extensive published data but few well-controlled studies of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) in pregnant women. Published data on over 1,000 pregnancy exposures to quinine did not show an increase in teratogenic effects over the background rate in the general population; however, the majority of these exposures were not in the first trimester. In developmental and reproductive toxicity studies, central nervous system (CNS) and ear abnormalities and increased fetal deaths occurred in some species when pregnant animals received quinine at doses about 1 to 4 times the human clinical dose. Quinine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

P. falciparum malaria carries a higher risk of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women than in the general population. Pregnant women with P. falciparum malaria have an increased incidence of fetal loss (including spontaneous abortion and stillbirth), preterm labor and delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and maternal death. Therefore, treatment of malaria in pregnancy is important.

Hypoglycemia, due to increased pancreatic secretion of insulin, has been associated with quinine use, particularly in pregnant women.

Quinine crosses the placenta with measurable blood concentrations in the fetus. In 8 women who delivered live infants 1 to 6 days after starting quinine therapy, umbilical cord plasma quinine concentrations were between 1.0 and 4.6 mg/L (mean 2.4 mg/L) and the mean (±SD) ratio of cord plasma to maternal plasma quinine concentrations was 0.32 ± 0.14. Quinine levels in the fetus may not be therapeutic. If congenital malaria is suspected after delivery, the infant should be evaluated and treated appropriately.

A study from Thailand (1999) of women with P. falciparum malaria who were treated with oral Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) 10 mg/kg 3 times daily for 7 days at anytime in pregnancy reported no significant difference in the rate of stillbirths at >28 weeks of gestation in women treated with quinine (10 of 633 women [1.6%]) as compared with a control group without malaria or exposure to antimalarial drugs during pregnancy (40 of 2201 women [1.8%]). The overall rate of congenital malformations (9 of 633 offspring [1.4%]) was not different for women who were treated with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) compared with the control group (38 of 2201 offspring [1.7%]). The spontaneous abortion rate was higher in the control group (10.9%) than in women treated with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) (3.5%) [OR = 3.1; 95% CI 2.1-4.7]. An epidemiologic survey that included 104 mother-child pairs exposed to quinine during the first 4 months of pregnancy, found no increased risk of structural birth defects was seen (2 fetal malformations [1.9%]). Rare and isolated case reports describe deafness and optic nerve hypoplasia in children exposed in utero due to maternal ingestion of high doses of quinine.

In animal developmental studies conducted in multiple animal species, pregnant animals received quinine by the subcutaneous or intramuscular route at dose levels similar to the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD; 32 mg/kg/day) based on body surface area (BSA) comparisons. There were increases in fetal death in utero in rabbits at maternal doses ≥ 100 mg/kg/day and in dogs at ≥ 15 mg/kg/day corresponding to dose levels approximately 0.5 and 0.25 times the MRHD respectively based on BSA comparisons. Rabbit offspring had increased rates of degenerated auditory nerve and spiral ganglion and increased rates of CNS anomalies such as anencephaly and microcephaly at a dose of 130 mg/kg/day corresponding to a maternal dose approximately 1.3 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison. Guinea pig offspring had increased rates of hemorrhage and mitochondrial change in the cochlea at maternal doses of 200 mg/kg corresponding to a dose level of approximately 1.4 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison. There were no teratogenic findings in rats at maternal doses up to 300 mg/kg/day and in monkeys at doses up to 200 mg/kg/day corresponding to doses approximately 1 and 2 times the MRHD respectively based on BSA comparisons.

In a pre- postnatal study in rats, an estimated oral dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) of 20 mg/kg/day corresponding to approximately 0.1 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison resulted in offspring with impaired growth, lower body weights at birth and during the lactation period, and delayed physical development of teeth eruption and eye opening during the lactation period.

8.2 Labor and Delivery

There is no evidence that quinine causes uterine contractions at the doses recommended for the treatment of malaria. In doses several-times higher than those used to treat malaria, quinine may stimulate the pregnant uterus.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

There is limited information on the safety of quinine in breastfed infants. No toxicity was reported in infants in a single study where oral Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (10 mg/kg every 8 hours for 1 to 10 days) was administered to 25 lactating women. It is estimated from this study that breastfed infants would receive less than 2 to 3 mg per day of quinine base (< 0.4% of the maternal dose) via breast milk [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

Although quinine is generally considered compatible with breastfeeding, the risks and benefits to infant and mother should be assessed. Caution should be exercised when administered to a nursing woman.

If malaria is suspected in the infant, appropriate evaluation and treatment should be provided. Plasma quinine levels may not be therapeutic in infants of nursing mothers receiving Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate).

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and efficacy of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) in pediatric patients under the age of 16 has not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond to treatment differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.

8.6 Renal Impairment

Clearance of quinine is decreased in patients with severe chronic renal failure. The dosage and dosing frequency should be reduced [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

In patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C), quinine oral clearance (CL/F) is decreased, volume of distribution (Vd/F) is increased, and half-life is prolonged, relative to subjects with normal liver function. Therefore, quinine is not indicated in patients with severe hepatic impairment and alternate therapy should be administered [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

Close monitoring is recommended for patients with mild (Child-Pugh A) or moderate (Child-Pugh B) hepatic impairment, as exposure to quinine may be increased relative to subjects with normal liver function [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

10 OVERDOSAGE

Quinine overdose can be associated with serious complications, including visual impairment, hypoglycemia, cardiac arrhythmias, and death. Visual impairment can range from blurred vision and defective color perception, to visual field constriction and permanent blindness. Cinchonism occurs in virtually all patients with quinine overdose. Symptoms range from headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, tinnitus, vertigo, hearing impairment, sweating, flushing, and blurred vision, to deafness, blindness, serious cardiac arrhythmias, hypotension, and circulatory collapse. Central nervous system toxicity (drowsiness, disturbances of consciousness, ataxia, convulsions, respiratory depression and coma) has also been reported with quinine overdose, as well as pulmonary edema and adult respiratory distress syndrome.

Most toxic reactions are dose-related; however, some reactions may be idiosyncratic because of the variable sensitivity of patients to the toxic effects of quinine. A lethal dose of quinine has not been clearly defined, but fatalities have been reported after the ingestion of 2 to 8 grams in adults.

Quinine, like quinidine, has Class I antiarrhythmic properties. The cardiotoxicity of quinine is due to its negative inotropic action, and to its effect on cardiac conduction, resulting in decreased rates of depolarization and conduction, and increased action potential and effective refractory period. ECG changes observed with quinine overdose include sinus tachycardia, PR prolongation, T wave inversion, bundle branch block, an increased QT interval, and a widening of the QRS complex. Quinine's alpha-blocking properties may result in hypotension and further exacerbate myocardial depression by decreasing coronary perfusion. Quinine overdose has been also associated with hypotension, cardiogenic shock, and circulatory collapse, ventricular arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, idioventricular rhythm, and torsades de pointes, as well as bradycardia, and atrioventricular block [see Warnings and Precautions (5), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

Quinine is rapidly absorbed, and attempts to remove residual Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) from the stomach by gastric lavage may not be effective. Multiple-dose activated charcoal has been shown to decrease plasma quinine concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

Forced acid diuresis, hemodialysis, charcoal column hemoperfusion, and plasma exchange were not found to be effective in significantly increasing quinine elimination in a series of 16 patients.

11 DESCRIPTION

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) (quinine sulfate) is a cinchona alkaloid chemically described as cinchonan-9-ol, 6'-methoxy-, (8α, 9R)-, sulfate (2:1) (salt), dihydrate with a molecular formula of (C20H24N2O2)2-H2SO4-2H2O and a molecular weight of 782.96.

The structural formula of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) is:

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) occurs as a white, crystalline powder that darkens on exposure to light. It is odorless and has a persistent very bitter taste. It is only slightly soluble in water, alcohol, chloroform, and ether.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) is supplied for oral administration as capsules containing 324 mg of the active ingredient Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) USP, equivalent to 269 mg free base. Inactive ingredients: corn starch, magnesium stearate, and talc.

Chemical Structure

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Quinine is an antimalarial agent [see Clinical Pharmacology ].

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

QTc interval prolongation was studied in a double-blind, multiple dose, placebo- and positive-controlled crossover study in young (N=13, 20 to 39 years) and elderly (N=13, 65 to 78 years) subjects. After 7 days of dosing with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) 648 mg three times daily, the maximum mean (95% upper confidence bound) differences in QTcI from placebo after baseline correction was 27.7 (32.2) ms.

Prolongation of the PR and QRS interval was also noted in subjects receiving Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate). The maximum mean (95% upper confidence bound) difference in PR from placebo after baseline-correction was 14.5 (18.0) ms. The maximum mean (95% upper confidence bound) difference in QRS from placebo after baseline-correction was 11.5 (13.3) ms. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ].

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

The oral bioavailability of quinine is 76 to 88% in healthy adults. Quinine exposure is higher in patients with malaria than in healthy subjects. After a single oral dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena, the mean quinine Tmax was longer, and mean AUC and Cmax were higher in patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria than in healthy subjects, as shown in Table 1 below.

Healthy Subjects

(N = 23)

Mean ± SD

Uncomplicated P. falciparum Malaria Patients

(N = 15)

Mean ± SD

Dose (mg/kg)Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) dose was 648 mg (approximately 8.7 mg/kg) in healthy subjects; and 10 mg/kg in patients with malaria 8.7 10
Tmax (h) 2.8 ± 0.8 5.9 ± 4.7
Cmax (mcg/mL) 3.2 ± 0.7 8.4
AUC0–12 (mcg*h/mL) 28.0 73.0

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) capsules may be administered without regard to meals. When a single oral 324 mg capsule of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) was administered to healthy subjects (N=26) with a standardized high-fat breakfast, the mean Tmax of quinine was prolonged to about 4.0 hours, but the mean Cmax and AUC0-24h were similar to those achieved when Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) capsule was given under fasted conditions [see Dosage and Administration (2.1) ].

Distribution

In patients with malaria, the volume of distribution (Vd/F) decreases in proportion to the severity of the infection. In published studies with healthy subjects who received a single oral 600 mg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate), the mean Vd/F ranged from 2.5 to 7.1 L/kg.

Quinine is moderately protein-bound in blood in healthy subjects, ranging from 69 to 92%. During active malarial infection, protein binding of quinine is increased to 78 to 95%, corresponding to the increase in α1-acid glycoprotein that occurs with malaria infection.

Intra-erythrocytic levels of quinine are approximately 30 to 50% of the plasma concentration.

Quinine penetrates relatively poorly into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with cerebral malaria, with CSF concentration approximately 2 to 7% of plasma concentration.

In one study, quinine concentrations in placental cord blood and breast milk were approximately 32% and 31%, respectively, of quinine concentrations in maternal plasma. The estimated total dose of quinine secreted into breast milk was less than 2 to 3 mg per day [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1, 8.3) ].

Metabolism

Quinine is metabolized almost exclusively via hepatic oxidative cytochrome P450 (CYP) pathways, resulting in four primary metabolites, 3-hydroxyquinine, 2´-quinone, O-desmethylquinine, and 10,11-dihydroxydihydroquinine. Six secondary metabolites result from further biotransformation of the primary metabolites. The major metabolite, 3-hydroxyquinine, is less active than the parent drug.

In vitro studies using human liver microsomes and recombinant P450 enzymes have shown that quinine is metabolized mainly by CYP3A4. Depending on the in vitro experimental conditions, other enzymes, including CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 were shown to have some role in the metabolism of quinine.

Elimination/Excretion

Quinine is eliminated primarily via hepatic biotransformation. Approximately 20% of quinine is excreted unchanged in urine. Because quinine is reabsorbed when the urine is alkaline, renal excretion of the drug is twice as rapid when the urine is acidic than when it is alkaline.

In various published studies, healthy subjects who received a single oral 600 mg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) exhibited a mean plasma clearance ranging from 0.08 to 0.47 L/h/kg (median value: 0.17 L/h/kg) with a mean plasma elimination half-life of 9.7 to 12.5 hours.

In 15 patients with uncomplicated malaria who received a 10 mg/kg oral dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate), the mean total clearance of quinine was slower (approximately 0.09 L/h/kg) during the acute phase of the infection, and faster (approximately 0.16 L/h/kg) during the recovery or convalescent phase.

Extracorporeal Elimination: Administration of multiple-dose activated charcoal (50 grams administered 4 hours after quinine dosing followed by 3 further doses over the next 12 hours) decreased the mean quinine elimination half-life from 8.2 to 4.6 hours, and increased the mean quinine clearance by 56% (from 11.8 L/h to 18.4 L/h) in 7 healthy adult subjects who received a single oral 600 mg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate). Likewise, in 5 symptomatic patients with acute quinine poisoning who received multiple-dose activated charcoal (50 grams every 4 hours), the mean quinine elimination half-life was shortened to 8.1 hours in comparison to a half-life of approximately 26 hours in patients who did not receive activated charcoal [see Overdosage (10) ].

In 6 patients with quinine poisoning, forced acid diuresis did not change the half-life of quinine elimination (25.1 ± 4.6 hours vs. 26.5 ± 5.8 hours), or the amount of unchanged quinine recovered in the urine, in comparison to 8 patients not treated in this manner [see Overdosage (10) ].

Specific Populations

Pediatric Patients: The pharmacokinetics of quinine in children (1.5 to 12 years old) with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria appear to be similar to that seen in adults with uncomplicated malaria. Furthermore, as seen in adults, the mean total clearance and the volume of distribution of quinine were reduced in pediatric patients with malaria as compared to the healthy pediatric controls. Table 2 below provides a comparison of the mean ± SD pharmacokinetic parameters of quinine in pediatric patients vs. healthy pediatric controls.

Healthy Pediatric Controlsage 1.5 to 12 years

(N = 5)

Mean ± SD

P. falciparum Malaria Pediatric Patients

(N = 15)

Mean ± SD

Tmax (h) 2.0 4.0
Cmax (mcg/mL) 3.4 ± 1.18 7.5 ± 1.1
Half-life (h) 3.2 ± 0.3 12.1 ± 1.4
Total CL (L/h/kg) 0.30 ± 0.04 0.06 ± 0.01
Vd (L/kg) 1.43 ± 0.18 0.87 ± 0.12

Geriatric Patients: Following a single oral dose of 600 mg Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate), the mean AUC was about 38% higher in 8 healthy elderly subjects (65 to 78 years old) than in 12 younger subjects (20 to 35 years old). The mean Tmax and Cmax were similar in elderly and younger subjects after a single oral dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) 600 mg. The mean oral clearance of quinine was significantly decreased, and the mean elimination half-life was significantly increased in elderly subjects compared with younger subjects (0.06 vs. 0.08 L/h/kg, and 18.4 hours vs. 10.5 hours, respectively). Although there was no significant difference in the renal clearance of quinine between the two age groups, elderly subjects excreted a larger proportion of the dose in urine as unchanged drug than younger subjects (16.6% vs. 11.2%).

After a single 648 mg dose or at steady state, following Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) 648 mg given three times daily for 7 days, no difference in the rate and extent of absorption or clearance of quinine was seen between 13 elderly subjects (65 to 78 years old) and 14 young subjects (20 to 39 years old). The mean elimination half-life was 20% longer in the elderly subjects (24.0 hours) than in younger subjects (20.0 hours). The steady state Cmax (±SD) and AUC0-8 (±SD) for healthy volunteers are 6.8 ± 1.24 mcg/mL and 48.8 ± 9.15 mcg*h/mL, respectively, following 7 days of oral Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) 648 mg three times daily. The steady state pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy elderly subjects were similar to the pharmacokinetic parameters in healthy young subjects.

Renal Impairment: Following a single oral 600 mg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) in otherwise healthy subjects with severe chronic renal failure not receiving any form of dialysis (mean serum creatinine = 9.6 mg/dL), the median AUC was higher by 195% and the median Cmax was higher by 79% than in subjects with normal renal function (mean serum creatinine = 1 mg/dL). The mean plasma half-life in subjects with severe chronic renal impairment was prolonged to 26 hours compared to 9.7 hours in the healthy controls. Computer assisted modeling and simulation indicates that in patients with malaria and severe chronic renal failure, a dosage regimen consisting of one loading dose of 648 mg Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) followed 12 hours later by a maintenance dosing regimen of 324 mg every 12 hours will provide adequate systemic exposure to quinine [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) ]. The effects of mild and moderate renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and safety of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) are not known.

Negligible to minimal amounts of circulating quinine in the blood are removed by hemodialysis or hemofiltration. In subjects with chronic renal failure (CRF) on hemodialysis, only about 6.5% of quinine is removed in 1 hour. Plasma quinine concentrations do not change during or shortly after hemofiltration in subjects with CRF [see Overdosage (10) ].

Hepatic Impairment: In otherwise healthy subjects with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh A; N=10), who received a single 500 mg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate), there was no significant difference in quinine pharmacokinetic parameters or exposure to the primary metabolite, 3-hydroxyquinine as compared to healthy controls (N=10). In otherwise healthy subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B; N=9) who received a single oral 600 mg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate), the mean AUC increased by 55% without a significant change in mean Cmax, as compared to healthy volunteer controls (N=6). In subjects with hepatitis, the absorption of quinine was prolonged, the elimination half-life was increased, the apparent volume of distribution was higher, but there was no significant difference in weight-adjusted clearance. Therefore, in patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment, dosage adjustment is not needed, but patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects of quinine [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7) ].

In subjects with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh C; N=10), quinine oral clearance (CL/F) was reduced as was formation of the primary 3-hydroxyquinine metabolite. Volume of distribution (Vd/F) was higher and the plasma elimination half-life was increased. Therefore, quinine is not indicated in this population and alternate therapy should be administered [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) ].

12.4 Microbiology

Mechanism of Action

Quinine inhibits nucleic acid synthesis, protein synthesis, and glycolysis in Plasmodium falciparum and can bind with hemazoin in parasitized erythrocytes. However, the precise mechanism of the antimalarial activity of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) is not completely understood.

Activity In Vitro and In Vivo

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) acts primarily on the blood schizont form of P. falciparum. It is not gametocidal and has little effect on the sporozoite or pre-erythrocytic forms.

Drug Resistance

Strains of P. falciparum with decreased susceptibility to quinine can be selected in vivo. P. falciparum malaria that is clinically resistant to quinine has been reported in some areas of South America, Southeast Asia, and Bangladesh.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

Carcinogenicity studies of quinine have not been conducted.

Mutagenesis

Genotoxicity studies of quinine were positive in the Ames bacterial mutation assay with metabolic activation and in the sister chromatid exchange assay in mice. The sex-linked recessive lethal test performed in Drosophila, the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay, and the chromosomal aberration assay in mice and Chinese hamsters were negative.

Impairment of Fertility

Published studies indicate that quinine produces testicular toxicity in mice at a single intraperitoneal dose of 300 mg/kg corresponding to a dose of approximately 0.75 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD; 32 mg/kg/day) and in rats at an intramuscular dose of 10 mg/kg/day, 5 days/week, for 8 weeks corresponding to a daily dose of approximately 0.05 times the MRHD based on body surface area (BSA) comparisons. The findings include atrophy or degeneration of the seminiferous tubules, decreased sperm count and motility, and decreased testosterone levels in the serum and testes. There was no effect on testes weight in studies of oral doses of up to 500 mg/kg/day in mice and 700 mg/kg/day in rats (approximately 1.2 and 3.5 times the MRHD respectively based on BSA comparisons). In a published study in 5 men receiving 600 mg of quinine TID for one week, sperm motility was decreased and percent sperm with abnormal morphology was increased; sperm count and serum testosterone were unaffected.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

Quinine has been used worldwide for hundreds of years in the treatment of malaria. Thorough searches of the published literature identified over 1300 references to the treatment of malaria with quinine, and from these, 21 randomized, active-controlled studies were identified which evaluated oral quinine monotherapy or combination therapy for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria. Over 2900 patients from malaria-endemic areas were enrolled in these studies, and more than 1400 patients received oral quinine. The following conclusions were drawn from review of these studies:

In areas where multi-drug resistance of P. falciparum is increasing, such as Southeast Asia, cure rates with 7 days of oral quinine monotherapy were at least 80%; while cure rates for 7 days of oral quinine combined with an antimicrobial agent (tetracycline or clindamycin) were greater than 90%. In areas where multi-drug resistance of the parasite was not as widespread, cure rates with 7 days of quinine monotherapy ranged from 86 to 100%. Cure was defined as initial clearing of parasitemia within 7 days without recrudescence by day 28 after treatment initiation. P. falciparum malaria that is clinically resistant to quinine has been reported in some areas of South America, Southeast Asia, and Bangladesh, and quinine may not be as effective in those areas.

Completion of a 7-day oral quinine treatment regimen may be limited by drug intolerance, and shorter courses (3 days) of quinine combination therapy have been used. However, the published data from randomized, controlled clinical trials for shorter regimens of oral quinine in conjunction with tetracycline, doxycycline, or clindamycin for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria is limited, and these shorter course combination regimens may not be as effective as the longer regimens.

16 HOW SUPPLIED / STORAGE AND HANDLING

16.1 How Supplied

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena capsules USP, 324 mg are available as clear/clear capsules imprinted AR 102:

Bottles of 30 NDC 13310-153-07
Bottles of 100 NDC 13310-153-01
Bottles of 500 NDC 13310-153-05
Bottles of 1000 NDC 13310-153-10

16.2 Storage

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).

Dispense in a tight container as defined in the USP.

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

See FDA-approved Medication Guide

17.1 Dosing Instructions

Patients should be instructed to:

  • Take all of the medication as directed.
  • Take no more of the medication than the amount prescribed.
  • Take with food to minimize possible gastrointestinal irritation.

If a dose is missed, patients should also be instructed not to double the next dose. If more than 4 hours has elapsed since the missed dose, the patient should wait and take the next dose as previously scheduled.

17.2 FDA-Approved Medication Guide

MEDICATION GUIDE

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®

(kwol-a-kwin)

(Quinine sulfate) Capsules

Read the Medication Guide that comes with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® before you start taking it and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This Medication Guide does not take the place of talking to your healthcare provider about your medical condition or treatment. You and your healthcare provider should talk about Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® when you start taking it and at regular checkups. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® is not approved for the treatment of night-time leg cramps.

What is the most important information I should know about Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®?

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® used to treat or prevent leg cramps may cause serious side effects or even death.

  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® may cause your blood cell (platelet) count to drop causing serious bleeding problems. In some people, serious kidney problems can happen.
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® may cause problems with your heart rhythm that can lead to death.
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® may cause serious allergic reactions.

Call your healthcare provider right away if you have:

  • easy bruising
  • severe nose bleed
  • blood in urine or stool
  • bleeding gums
  • appearance of unusual purple, brown or red spots on your skin (bleeding under your skin)
  • rash
  • hives
  • severe itching
  • severe flushing
  • swelling of your face
  • trouble breathing
  • chest pain
  • rapid heartbeat
  • irregular heart rhythm
  • weakness
  • sweating
  • nervousness

Taking Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® with some other medicines can increase the chance of serious side effects. Tell your healthcare provider if you take any other medicines.

Certain medicines can cause the blood levels of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® to be too high or too low in your body. It is important for you to tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins and herbal supplements.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® and other medicines may affect each other causing serious side effects or death. Even medicines that you may take for a short period of time, such as antibiotics, can mix in your blood with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® and cause serious side effects or death. Do not start taking a new medicine without telling your healthcare provider or pharmacist.

What is Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®?

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® is a prescription medication used to treat malaria (uncomplicated) caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® is Not approved to:

  • Prevent malaria
  • Treat severe or complicated malaria
  • Prevent or treat night-time leg cramps

It is not known if Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® is safe and works in children younger than 16 years old.

Who should not take Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®?

Do not take Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® if you have:

  • certain heart rhythm problems (atrial fibrillation) or abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) (QT prolongation).
  • low levels of an enzyme called Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD).
  • an autoimmune disease (myasthenia gravis) that leads to muscle weakness.
  • had allergic reactions to quinine, quinidine, or mefloquine (Lariam®).
  • had serious side effects to quinine (QUALAQUIN®), such as low platelets, which are necessary for your blood to clot.
  • an inflammation of the nerve important for vision (optic neuritis).

What should I tell my healthcare provider before starting Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®?

Before you take Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®, tell your healthcare provider if you:

  • Have heart problems.
  • Have kidney problems.
  • Have liver problems.
  • Have any other medical condition.
  • Are pregnant or could be pregnant. Treatment of malaria is important because it can be a serious disease for a pregnant woman and her unborn baby. Your healthcare provider can tell you more about the benefits and risks of taking this medication during pregnancy. Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) can be seen in pregnant women while taking Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®. This can include sweating, weakness, nausea, vomiting, or confusion. You and your healthcare provider can decide if Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® is right for you.
  • Are breast-feeding. Small amounts of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® can pass into your breast milk. You and your healthcare provider can decide if you should breastfeed while taking Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® .

Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription medicines, vitamins and herbal supplements.

How should I take Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®?

  • Take Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® exactly as your healthcare provider tells you to take it.
  • Your healthcare provider will tell you how many Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® capsules to take and when to take them.
  • To lower the chance of stomach upset, take Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® with food.
  • Finish all the Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® that is prescribed even if you feel better. Do not stop taking the medication without talking to your healthcare provider.
  • Do not take more than the amount prescribed. Do not take more than 2 capsules at one time or more than 3 doses in one day. If you take more than the prescribed dose, call your healthcare provider right away.
  • If you forget to take Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®, do not double the next dose. If it has been more than 4 hours since the missed dose, just wait and take the regular dose at the next scheduled time. Call your healthcare provider if you are not sure what to do.
  • If you take too much Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®, call your healthcare provider or go to the nearest emergency room right away.

Call your healthcare provider right away if:

  • If you feel worse, or if you do not start feeling better within 1 or 2 days of starting to take Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®.
  • If your fever comes back after finishing treatment with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®.

What are the possible side effects of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®?

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® may cause serious side effects.

  • See "What is the most important information I should know about Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ®" section.
  • Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). This can include sweating, weakness, nausea, vomiting, or confusion.

Common side effects with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® include:

  • headache
  • sweating
  • flushing
  • nausea
  • ringing in your ears
  • diarrhea
  • deafness
  • hearing loss
  • dizziness (vertigo)
  • blurred vision
  • changes in how you see color
  • vomiting
  • stomach pain
  • blindness

Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away.

These are not all of the possible side effects of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® . For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

How should I store Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®?

  • Keep the capsules in a tightly closed container.
  • Do not refrigerate or freeze.
  • Store at 20°C to 25°C (68ºF to 77°F).

Keep Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)® and all medicines out of the reach of children.

General Information about Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®

Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them.

This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® . If you would like more information, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for information about Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ® that is written for healthcare professionals.

For more information, go to www. QUALAQUIN.com or call 1-888-351-3786.

What are the ingredients in Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)®?

Active Ingredients: Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate), USP

Inactive Ingredients: Corn starch, magnesium stearate, talc

This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Manufactured for:

AR SCIENTIFIC, INC.

Philadelphia, PA 19124 USA

by:

MUTUAL PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANY, INC.

Philadelphia, PA 19124 USA

Rev 23, April 2013

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 324 mg Capsule Bottle Label

100 CAPSULES

NDC 13310-153-01

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate) ®

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Quinine Sulfate)

capsules USP

324 mg

DISPENSE THE ACCOMPANYING

MEDICATION GUIDE TO EACH PATIENT

AR

SCIENTIFIC

Rx only

Sodium Chloride:


1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite is indicated for sequential use with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate for treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. (1)

  • Use with caution if the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain. (1)

1.1 Indication

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection is indicated for sequential use with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. When the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain, the potentially life-threatening risks associated with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection should be carefully weighed against the potential benefits, especially if the patient is not in extremis.

1.2 Identifying Patients with Cyanide Poisoning

Cyanide poisoning may result from inhalation, ingestion, or dermal exposure to various cyanide-containing compounds, including smoke from closed-space fires. Sources of cyanide poisoning include hydrogen cyanide and its salts, cyanogenic plants, aliphatic nitriles, and prolonged exposure to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitroprusside.

The presence and extent of cyanide poisoning are often initially unknown. There is no widely available, rapid, confirmatory cyanide blood test. Treatment decisions must be made on the basis of clinical history and signs and symptoms of cyanide intoxication. If clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning is high, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate Injection should be administered without delay.

Symptoms Signs
  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • Dyspnea
  • Chest Tightness
  • Nausea
  • Altered Mental Status

    (e.g., confusion, disorientation)

  • Seizures or Coma
  • Mydriasis
  • Tachypnea/Hyperpnea (early)
  • Bradypnea/Apnea (late)
  • Hypertension (early)/ Hypotension (late)
  • Cardiovascular Collapse
  • Vomiting
  • Plasma Lactate Concentration ≥ 8 mmol/L

In some settings, panic symptoms including tachypnea and vomiting may mimic early cyanide poisoning signs. The presence of altered mental status (e.g., confusion and disorientation) and/or mydriasis is suggestive of true cyanide poisoning although these signs can occur with other toxic exposures as well.

The expert advice of a regional poison control center may be obtained by calling 1-800-222-1222.

Smoke Inhalation

Not all smoke inhalation victims will have cyanide poisoning and may present with burns, trauma, and exposure to other toxic substances making a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning particularly difficult. Prior to administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection, smoke-inhalation victims should be assessed for the following:

  • Exposure to fire or smoke in an enclosed area
  • Presence of soot around the mouth, nose, or oropharynx
  • Altered mental status

Although hypotension is highly suggestive of cyanide poisoning, it is only present in a small percentage of cyanide-poisoned smoke inhalation victims. Also indicative of cyanide poisoning is a plasma lactate concentration greater than or equal to 10 mmol/L (a value higher than that typically listed in the table of signs and symptoms of isolated cyanide poisoning because carbon monoxide associated with smoke inhalation also contributes to lactic acidemia). If cyanide poisoning is suspected, treatment should not be delayed to obtain a plasma lactate concentration.

1.3 Use with Other Cyanide Antidotes

Caution should be exercised when administering cyanide antidotes, other than Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, simultaneously with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection, as the safety of co-administration has not been established. If a decision is made to administer another cyanide antidote, other than Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection, these drugs should not be administered concurrently in the same IV line. [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) ]

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Age Intravenous Dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena Nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate
Adults
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite -10 mL of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate - 50 mL of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate immediately following administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.
Children
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite - 0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg or 6-8 mL/m2 BSA) of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute not to exceed 10 mL
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate - 1 mL/kg of body weight (250 mg/kg or approximately 30-40 mL/m2 of BSA) not to exceed 50 mL total dose immediately following administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.

Redosing: If signs of cyanide poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate.

Monitoring: Blood pressure must be monitored during treatment. (2.2)

2.1 Administration Recommendation

Comprehensive treatment of acute cyanide intoxication requires support of vital functions. Administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, followed by Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, should be considered adjunctive to appropriate supportive therapies. Airway, ventilatory and circulatory support, and oxygen administration should not be delayed to administer Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate injection are administered by slow intravenous injection. They should be given as early as possible after a diagnosis of acute life-threatening cyanide poisoning has been established. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be administered first, followed immediately by Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate. Blood pressure must be monitored during infusion in both adults and children. The rate of infusion should be decreased if significant hypotension is noted.

Age Intravenous Dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate
Adults
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite -10 mL of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate - 50 mL of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate immediately following administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.
Children
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite -0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg or 6-8 mL/m2 BSA) of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute not to exceed 10 mL
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate - 1 mL/kg of body weight (250 mg/kg or approximately 30-40 mL/m2 of BSA) not to exceed 50 mL total dose immediately following administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.

NOTE: If signs of poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate.

In adult and pediatric patients with known anemia, it is recommended that the dosage of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be reduced proportionately to the hemoglobin concentration.

All parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

2.2 Recommended Monitoring

Patients should be monitored for at least 24-48 hours after Salzmann Product M-1 Malena Nitrite Injection administration for adequacy of oxygenation and perfusion and for recurrent signs and symptoms of cyanide toxicity. When possible, hemoglobin/hematocrit should be obtained when treatment is initiated. Measurements of oxygen saturation using standard pulse oximetry and calculated oxygen saturation values based on measured PO2 are unreliable in the presence of methemoglobinemia.

Methemoglobin level: Administrations of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite solely to achieve an arbitrary level of methemoglobinemia may be unnecessary and potentially hazardous. The therapeutic effects of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite do not appear to be mediated by methemoglobin formation alone and clinical responses to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration have been reported in association with methemoglobin levels of less than 10%. Administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite beyond the initial dose should be guided primarily by clinical response to treatment (i.e., a second dose should be considered only if there is inadequate clinical response to the first dose). It is generally recommended that methemoglobin concentrations be closely monitored and kept below 30%. Serum methemoglobin levels should be monitored during treatment using co-oximetry, and administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should generally be discontinued when methemoglobin levels exceed 30%. Intravenous methylene blue and exchange transfusion have been reported in the literature as treatments for life-threatening methemoglobinemia.

2.3 Incompatibility Information

Chemical incompatibility has been reported between Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and hydroxocobalamin and these drugs should not be administered simultaneously through the same IV line. No chemical incompatibility has been reported between Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, when administered sequentially through the same IV line as described in Dosage and Administration.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection consists of:

  • One vial of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection, USP 300 mg/10mL (30 mg/mL)

Administration of the contents of one vial constitutes a single dose.

  • Injection, 300 mg/10 mL (30 mg/mL). (3)

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

None

  • None. (4)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Methemoglobinemia: Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite reacts with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin and should be used with caution in patients known to have anemia. Monitor oxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin levels by pulse oximetry or other measurements. Optimally, the Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite dose should be reduced in proportion to the oxygen carrying capacity. (5.2)
  • Smoke inhalation: Carbon monoxide contained in smoke can result in the formation of carboxyhemoglobin that can reduce the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in patients with smoke inhalation injury because of the potential for worsening hypoxia due to methemoglobin formation. Carboxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin levels should be monitored by pulse oximetry or other measurements in patients that present with evidence of smoke inhalation. Optimally, the Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite dose should be reduced in proportion to the oxygen carrying capacity. (5.4)

5.1 Hypotension

5.2 Methemoglobinemia

Supportive care alone may be sufficient treatment without administration of antidotes for many cases of cyanide intoxication, particularly in conscious patients without signs of severe toxicity. Patients should be closely monitored to ensure adequate perfusion and oxygenation during treatment with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite.

Methemoglobin levels should be monitored and oxygen administered during treatment with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite whenever possible. When Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is administered to humans a wide range of methemoglobin concentrations occur. Methemoglobin concentrations as high as 58% have been reported after two 300-mg doses of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administered to an adult. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of other drugs that may cause methemoglobinemia such as procaine and nitroprusside. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in patients who may be particularly susceptible to injury from vasodilation and its related hemodynamic sequelae. Hemodynamics should be monitored closely during and after administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, and infusion rates should be slowed if hypotension occurs.

5.3 Anemia

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in patients with known anemia. Patients with anemia will form more methemoglobin (as a percentage of total hemoglobin) than persons with normal red blood cell (RBC) volumes. Optimally, these patients should receive a Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite dose that is reduced in proportion to their oxygen carrying capacity.

5.4 Smoke Inhalation Injury

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite should be used with caution in persons with smoke inhalation injury or carbon monoxide poisoning because of the potential for worsening hypoxia due to methemoglobin formation.

5.5 Neonates and Infants

Neonates and infants may be more susceptible than adults and older pediatric patients to severe methemoglobinemia when Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is administered. Reduced dosing guidelines should be followed in pediatric patients.

5.6 G6PD Deficiency

Because patients with G6PD deficiency are at increased risk of a hemolytic crisis with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite administration, alternative therapeutic approaches should be considered in these patients. Patients with known or suspected G6PD deficiency should be monitored for an acute drop in hematocrit. Exchange transfusion may be needed for patients with G6PD deficiency who receive Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.

5.7 Use with Other Drugs

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of concomitant antihypertensive medications, diuretics or volume depletion due to diuretics, or drugs known to increase vascular nitric oxide, such as PDE5 inhibitors.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

There have been no controlled clinical trials conducted to systematically assess the adverse events profile of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.

The medical literature has reported the following adverse events in association with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration. These adverse events were not reported in the context of controlled trials or with consistent monitoring and reporting methodologies for adverse events. Therefore, frequency of occurrence of these adverse events cannot be assessed.

Cardiovascular system: syncope, hypotension, tachycardia, methemoglobinemia, palpitations, dysrhythmia

Hematological: methemoglobinemia

Central nervous system: headache, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, confusion, coma

Gastrointestinal system: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain

Respiratory system: tachypnea, dyspnea

Body as a Whole: anxiety, diaphoresis, lightheadedness, injection site tingling, cyanosis, acidosis, fatigue, weakness, urticaria, generalized numbness and tingling

Severe hypotension, methemoglobinemia, cardiac dysrhythmias, coma and death have been reported in patients without life-threatening cyanide poisoning but who were treated with injection of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at doses less than twice those recommended for the treatment of cyanide poisoning.

Most common adverse reactions are:

  • Syncope, hypotension, tachycardia, palpitations, dysrhythmia, methemoglobinemia, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, confusion, coma (6)

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Hope Pharmaceuticals at 1-800-755-9595 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Formal drug interaction studies have not been conducted with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

  • Renal impairment: Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite is substantially excreted by the kidney. The risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. (8.6).

8.1 Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has caused fetal death in humans as well as animals. There are no studies in humans that have directly evaluated the potential reproductive toxicity of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. There are two epidemiological studies conducted in Australia that report a statistically significant increase in the risk for congenital malformations, particularly in the CNS, associated with maternal consumption of water containing nitrate levels in excess of 5 ppm. Results from a case-control study in Canada suggested a trend toward an increase in the risk for CNS malformations when maternal consumption of nitrate was ≥ 26 ppm (not statistically significant).

The potential reproductive toxicity of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite exposure restricted to the prenatal period has been reported in guinea pigs, mice, and rats. There was no evidence of teratogenicity in guinea pigs, mice, or rats. However, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite treatment of pregnant guinea pigs with 60 or 70 mg/kg/day resulted in abortion of the litters within 1-4 days of treatment. All animals treated subcutaneously with 70 mg/kg, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite died within 60 minutes of treatment. Further studies demonstrated that a dose of 60 mg/kg resulted in measurable blood levels of methemoglobin in the dams and their fetuses for up to 6 hours post treatment. Maternal methemoglobin levels were higher than the levels in the offspring at all times measured. Based on a body surface area comparison, a 60 mg/kg dose in the guinea pig that resulted in death was only 1.7 times higher than the highest clinical dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).

Studies testing prenatal and postnatal exposure have been reported in mice and rats. Treatment of pregnant rats via drinking water with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at concentrations of either 2000 or 3000 mg/L resulted in a dose-related increased mortality postpartum. This exposure regimen in the rat model would result in dosing of approximately 220 and 300 mg/kg/day (43 and 65 times the highest clinical dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning, based on a body surface area comparison).

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite produces methemoglobin. Fetal hemoglobin is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin. In addition, the fetus has lower levels of methemoglobin reductase than adults. Collectively, these data suggest that the human fetus would show greater sensitivity to methemoglobin resulting in nitrite-induced prenatal hypoxia leading to retarded development of certain neurotransmitter systems in the brain and long lasting dysfunction.

Nonteratogenic Effects: Behavioral and neurodevelopmental studies in rats suggest persistent effects of prenatal exposure to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that were detectable postnatally. Specifically, animals that were exposed prenatally to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite demonstrated impaired discrimination learning behavior (both auditory and visual) and reduced long-term retention of the passive-avoidance response compared to control animals. Additional studies demonstrated a delay in the development of AchE and 5-HT positive fiber ingrowth into the hippocampal dentate gyrus and parietal neocortex during the first week of life of prenatal nitrite treated pups. These changes have been attributed to prenatal hypoxia following nitrite exposure.

8.2 Labor and Delivery

Because fetal hemoglobin is more readily oxidized to methemoglobin and lower levels of methemoglobin appear to be fatal to the fetus compared to the adult, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite should be used during labor and delivery only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is excreted in human milk. Because Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection may be administered in life-threatening situations, breast-feeding is not a contraindication to its use. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised following Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection administration to a nursing woman. There are no data to determine when breastfeeding may be safely restarted following administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. In studies conducted with Long-Evans rats, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administered in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation resulted in severe anemia, reduced growth and increased mortality in the offspring.

8.4 Pediatric Use

There are case reports in the medical literature of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite in conjunction with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate being administered to pediatric patients with cyanide poisoning; however, there have been no clinical studies to evaluate the safety or efficacy of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in the pediatric population. As for adult patients, dosing recommendations for pediatric patients have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite must be used with caution in patients less than 6 months of age because they may be at higher risk of developing severe methemoglobinemia compared to older children and adults. The presence of fetal hemoglobin, which is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin, and lower methemoglobin reductase levels compared to older children and adults may contribute to risk.

Mortality attributed to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite was reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

8.6 Renal Disease

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Large doses of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite result in severe hypotension and toxic levels of methemoglobin which may lead to cardiovascular collapse.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration has been reported to cause or significantly contribute to mortality in adults at oral doses as low as 1 g and intravenous doses as low as 600 mg. A death attributed to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has been reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.

Cyanosis may become apparent at a methemoglobin level of 10-20%. Other clinical signs and symptoms of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite toxicity (anxiety, dyspnea, nausea, and tachycardia) can be apparent at methemoglobin levels as low as 15%. More serious signs and symptoms, including cardiac dysrhythmias, circulatory failure, and central nervous system depression are seen as methemoglobin levels increase, and levels above 70% are usually fatal.

Treatment of overdose involves supplemental oxygen and supportive measures such as exchange transfusion. Treatment of severe methemoglobinemia with intravenous methylene blue has been described in the medical literature; however, this may also cause release of cyanide bound to methemoglobin. Because hypotension appears to be mediated primarily by an increase in venous capacitance, measures to increase venous return may be most appropriate to treat hypotension.

11 DESCRIPTION

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has the chemical name nitrous acid Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) salt. The chemical formula is NaNO2 and the molecular weight is 69.0. The structural formula is:

Structure of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection is a cyanide antidote which contains one 10 mL glass vial of a 3% solution of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection is a sterile aqueous solution and is intended for intravenous injection. Each vial contains 300 mg of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in 10 mL solution (30 mg/mL). Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection is a clear solution with a pH between 7.0 and 9.0.

Chemical Structure

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Exposure to a high dose of cyanide can result in death within minutes due to the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in arrest of cellular respiration. Specifically, cyanide binds rapidly with cytochrome a3, a component of the cytochrome c oxidase complex in mitochondria. Inhibition of cytochrome a3 prevents the cell from using oxygen and forces anaerobic metabolism, resulting in lactate production, cellular hypoxia and metabolic acidosis. In massive acute cyanide poisoning, the mechanism of toxicity may involve other enzyme systems as well.

The synergy resulting from treatment of cyanide poisoning with the combination of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate is the result of differences in their primary mechanisms of action as antidotes for cyanide poisoning.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is thought to exert its therapeutic effect by reacting with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin, an oxidized form of hemoglobin incapable of oxygen transport but with high affinity for cyanide. Cyanide preferentially binds to methemoglobin over cytochrome a3, forming the nontoxic cyanomethemoglobin. Methemoglobin displaces cyanide from cytochrome oxidase, allowing resumption of aerobic metabolism. The chemical reaction is as follows:

NaNO2 + Hemoglobin → Methemoglobin

HCN + Methemoglobin → Cyanomethemoglobin

Vasodilation has also been cited to account for at least part of the therapeutic effect of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. It has been suggested that Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia may be more efficacious against cyanide poisoning than comparable levels of methemoglobinemia induced by other oxidants. Also, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite appears to retain some efficacy even when the formation of methemoglobin is inhibited by methylene blue.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate

The primary route of endogenous cyanide detoxification is by enzymatic transulfuration to thiocyanate (SCN-), which is relatively nontoxic and readily excreted in the urine. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate is thought to serve as a sulfur donor in the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme rhodanese, thus enhancing the endogenous detoxification of cyanide in the following chemical reaction:

Chemical Structure

12. 2 Pharmacodynamics

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite

When 4 mg/kg Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite was administered intravenously to six healthy human volunteers, the mean peak methemoglobin concentration was 7%, achieved at 30-60 minutes after injection, consistent with reports in cyanide poisoning victims. Supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures dropped approximately 20% within 10 minutes, a drop which was sustained throughout the 40 minutes of testing. This was associated with a 20 beat per minute increase in pulse rate that returned to baseline in 10 minutes. Five of these subjects were unable to withstand orthostatic testing due to fainting. One additional subject, who received a 12 mg/kg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, experienced severe cardiovascular effects and achieved a peak methemoglobin concentration of 30% at 60 minutes following injection.

Oral doses of 120 to 180 mg of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administered to healthy volunteers caused minimal cardiovascular changes when subjects were maintained in the horizontal position. However, minutes after being placed in the upright position subjects exhibited tachycardia and hypotension with syncope.

The half life for conversion of methemoglobin to normal hemoglobin in a cyanide poisoning victim who has been administered Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is estimated to be 55 minutes.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is a strong oxidant, and reacts rapidly with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin. The pharmacokinetics of free Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in humans have not been well studied. It has been reported that approximately 40% of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is excreted unchanged in the urine while the remaining 60% is metabolized to ammonia and related small molecules.

Cyanide

The apparent terminal elimination half life and volume of distribution of cyanide, in a patient treated for an acute cyanide poisoning with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate administration, have been reported to be 19 hours and 0.41 L/kg, respectively. Additionally, an initial elimination half life of cyanide has been reported to be approximately 1-3 hours.

Thiocyanate

After detoxification, in healthy subjects, thiocyanate is excreted mainly in the urine at a rate inversely proportional to creatinine clearance. In healthy subjects, the elimination half-life and volume of distribution of thiocyanate have been reported to be 2.7 days and 0.25 L/kg, respectively. However, in subjects with renal insufficiency the reported elimination half life is approximately 9 days.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

The potential benefit of an acute exposure to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite as part of a cyanide antidote outweighs concerns raised by the equivocal findings in chronic rodent studies. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 35, 70, or 130 mg/kg for males and 0, 40, 80, or 150 mg/kg for females) was orally administered to rats (Fischer 344 strain) for 2 years via drinking water. There were no significant increases in the incidence of tumor in either male or female rats. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 60, 120, or 220 mg/kg for males and 0, 45, 90, or 165 mg/kg for females) was administered to B6C3F1 mice for 2 years via the drinking water. Equivocal results were obtained in female mice. Specifically, there was a positive trend toward an increase in the incidence of squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma in the forestomach of female mice. Although the incidence of hyperplasia of the glandular stomach epithelium was significantly greater in the high-dose male mice compared to controls, there were no significant increases in tumors in the male mice. Numerous reports in the published literature indicate that Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite may react in vivo with secondary amines to form carcinogenic nitrosamines in the stomach. Concurrent exposure to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and secondary amines in feed or drinking water resulted in an increase in the incidence of tumors in rodents.

Mutagenesis

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA100, TA1530, TA1535 with and without metabolic activation; however, it was negative in strain TA98, TA102, DJ460 and E. coli strain WP2UVRA/PKM101. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has been reported to be genotoxic to V79 hamster cells in vitro and in the mouse lymphoma assay, both assays conducted in the absence of metabolic activation. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite was negative in the in vitro chromosomal aberrations assay using human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Acute administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite to male rats or male mice did not produce an increased incidence of micronuclei in bone marrow. Likewise, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration to mice for 14-weeks did not result in an increase in the incidence of micronuclei in the peripheral blood.

Fertility

Clinical studies to evaluate the potential effects of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite intake on fertility of either males or females have not been reported. In contrast, multigenerational fertility and reproduction studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program did not detect any evidence of an effect of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite (0.0, 0.06, 0.12, and 0.24% weight/volume) on either fertility or any reproductive parameter in Swiss CD-1 mice. This treatment protocol resulted in approximate doses of 125, 260, and 425 mg/kg/day. The highest exposure in this mouse study is 4.6 times greater than the highest clinical dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).

13.2 Animal Pharmacology

Due to the extreme toxicity of cyanide, experimental evaluation of treatment efficacy has predominantly been completed in animal models. The efficacy of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate treatment alone to counteract the toxicity of cyanide was initially reported in 1895 by Lang. The efficacy of amyl nitrite treatment in cyanide poisoning of the dog model was first reported in 1888 by Pedigo. Further studies in the dog model, which demonstrated the utility of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite as a therapeutic intervention, were reported in 1929 by Mladoveanu and Gheorghiu. However, Hugs and Chen et al. independently reported upon the superior efficacy of the combination of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate in 1932-1933. Treatment consisted of intravenously administered 22.5 mg/kg (half the lethal dose) Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite or 1 g/kg Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate alone or in sequence immediately after subcutaneous injection of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) cyanide into dogs over a range of doses. Subsequent doses of 10 mg/kg Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and/or 0.5 g/kg Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate were administered when clinical signs or symptoms of poisoning persisted or reappeared. Either therapy administered alone increased the dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) cyanide required to cause death, and when administered together, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate resulted in a synergistic effect in raising the lethal dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) cyanide. The combined therapy appeared to have reduced efficacy when therapy was delayed until signs of poisoning (e.g. convulsions) appeared; however, other investigators have reported survival in dogs that were administered antidotal treatment after respiratory arrest had occurred.

Animal studies conducted in other species (e.g., rat, guinea pig, sheep, pigeon and cat) have also supported a synergistic effect of intravenous Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate in the treatment of cyanide poisoning.

While intravenous injection of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate was effective in reversing the effects of lethal doses of cyanide in dogs, intramuscular injection of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, with or without Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, was found not to be effective in the same setting.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

The human data supporting the use of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite for cyanide poisoning consists primarily of published case reports. There are no randomized controlled clinical trials. Nearly all the human data describing the use of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate report its use in conjunction with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. Dosing recommendations for humans have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.

There have been no human studies to prospectively and systematically evaluate the safety of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in humans. Available human safety information is based largely on anecdotal case reports and case series of limited scope.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

Each Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite carton (NDC 60267-311-10) consists of the following:

  • One 10 mL glass vial of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection 30 mg/mL (containing 300 mg of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) nitrite);

Storage

Store at controlled room temperature between 20°C and 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted from 15 to 30°C (59 to 86°F). Protect from direct light. Do not freeze.

(Note: Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate must be obtained separately.)

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena Nitrite Injection is indicated for acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening and in this setting, patients will likely be unresponsive or may have difficulty in comprehending counseling information.

17.1 Hypotension and Methemoglobin Formation

When feasible, patients should be informed of the possibility of life-threatening hypotension and methemoglobin formation.

17.2 Monitoring

Where feasible, patients should be informed of the need for close monitoring of blood pressure and oxygenation.

Manufactured by Cangene BioPharma, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland 21230 for

Hope Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, Arizona 85260

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton

NDC 60267-311-10

Rx Only

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite

Injection, USP

300 mg/10 mL

(30 mg/mL)

FOR INTRAVENOUS USE

SINGLE USE ONLY

Any unused portion of a vial

should be discarded.

Use with

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate

for Treatment of

Cyanide Poisoning

Manufactured by

CANGENE bioPharma, Inc.

Baltimore, MD for

HOPE

PHARMACEUTICALS®

Scottsdale, AZ 85260 U.S.A.

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton

Sodium Sulfate:


1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite is indicated for sequential use with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate for treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. (1)

  • Use with caution if the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain. (1)

1.1 Indication

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite Injection is indicated for sequential use with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. When the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain, the potentially life-threatening risks associated with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite Injection should be carefully weighed against the potential benefits, especially if the patient is not in extremis.

1.2 Identifying Patients with Cyanide Poisoning

Cyanide poisoning may result from inhalation, ingestion, or dermal exposure to various cyanide-containing compounds, including smoke from closed-space fires. Sources of cyanide poisoning include hydrogen cyanide and its salts, cyanogenic plants, aliphatic nitriles, and prolonged exposure to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitroprusside.

The presence and extent of cyanide poisoning are often initially unknown. There is no widely available, rapid, confirmatory cyanide blood test. Treatment decisions must be made on the basis of clinical history and signs and symptoms of cyanide intoxication. If clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning is high, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite Injection and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Thiosulfate Injection should be administered without delay.

Symptoms Signs
  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • Dyspnea
  • Chest Tightness
  • Nausea
  • Altered Mental Status

    (e.g., confusion, disorientation)

  • Seizures or Coma
  • Mydriasis
  • Tachypnea/Hyperpnea (early)
  • Bradypnea/Apnea (late)
  • Hypertension (early)/ Hypotension (late)
  • Cardiovascular Collapse
  • Vomiting
  • Plasma Lactate Concentration ≥ 8 mmol/L

In some settings, panic symptoms including tachypnea and vomiting may mimic early cyanide poisoning signs. The presence of altered mental status (e.g., confusion and disorientation) and/or mydriasis is suggestive of true cyanide poisoning although these signs can occur with other toxic exposures as well.

The expert advice of a regional poison control center may be obtained by calling 1-800-222-1222.

Smoke Inhalation

Not all smoke inhalation victims will have cyanide poisoning and may present with burns, trauma, and exposure to other toxic substances making a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning particularly difficult. Prior to administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite Injection, smoke-inhalation victims should be assessed for the following:

  • Exposure to fire or smoke in an enclosed area
  • Presence of soot around the mouth, nose, or oropharynx
  • Altered mental status

Although hypotension is highly suggestive of cyanide poisoning, it is only present in a small percentage of cyanide-poisoned smoke inhalation victims. Also indicative of cyanide poisoning is a plasma lactate concentration greater than or equal to 10 mmol/L (a value higher than that typically listed in the table of signs and symptoms of isolated cyanide poisoning because carbon monoxide associated with smoke inhalation also contributes to lactic acidemia). If cyanide poisoning is suspected, treatment should not be delayed to obtain a plasma lactate concentration.

1.3 Use with Other Cyanide Antidotes

Caution should be exercised when administering cyanide antidotes, other than Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate, simultaneously with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite Injection, as the safety of co-administration has not been established. If a decision is made to administer another cyanide antidote, other than Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate, with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite Injection, these drugs should not be administered concurrently in the same IV line. [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) ]

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Age Intravenous Dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena Nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Thiosulfate
Adults
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite -10 mL of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Thiosulfate - 50 mL of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate immediately following administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite.
Children
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite - 0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg or 6-8 mL/m2 BSA) of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute not to exceed 10 mL
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Thiosulfate - 1 mL/kg of body weight (250 mg/kg or approximately 30-40 mL/m2 of BSA) not to exceed 50 mL total dose immediately following administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite.

Redosing: If signs of cyanide poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate.

Monitoring: Blood pressure must be monitored during treatment. (2.2)

2.1 Administration Recommendation

Comprehensive treatment of acute cyanide intoxication requires support of vital functions. Administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite, followed by Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate, should be considered adjunctive to appropriate supportive therapies. Airway, ventilatory and circulatory support, and oxygen administration should not be delayed to administer Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite injection and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate injection are administered by slow intravenous injection. They should be given as early as possible after a diagnosis of acute life-threatening cyanide poisoning has been established. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite should be administered first, followed immediately by Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate. Blood pressure must be monitored during infusion in both adults and children. The rate of infusion should be decreased if significant hypotension is noted.

Age Intravenous Dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Thiosulfate
Adults
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite -10 mL of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Thiosulfate - 50 mL of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate immediately following administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite.
Children
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite -0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg or 6-8 mL/m2 BSA) of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute not to exceed 10 mL
  • Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Thiosulfate - 1 mL/kg of body weight (250 mg/kg or approximately 30-40 mL/m2 of BSA) not to exceed 50 mL total dose immediately following administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite.

NOTE: If signs of poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate.

In adult and pediatric patients with known anemia, it is recommended that the dosage of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite should be reduced proportionately to the hemoglobin concentration.

All parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

2.2 Recommended Monitoring

Patients should be monitored for at least 24-48 hours after Salzmann Product M-1 Malena Nitrite Injection administration for adequacy of oxygenation and perfusion and for recurrent signs and symptoms of cyanide toxicity. When possible, hemoglobin/hematocrit should be obtained when treatment is initiated. Measurements of oxygen saturation using standard pulse oximetry and calculated oxygen saturation values based on measured PO2 are unreliable in the presence of methemoglobinemia.

Methemoglobin level: Administrations of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite solely to achieve an arbitrary level of methemoglobinemia may be unnecessary and potentially hazardous. The therapeutic effects of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite do not appear to be mediated by methemoglobin formation alone and clinical responses to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite administration have been reported in association with methemoglobin levels of less than 10%. Administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite beyond the initial dose should be guided primarily by clinical response to treatment (i.e., a second dose should be considered only if there is inadequate clinical response to the first dose). It is generally recommended that methemoglobin concentrations be closely monitored and kept below 30%. Serum methemoglobin levels should be monitored during treatment using co-oximetry, and administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite should generally be discontinued when methemoglobin levels exceed 30%. Intravenous methylene blue and exchange transfusion have been reported in the literature as treatments for life-threatening methemoglobinemia.

2.3 Incompatibility Information

Chemical incompatibility has been reported between Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite and hydroxocobalamin and these drugs should not be administered simultaneously through the same IV line. No chemical incompatibility has been reported between Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite, when administered sequentially through the same IV line as described in Dosage and Administration.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite Injection consists of:

  • One vial of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite injection, USP 300 mg/10mL (30 mg/mL)

Administration of the contents of one vial constitutes a single dose.

  • Injection, 300 mg/10 mL (30 mg/mL). (3)

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

None

  • None. (4)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Methemoglobinemia: Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite reacts with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin and should be used with caution in patients known to have anemia. Monitor oxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin levels by pulse oximetry or other measurements. Optimally, the Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite dose should be reduced in proportion to the oxygen carrying capacity. (5.2)
  • Smoke inhalation: Carbon monoxide contained in smoke can result in the formation of carboxyhemoglobin that can reduce the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite should be used with caution in patients with smoke inhalation injury because of the potential for worsening hypoxia due to methemoglobin formation. Carboxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin levels should be monitored by pulse oximetry or other measurements in patients that present with evidence of smoke inhalation. Optimally, the Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite dose should be reduced in proportion to the oxygen carrying capacity. (5.4)

5.1 Hypotension

5.2 Methemoglobinemia

Supportive care alone may be sufficient treatment without administration of antidotes for many cases of cyanide intoxication, particularly in conscious patients without signs of severe toxicity. Patients should be closely monitored to ensure adequate perfusion and oxygenation during treatment with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite.

Methemoglobin levels should be monitored and oxygen administered during treatment with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite whenever possible. When Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite is administered to humans a wide range of methemoglobin concentrations occur. Methemoglobin concentrations as high as 58% have been reported after two 300-mg doses of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite administered to an adult. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of other drugs that may cause methemoglobinemia such as procaine and nitroprusside. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite should be used with caution in patients who may be particularly susceptible to injury from vasodilation and its related hemodynamic sequelae. Hemodynamics should be monitored closely during and after administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite, and infusion rates should be slowed if hypotension occurs.

5.3 Anemia

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite should be used with caution in patients with known anemia. Patients with anemia will form more methemoglobin (as a percentage of total hemoglobin) than persons with normal red blood cell (RBC) volumes. Optimally, these patients should receive a Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite dose that is reduced in proportion to their oxygen carrying capacity.

5.4 Smoke Inhalation Injury

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite should be used with caution in persons with smoke inhalation injury or carbon monoxide poisoning because of the potential for worsening hypoxia due to methemoglobin formation.

5.5 Neonates and Infants

Neonates and infants may be more susceptible than adults and older pediatric patients to severe methemoglobinemia when Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite is administered. Reduced dosing guidelines should be followed in pediatric patients.

5.6 G6PD Deficiency

Because patients with G6PD deficiency are at increased risk of a hemolytic crisis with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite administration, alternative therapeutic approaches should be considered in these patients. Patients with known or suspected G6PD deficiency should be monitored for an acute drop in hematocrit. Exchange transfusion may be needed for patients with G6PD deficiency who receive Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite.

5.7 Use with Other Drugs

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of concomitant antihypertensive medications, diuretics or volume depletion due to diuretics, or drugs known to increase vascular nitric oxide, such as PDE5 inhibitors.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

There have been no controlled clinical trials conducted to systematically assess the adverse events profile of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite.

The medical literature has reported the following adverse events in association with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite administration. These adverse events were not reported in the context of controlled trials or with consistent monitoring and reporting methodologies for adverse events. Therefore, frequency of occurrence of these adverse events cannot be assessed.

Cardiovascular system: syncope, hypotension, tachycardia, methemoglobinemia, palpitations, dysrhythmia

Hematological: methemoglobinemia

Central nervous system: headache, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, confusion, coma

Gastrointestinal system: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain

Respiratory system: tachypnea, dyspnea

Body as a Whole: anxiety, diaphoresis, lightheadedness, injection site tingling, cyanosis, acidosis, fatigue, weakness, urticaria, generalized numbness and tingling

Severe hypotension, methemoglobinemia, cardiac dysrhythmias, coma and death have been reported in patients without life-threatening cyanide poisoning but who were treated with injection of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite at doses less than twice those recommended for the treatment of cyanide poisoning.

Most common adverse reactions are:

  • Syncope, hypotension, tachycardia, palpitations, dysrhythmia, methemoglobinemia, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, confusion, coma (6)

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Hope Pharmaceuticals at 1-800-755-9595 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Formal drug interaction studies have not been conducted with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite Injection.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

  • Renal impairment: Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite is substantially excreted by the kidney. The risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. (8.6).

8.1 Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite Injection should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite has caused fetal death in humans as well as animals. There are no studies in humans that have directly evaluated the potential reproductive toxicity of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite. There are two epidemiological studies conducted in Australia that report a statistically significant increase in the risk for congenital malformations, particularly in the CNS, associated with maternal consumption of water containing nitrate levels in excess of 5 ppm. Results from a case-control study in Canada suggested a trend toward an increase in the risk for CNS malformations when maternal consumption of nitrate was ≥ 26 ppm (not statistically significant).

The potential reproductive toxicity of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite exposure restricted to the prenatal period has been reported in guinea pigs, mice, and rats. There was no evidence of teratogenicity in guinea pigs, mice, or rats. However, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite treatment of pregnant guinea pigs with 60 or 70 mg/kg/day resulted in abortion of the litters within 1-4 days of treatment. All animals treated subcutaneously with 70 mg/kg, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite died within 60 minutes of treatment. Further studies demonstrated that a dose of 60 mg/kg resulted in measurable blood levels of methemoglobin in the dams and their fetuses for up to 6 hours post treatment. Maternal methemoglobin levels were higher than the levels in the offspring at all times measured. Based on a body surface area comparison, a 60 mg/kg dose in the guinea pig that resulted in death was only 1.7 times higher than the highest clinical dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).

Studies testing prenatal and postnatal exposure have been reported in mice and rats. Treatment of pregnant rats via drinking water with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite at concentrations of either 2000 or 3000 mg/L resulted in a dose-related increased mortality postpartum. This exposure regimen in the rat model would result in dosing of approximately 220 and 300 mg/kg/day (43 and 65 times the highest clinical dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning, based on a body surface area comparison).

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite produces methemoglobin. Fetal hemoglobin is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin. In addition, the fetus has lower levels of methemoglobin reductase than adults. Collectively, these data suggest that the human fetus would show greater sensitivity to methemoglobin resulting in nitrite-induced prenatal hypoxia leading to retarded development of certain neurotransmitter systems in the brain and long lasting dysfunction.

Nonteratogenic Effects: Behavioral and neurodevelopmental studies in rats suggest persistent effects of prenatal exposure to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite that were detectable postnatally. Specifically, animals that were exposed prenatally to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite demonstrated impaired discrimination learning behavior (both auditory and visual) and reduced long-term retention of the passive-avoidance response compared to control animals. Additional studies demonstrated a delay in the development of AchE and 5-HT positive fiber ingrowth into the hippocampal dentate gyrus and parietal neocortex during the first week of life of prenatal nitrite treated pups. These changes have been attributed to prenatal hypoxia following nitrite exposure.

8.2 Labor and Delivery

Because fetal hemoglobin is more readily oxidized to methemoglobin and lower levels of methemoglobin appear to be fatal to the fetus compared to the adult, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite should be used during labor and delivery only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite is excreted in human milk. Because Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite Injection may be administered in life-threatening situations, breast-feeding is not a contraindication to its use. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised following Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite Injection administration to a nursing woman. There are no data to determine when breastfeeding may be safely restarted following administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite. In studies conducted with Long-Evans rats, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite administered in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation resulted in severe anemia, reduced growth and increased mortality in the offspring.

8.4 Pediatric Use

There are case reports in the medical literature of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite in conjunction with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate being administered to pediatric patients with cyanide poisoning; however, there have been no clinical studies to evaluate the safety or efficacy of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite in the pediatric population. As for adult patients, dosing recommendations for pediatric patients have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite must be used with caution in patients less than 6 months of age because they may be at higher risk of developing severe methemoglobinemia compared to older children and adults. The presence of fetal hemoglobin, which is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin, and lower methemoglobin reductase levels compared to older children and adults may contribute to risk.

Mortality attributed to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite was reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

8.6 Renal Disease

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Large doses of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite result in severe hypotension and toxic levels of methemoglobin which may lead to cardiovascular collapse.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite administration has been reported to cause or significantly contribute to mortality in adults at oral doses as low as 1 g and intravenous doses as low as 600 mg. A death attributed to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite has been reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.

Cyanosis may become apparent at a methemoglobin level of 10-20%. Other clinical signs and symptoms of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite toxicity (anxiety, dyspnea, nausea, and tachycardia) can be apparent at methemoglobin levels as low as 15%. More serious signs and symptoms, including cardiac dysrhythmias, circulatory failure, and central nervous system depression are seen as methemoglobin levels increase, and levels above 70% are usually fatal.

Treatment of overdose involves supplemental oxygen and supportive measures such as exchange transfusion. Treatment of severe methemoglobinemia with intravenous methylene blue has been described in the medical literature; however, this may also cause release of cyanide bound to methemoglobin. Because hypotension appears to be mediated primarily by an increase in venous capacitance, measures to increase venous return may be most appropriate to treat hypotension.

11 DESCRIPTION

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite has the chemical name nitrous acid Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) salt. The chemical formula is NaNO2 and the molecular weight is 69.0. The structural formula is:

Structure of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite Injection is a cyanide antidote which contains one 10 mL glass vial of a 3% solution of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite injection.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite injection is a sterile aqueous solution and is intended for intravenous injection. Each vial contains 300 mg of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite in 10 mL solution (30 mg/mL). Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite injection is a clear solution with a pH between 7.0 and 9.0.

Chemical Structure

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Exposure to a high dose of cyanide can result in death within minutes due to the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in arrest of cellular respiration. Specifically, cyanide binds rapidly with cytochrome a3, a component of the cytochrome c oxidase complex in mitochondria. Inhibition of cytochrome a3 prevents the cell from using oxygen and forces anaerobic metabolism, resulting in lactate production, cellular hypoxia and metabolic acidosis. In massive acute cyanide poisoning, the mechanism of toxicity may involve other enzyme systems as well.

The synergy resulting from treatment of cyanide poisoning with the combination of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate is the result of differences in their primary mechanisms of action as antidotes for cyanide poisoning.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite is thought to exert its therapeutic effect by reacting with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin, an oxidized form of hemoglobin incapable of oxygen transport but with high affinity for cyanide. Cyanide preferentially binds to methemoglobin over cytochrome a3, forming the nontoxic cyanomethemoglobin. Methemoglobin displaces cyanide from cytochrome oxidase, allowing resumption of aerobic metabolism. The chemical reaction is as follows:

NaNO2 + Hemoglobin → Methemoglobin

HCN + Methemoglobin → Cyanomethemoglobin

Vasodilation has also been cited to account for at least part of the therapeutic effect of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite. It has been suggested that Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia may be more efficacious against cyanide poisoning than comparable levels of methemoglobinemia induced by other oxidants. Also, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite appears to retain some efficacy even when the formation of methemoglobin is inhibited by methylene blue.

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Thiosulfate

The primary route of endogenous cyanide detoxification is by enzymatic transulfuration to thiocyanate (SCN-), which is relatively nontoxic and readily excreted in the urine. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate is thought to serve as a sulfur donor in the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme rhodanese, thus enhancing the endogenous detoxification of cyanide in the following chemical reaction:

Chemical Structure

12. 2 Pharmacodynamics

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite

When 4 mg/kg Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite was administered intravenously to six healthy human volunteers, the mean peak methemoglobin concentration was 7%, achieved at 30-60 minutes after injection, consistent with reports in cyanide poisoning victims. Supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures dropped approximately 20% within 10 minutes, a drop which was sustained throughout the 40 minutes of testing. This was associated with a 20 beat per minute increase in pulse rate that returned to baseline in 10 minutes. Five of these subjects were unable to withstand orthostatic testing due to fainting. One additional subject, who received a 12 mg/kg dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite, experienced severe cardiovascular effects and achieved a peak methemoglobin concentration of 30% at 60 minutes following injection.

Oral doses of 120 to 180 mg of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite administered to healthy volunteers caused minimal cardiovascular changes when subjects were maintained in the horizontal position. However, minutes after being placed in the upright position subjects exhibited tachycardia and hypotension with syncope.

The half life for conversion of methemoglobin to normal hemoglobin in a cyanide poisoning victim who has been administered Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite is estimated to be 55 minutes.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite is a strong oxidant, and reacts rapidly with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin. The pharmacokinetics of free Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite in humans have not been well studied. It has been reported that approximately 40% of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite is excreted unchanged in the urine while the remaining 60% is metabolized to ammonia and related small molecules.

Cyanide

The apparent terminal elimination half life and volume of distribution of cyanide, in a patient treated for an acute cyanide poisoning with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate administration, have been reported to be 19 hours and 0.41 L/kg, respectively. Additionally, an initial elimination half life of cyanide has been reported to be approximately 1-3 hours.

Thiocyanate

After detoxification, in healthy subjects, thiocyanate is excreted mainly in the urine at a rate inversely proportional to creatinine clearance. In healthy subjects, the elimination half-life and volume of distribution of thiocyanate have been reported to be 2.7 days and 0.25 L/kg, respectively. However, in subjects with renal insufficiency the reported elimination half life is approximately 9 days.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

The potential benefit of an acute exposure to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena nitrite as part of a cyanide antidote outweighs concerns raised by the equivocal findings in chronic rodent studies. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 35, 70, or 130 mg/kg for males and 0, 40, 80, or 150 mg/kg for females) was orally administered to rats (Fischer 344 strain) for 2 years via drinking water. There were no significant increases in the incidence of tumor in either male or female rats. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 60, 120, or 220 mg/kg for males and 0, 45, 90, or 165 mg/kg for females) was administered to B6C3F1 mice for 2 years via the drinking water. Equivocal results were obtained in female mice. Specifically, there was a positive trend toward an increase in the incidence of squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma in the forestomach of female mice. Although the incidence of hyperplasia of the glandular stomach epithelium was significantly greater in the high-dose male mice compared to controls, there were no significant increases in tumors in the male mice. Numerous reports in the published literature indicate that Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite may react in vivo with secondary amines to form carcinogenic nitrosamines in the stomach. Concurrent exposure to Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite and secondary amines in feed or drinking water resulted in an increase in the incidence of tumors in rodents.

Mutagenesis

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite is mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA100, TA1530, TA1535 with and without metabolic activation; however, it was negative in strain TA98, TA102, DJ460 and E. coli strain WP2UVRA/PKM101. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite has been reported to be genotoxic to V79 hamster cells in vitro and in the mouse lymphoma assay, both assays conducted in the absence of metabolic activation. Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite was negative in the in vitro chromosomal aberrations assay using human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Acute administration of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite to male rats or male mice did not produce an increased incidence of micronuclei in bone marrow. Likewise, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite administration to mice for 14-weeks did not result in an increase in the incidence of micronuclei in the peripheral blood.

Fertility

Clinical studies to evaluate the potential effects of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite intake on fertility of either males or females have not been reported. In contrast, multigenerational fertility and reproduction studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program did not detect any evidence of an effect of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite (0.0, 0.06, 0.12, and 0.24% weight/volume) on either fertility or any reproductive parameter in Swiss CD-1 mice. This treatment protocol resulted in approximate doses of 125, 260, and 425 mg/kg/day. The highest exposure in this mouse study is 4.6 times greater than the highest clinical dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).

13.2 Animal Pharmacology

Due to the extreme toxicity of cyanide, experimental evaluation of treatment efficacy has predominantly been completed in animal models. The efficacy of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate treatment alone to counteract the toxicity of cyanide was initially reported in 1895 by Lang. The efficacy of amyl nitrite treatment in cyanide poisoning of the dog model was first reported in 1888 by Pedigo. Further studies in the dog model, which demonstrated the utility of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite as a therapeutic intervention, were reported in 1929 by Mladoveanu and Gheorghiu. However, Hugs and Chen et al. independently reported upon the superior efficacy of the combination of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate in 1932-1933. Treatment consisted of intravenously administered 22.5 mg/kg (half the lethal dose) Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite or 1 g/kg Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate alone or in sequence immediately after subcutaneous injection of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) cyanide into dogs over a range of doses. Subsequent doses of 10 mg/kg Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite and/or 0.5 g/kg Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate were administered when clinical signs or symptoms of poisoning persisted or reappeared. Either therapy administered alone increased the dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) cyanide required to cause death, and when administered together, Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate resulted in a synergistic effect in raising the lethal dose of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) cyanide. The combined therapy appeared to have reduced efficacy when therapy was delayed until signs of poisoning (e.g. convulsions) appeared; however, other investigators have reported survival in dogs that were administered antidotal treatment after respiratory arrest had occurred.

Animal studies conducted in other species (e.g., rat, guinea pig, sheep, pigeon and cat) have also supported a synergistic effect of intravenous Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate in the treatment of cyanide poisoning.

While intravenous injection of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite and Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate was effective in reversing the effects of lethal doses of cyanide in dogs, intramuscular injection of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite, with or without Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate, was found not to be effective in the same setting.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

The human data supporting the use of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite for cyanide poisoning consists primarily of published case reports. There are no randomized controlled clinical trials. Nearly all the human data describing the use of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) thiosulfate report its use in conjunction with Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite. Dosing recommendations for humans have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.

There have been no human studies to prospectively and systematically evaluate the safety of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite in humans. Available human safety information is based largely on anecdotal case reports and case series of limited scope.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

Each Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite carton (NDC 60267-311-10) consists of the following:

  • One 10 mL glass vial of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite injection 30 mg/mL (containing 300 mg of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) nitrite);

Storage

Store at controlled room temperature between 20°C and 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted from 15 to 30°C (59 to 86°F). Protect from direct light. Do not freeze.

(Note: Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Thiosulfate must be obtained separately.)

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena Nitrite Injection is indicated for acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening and in this setting, patients will likely be unresponsive or may have difficulty in comprehending counseling information.

17.1 Hypotension and Methemoglobin Formation

When feasible, patients should be informed of the possibility of life-threatening hypotension and methemoglobin formation.

17.2 Monitoring

Where feasible, patients should be informed of the need for close monitoring of blood pressure and oxygenation.

Manufactured by Cangene BioPharma, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland 21230 for

Hope Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, Arizona 85260

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton

NDC 60267-311-10

Rx Only

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Nitrite

Injection, USP

300 mg/10 mL

(30 mg/mL)

FOR INTRAVENOUS USE

SINGLE USE ONLY

Any unused portion of a vial

should be discarded.

Use with

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena (Sodium Sulfate) Thiosulfate

for Treatment of

Cyanide Poisoning

Manufactured by

CANGENE bioPharma, Inc.

Baltimore, MD for

HOPE

PHARMACEUTICALS®

Scottsdale, AZ 85260 U.S.A.

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton

Salzmann Product M-1 Malena pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Salzmann Product M-1 Malena available forms, composition, doses:

Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Salzmann Product M-1 Malena destination | category:

Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Salzmann Product M-1 Malena Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Salzmann Product M-1 Malena pharmaceutical companies:

Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."NASAL SPA NATURAL SEA SALT (SODIUM CHLORIDE) SPRAY [NACUR HEALTHCARE LTD]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."QUALAQUIN (QUININE SULFATE) CAPSULE [AR SCIENTIFIC INC.]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. Dailymed."ECODENT RES-Q-DENT (POTASSIUM NITRATE) PASTE [LOTUS BRANDS, INC.]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Salzmann Product M-1 Malena?

Depending on the reaction of the Salzmann Product M-1 Malena after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Salzmann Product M-1 Malena not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Salzmann Product M-1 Malena addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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sdrugs.com conducted a study on Salzmann Product M-1 Malena, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Salzmann Product M-1 Malena consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

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The information was verified by Dr. Rachana Salvi, MD Pharmacology

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