DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
SAL is a beta adrenoagonists with a predominant effect on beta2-adrenergic receptors.
This medication prevents and reduces or eliminates bronchospasm, reduces the resistance in the airways, increases the vital capacity. It prevents the release of histamine, slow reacting substance from mast cells and factors chemotaxis of neutrophils. Compared with other drugs of this group has a less pronounced positive chrono-and inotropic effect on myocardium. It widen of coronary arteries, practically does not reduce blood pressure. Has tocolytic effect, lowering the tone and the contractile activity of the myometrium.
When using an aerosol there is a rapid absorption of albuterol (salbutamol) in the blood, but its concentration in plasma when used in recommended doses are very low or below detection limit.
After oral administration SAL is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Plasma protein binding is 10%. Metabolised with "first pass" through the liver and possibly in the wall of the intestine, the main metabolite - inactive sulfate conjugate. SAL is not metabolised in the lungs, thus its ultimate metabolism and excretion following inhalation depends on the method of application, which defines the relationship between inhaled SAL and unintentionally swallowed.
T1/2 from plasma is 2-7 hours. albuterol (salbutamol) is rapidly excreted in the urine as metabolites and unchanged substance, in small amounts excreted in the feces.
Why is SAL prescribed?
The prevention and relief of bronchospasm in all forms of bronchial asthma. Reversible airway obstruction in chronic bronchitis and emphysema, bronchial obstruction in children.
Threatening preterm labor with uterine contractions; birth to 37-38 weeks of pregnancy; isthmic-cervical insufficiency, decrease in fetal heart rate, depending on uterine contractions during opening of the cervix and expulsion. As a preventive measure during surgery on the pregnant uterus.
Dosage and administration
SAL for oral use as a means of extending the broncho adults and children over 12 years - 2.4 mg 3-4 times / day; if necessary, the dose may be increased to 8 mg 4 times / day. Children aged 6-12 years - 2 mg 3-4 times / day; children 2-6 years - 1-2 mg 3 times / day.
SAL for inhalation use dose depends on the applied dosage form, frequency of use depends on the testimony and the clinical situation.
As a tocolytic agent used as IV infusion in dose of 1-2 mg.
SAL side effects, adverse reactions
Cardiovascular system: a transient expansion of peripheral blood vessels, a moderate tachycardia.
Central nervous system: headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting.
Allergic reactions: in a few cases - angioedema, allergic reactions in the form of skin rashes, urticaria, hypotension, collapse.
Other: Tremor of hands, inner trembling, tension, rarely - paradoxical bronchoconstriction, muscle cramps.
The threat of miscarriage in I and II trimesters of pregnancy, premature placental abruption, bleeding or toxemia in the III trimester of pregnancy, infancy to 2 years; hypersensitivity to SAL.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Category of the fetus by FDA - C.
SAL is contraindicated in threatened miscarriage in I and II trimesters of pregnancy, premature detachment of the placenta, bleeding, or toxicosis in the III trimester of pregnancy. If necessary, the use of SAL during pregnancy should be related to the expected benefits of treatment for the mother and the potential risk to the fetus. Currently is insufficient data on the safety of SAL in early pregnancy. SAL is excreted in breast milk, so if you need to use during lactation should also assess the potential benefits of treatment for the mother and the potential risk to the child.
With caution used SAL when tachyarrhythmia and other cardiac arrhythmias, arterial hypertension, myocarditis, heart defects, aortic stenosis, diabetes, thyrotoxicosis, glaucoma, acute heart failure.
Increase doses or frequency of receiving albuterol (salbutamol) should be under the supervision of a doctor. Reducing the interval may be only in exceptional cases and should be strictly justified.
In the application of SAL there was a risk of hypokalemia, so the period of treatment in patients with severe asthma should monitor the flow levels of potassium in the blood. The risk of hypokalemia increases with hypoxia.
To increase the effectiveness of therapy the patient should be trained in the proper use of inhalers and the beginning of treatment to use an inhaler under the supervision of medical personnel. Receiving high doses of SAL in patients with acute asthma leads to the fact that each subsequent attack of breathlessness becomes more intense the previous syndrome (rebound). In severe asthma interval between inhalations should be at least 20 minutes. In the absence of the minimal effect of inhalation or the appearance of pronounced tremor, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmias continued uncontrolled use of the inhaler is contraindicated, and should appeal to the doctor. The risk of complications increases as in the long duration of treatment, and at a sharp lifting of the drug.
SAL drug interactions
With simultaneous use of albuterol with not cardioselective beta-blockers may suppress mutual therapeutic effects; with theophylline - increases the risk of tachycardia and arrhythmia, in particular, supraventricular extrasystoles.
With simultaneous use of SAL and xanthine derivatives, SCS or diuretics increases the risk of hypokalemia.
SAL in case of emergency / overdose
Symptoms: tachycardia (heart rate to 200 bpm), ventricular flutter, reducing blood pressure, increased cardiac output, hypoxemia, acidosis, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, muscle tremors, headache, agitation, hallucinations, convulsions.
Treatment: removal of preparation and holding of symptomatic therapy of beta-blockers (selective) in patients with bronchial asthma requires extreme caution because of the risk of severe bronchospasm reaction.
SAL pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
SAL available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
SAL destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
SAL Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
SAL pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming SAL?
Depending on the reaction of the SAL after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider SAL not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is SAL addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on SAL, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of SAL consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology