DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Rosumed is an HMG Co‑A reductase inhibitor indicated for:
Limitations of use (1.7):
1.1 Hyperlipidemia and Mixed Dyslipidemia
Rosumed is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet to reduce elevated Total-C, LDL-C, ApoB, nonHDL‑C, and triglycerides and to increase HDL‑C in adult patients with primary hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia. Lipid-altering agents should be used in addition to a diet restricted in saturated fat and cholesterol when response to diet and nonpharmacological interventions alone has been inadequate.
Pediatric Patients 10 to 17 years of age with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (HeFH)
Adjunct to diet to reduce Total‑C, LDL‑C and ApoB levels in adolescent boys and girls, who are at least one year post-menarche, 10‑17 years of age with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia if after an adequate trial of diet therapy the following findings are present: LDL‑C > 190 mg/dL or > 160 mg/dL and there is a positive family history of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD) or two or more other CVD risk factors.
Rosumed is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet for the treatment of adult patients with hypertriglyceridemia.
1.3 Primary Dysbetalipoproteinemia
Rosumed is indicated as an adjunct to diet for the treatment of patients with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia).
1.4 Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Rosumed is indicated as adjunctive therapy to other lipid-lowering treatments or alone if such treatments are unavailable to reduce LDL‑C, Total‑C, and ApoB in adult patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
1.5 Slowing of the Progression of Atherosclerosis
Rosumed is indicated as adjunctive therapy to diet to slow the progression of atherosclerosis in adult patients as part of a treatment strategy to lower Total‑C and LDL‑C to target levels.
1.6 Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
In individuals without clinically evident coronary heart disease but with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease based on age ≥ 50 years old in men and ≥ 60 years old in women, hsCRP ≥ 2 mg/L, and the presence of at least one additional cardiovascular disease risk factor such as hypertension, low HDL‑C, smoking, or a family history of premature coronary heart disease, Rosumed is indicated to:
1.7 Limitations of Use
Rosumed has not been studied in Fredrickson Type I and V dyslipidemias.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 General Dosing Information
The dose range for Rosumed is 5 to 40 mg orally once daily. The usual starting dose is 10‑20 mg.
Rosumed can be administered as a single dose at any time of day, with or without food.
When initiating Rosumed therapy or switching from another HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitor therapy, the appropriate Rosumed starting dose should first be utilized, and only then titrated according to the patient’s response and individualized goal of therapy.
After initiation or upon titration of Rosumed, lipid levels should be analyzed within 2 to 4 weeks and the dosage adjusted accordingly.
The 40 mg dose of Rosumed should be used only for those patients who have not achieved their LDL‑C goal utilizing the 20 mg dose [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
2.2 Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Pediatric Patients
The usual dose range of Rosumed is 5‑20 mg/day; the maximum recommended dose is 20 mg/day (doses greater than 20 mg have not been studied in this patient population). Doses should be individualized according to the recommended goal of therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12) and Indications and Usage (1.2) ]. Adjustments should be made at intervals of 4 weeks or more.
2.3 Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia
The recommended starting dose of Rosumed is 20 mg once daily. Response to therapy should be estimated from preapheresis LDL‑C levels.
2.4 Dosing in Asian Patients
In Asian patients, consider initiation of Rosumed therapy with 5 mg once daily due to increased Rosumed plasma concentrations. The increased systemic exposure should be taken into consideration when treating Asian patients not adequately controlled at doses up to 20 mg/day. [see Use in Specific Populations and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
2.5 Use with Concomitant Therapy
Patients taking cyclosporine
The dose of Rosumed should not exceed 5 mg once daily [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) , Drug Interactions (7.1) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]
Patients taking gemfibrozil
Initiate Rosumed therapy with 5 mg once daily. The dose of Rosumed should not exceed 10 mg once daily [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Drug Interactions (7.2) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
Patients taking lopinavir and ritonavir or atazanavir and ritonavir
Initiate Rosumed therapy with 5 mg once daily. The dose of Rosumed should not exceed 10 mg once daily [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) , Drug Interactions (7.3), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
2.6 Dosing in Patients with Severe Renal Impairment
For patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr <30 mL/min/1.73 m2) not on hemodialysis, dosing of Rosumed should be started at 5 mg once daily and not exceed 10 mg once daily [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
5 mg: Yellow, round, biconvex, coated tablets. Debossed “CRESTOR” and “5” on one side of the tablet.
10 mg: Pink, round, biconvex, coated tablets. Debossed “CRESTOR” and “10” on one side of the tablet.
20 mg: Pink, round, biconvex, coated tablets. Debossed “CRESTOR” and “20” on one side of the tablet.
40 mg: Pink, oval, biconvex, coated tablets. Debossed “CRESTOR” on one side and “40” on the other side of the tablet.
Tablets: 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, and 40 mg (3)
Rosumed is contraindicated in the following conditions:
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Skeletal Muscle Effects
Cases of myopathy and rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure secondary to myoglobinuria have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including Rosumed. These risks can occur at any dose level, but are increased at the highest dose (40 mg).
Rosumed should be prescribed with caution in patients with predisposing factors for myopathy (e.g., age ≥ 65 years, inadequately treated hypothyroidism, renal impairment).
The risk of myopathy during treatment with Rosumed may be increased with concurrent administration of some other lipid-lowering therapies (fibrates or niacin), gemfibrozil, cyclosporine, lopinavir/ritonavir, or atazanavir/ritonavir [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Drug Interactions (7 )]. Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, including Rosumed, coadministered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing Rosumed with colchicine [see Drug Interactions (7.7) ].
Rosumed therapy should be discontinued if markedly elevated creatine kinase levels occur or myopathy is diagnosed or suspected. Rosumed therapy should also be temporarily withheld in any patient with an acute, serious condition suggestive of myopathy or predisposing to the development of renal failure secondary to rhabdomyolysis (e.g., sepsis, hypotension, dehydration, major surgery, trauma, severe metabolic, endocrine, and electrolyte disorders, or uncontrolled seizures).
There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM), an autoimmune myopathy, associated with statin use. IMNM is characterized by: proximal muscle weakness and elevated serum creatine kinase, which persist despite discontinuation of statin treatment; muscle biopsy showing necrotizing myopathy without significant inflammation; improvement with immunosuppressive agents.
All patients should be advised to promptly report to their physician unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever or if muscle signs and symptoms persist after discontinuing Rosumed.
5.2 Liver Enzyme Abnormalities
It is recommended that liver enzyme tests be performed before the initiation of Rosumed, and if signs or symptoms of liver injury occur.
Increases in serum transaminases [AST or ALT (SGPT)] have been reported with HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors, including Rosumed. In most cases, the elevations were transient and resolved or improved on continued therapy or after a brief interruption in therapy. There were two cases of jaundice, for which a relationship to Rosumed therapy could not be determined, which resolved after discontinuation of therapy. There were no cases of liver failure or irreversible liver disease in these trials.
In a pooled analysis of placebo-controlled trials, increases in serum transaminases to >3 times the upper limit of normal occurred in 1.1% of patients taking Rosumed versus 0.5% of patients treated with placebo.
There have been rare postmarketing reports of fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure in patients taking statins, including Rosumed. If serious liver injury with clinical symptoms and/or hyperbilirubinemia or jaundice occurs during treatment with Rosumed, promptly interrupt therapy. If an alternate etiology is not found, do not restart Rosumed.
Rosumed should be used with caution in patients who consume substantial quantities of alcohol and/or have a history of chronic liver disease [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. Active liver disease, which may include unexplained persistent transaminase elevations, is a contraindication to the use of Rosumed [ see Contraindications (4) ].
5.3 Concomitant Coumarin Anticoagulants
Caution should be exercised when anticoagulants are given in conjunction with Rosumed because of its potentiation of the effect of coumarin-type anticoagulants in prolonging the prothrombin time/INR. In patients taking coumarin anticoagulants and Rosumed concomitantly, INR should be determined before starting Rosumed and frequently enough during early therapy to ensure that no significant alteration of INR occurs [see Drug Interactions (7.4) ].
5.4 Proteinuria and Hematuria
In the Rosumed clinical trial program, dipstick-positive proteinuria and microscopic hematuria were observed among Rosumed treated patients. These findings were more frequent in patients taking Rosumed 40 mg, when compared to lower doses of Rosumed or comparator HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors, though it was generally transient and was not associated with worsening renal function. Although the clinical significance of this finding is unknown, a dose reduction should be considered for patients on Rosumed therapy with unexplained persistent proteinuria and/or hematuria during routine urinalysis testing.
5.5 Endocrine Effects
Increases in HbA1c and fasting serum glucose levels have been reported with HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors, including Rosumed. Based on clinical trial data with Rosumed, in some instances these increases may exceed the threshold for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) ].
Although clinical studies have shown that Rosumed alone does not reduce basal plasma cortisol concentration or impair adrenal reserve, caution should be exercised if Rosumed is administered concomitantly with drugs that may decrease the levels or activity of endogenous steroid hormones such as ketoconazole, spironolactone, and cimetidine.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The following serious adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the label:
In the Rosumed controlled clinical trials database (placebo or active-controlled) of 5394 patients with a mean treatment duration of 15 weeks, 1.4% of patients discontinued due to adverse reactions. The most common adverse reactions that led to treatment discontinuation were:
The most commonly reported adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 2%) in the Rosumed controlled clinical trial database of 5394 patients were:
Most frequent adverse reactions (rate > 2%) are headache, myalgia, abdominal pain, asthenia, and nausea. (6.1)
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact AstraZeneca or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
6.1 Clinical Studies Experience
Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Adverse reactions reported in ≥ 2% of patients in placebo-controlled clinical studies and at a rate greater than placebo are shown in Table 1. These studies had a treatment duration of up to 12 weeks.
Other adverse reactions reported in clinical studies were abdominal pain, dizziness, hypersensitivity (including rash, pruritus, urticaria, and angioedema) and pancreatitis. The following laboratory abnormalities have also been reported: dipstick-positive proteinuria and microscopic hematuria [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ]; elevated creatine phosphokinase, transaminases, glucose, glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin; and thyroid function abnormalities.
In the METEOR study, involving 981 participants treated with Rosumed 40 mg (n=700) or placebo (n=281) with a mean treatment duration of 1.7 years, 5.6% of subjects treated with Rosumed versus 2.8% of placebo-treated subjects discontinued due to adverse reactions. The most common adverse reactions that led to treatment discontinuation were: myalgia, hepatic enzyme increased, headache, and nausea [see Clinical Studies (14.7) ].
Adverse reactions reported in ≥ 2% of patients and at a rate greater than placebo are shown in Table 2.
In the JUPITER study, 17,802 participants were treated with Rosumed 20 mg (n=8901) or placebo (n=8901) for a mean duration of 2 years. A higher percentage of rosuvastatin-treated patients versus placebo-treated patients, 6.6% and 6.2%, respectively, discontinued study medication due to an adverse event, irrespective of treatment causality. Myalgia was the most common adverse reaction that led to treatment discontinuation.
In JUPITER, there was a significantly higher frequency of diabetes mellitus reported in patients taking Rosumed (2.8%) versus patients taking placebo (2.3%). Mean HbA1c was significantly increased by 0.1% in rosuvastatin-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. The number of patients with a HbA1c > 6.5% at the end of the trial was significantly higher in rosuvastatin-treated versus placebo-treated patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) and Clinical Studies (14.8) ].
Adverse reactions reported in ≥ 2% of patients and at a rate greater than placebo are shown in Table 3.
6.2 Pediatric patients 10 to 17 years of age
In a 12-week controlled study in boys and postmenarchal girls, the safety and tolerability profile of Rosumed 5 to 20 mg daily was generally similar to that of placebo [see Clinical Studies and Use in Specific Populations, Pediatric Use (8.4) ].
However, elevations in serum creatine phosphokinase (CK) > 10 x ULN were observed more frequently in Rosumed compared with placebo-treated children. Four of 130 (3%) children treated with Rosumed (2 treated with 10 mg and 2 treated with 20 mg) had increased CK >10 x ULN, compared to 0 of 46 children on placebo.
6.3 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of Rosumed: arthralgia, fatal and non-fatal hepatic failure, hepatitis, jaundice, thrombocytopenia, depression, sleep disorders (including insomnia and nightmares) and gynecomastia. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
There have been rare reports of immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy associated with statin use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
There have been rare postmarketing reports of cognitive impairment (e.g., memory loss, forgetfulness, amnesia, memory impairment, confusion) associated with statin use. These cognitive issues have been reported for all statins. The reports are generally nonserious, and reversible upon statin discontinuation, with variable times to symptom onset (1 day to years) and symptom resolution (median of 3 weeks).
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
Cyclosporine increased Rosumed exposure (AUC) 7‑fold. Therefore, in patients taking cyclosporine, the dose of Rosumed should not exceed 5 mg once daily [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) , Warnings and Precautions (5.1) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
Gemfibrozil significantly increased Rosumed exposure. Due to an observed increased risk of myopathy/rhabdomyolysis, combination therapy with Rosumed and gemfibrozil should be avoided. If used together, the dose of Rosumed should not exceed 10 mg once daily [see Clinical Pharmacology ].
7.3 Protease Inhibitors
Coadministration of Rosumed with certain protease inhibitors given in combination with ritonavir has differing effects on Rosumed exposure. The protease inhibitor combinations lopinavir/ritonavir and atazanavir/ritonavir increase Rosumed exposure (AUC) up to threefold [see Table 4 – Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. For these combinations the dose of Rosumed should not exceed 10 mg once daily. The combinations of tipranavir/ritonavir or fosamprenavir/ritonavir produce little or no change in Rosumed exposure. Caution should be exercised when Rosumed is coadministered with protease inhibitors given in combination with ritonavir [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
7.4 Coumarin Anticoagulants
Rosumed significantly increased INR in patients receiving coumarin anticoagulants. Therefore, caution should be exercised when coumarin anticoagulants are given in conjunction with Rosumed. In patients taking coumarin anticoagulants and Rosumed concomitantly, INR should be determined before starting Rosumed and frequently enough during early therapy to ensure that no significant alteration of INR occurs [see Warnings and Precautions and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
The risk of skeletal muscle effects may be enhanced when Rosumed is used in combination with lipid-modifying doses (≥1 g/day) of niacin; caution should be used when prescribing with Rosumed [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
When Rosumed was coadministered with fenofibrate, no clinically significant increase in the AUC of Rosumed or fenofibrate was observed. Because it is known that the risk of myopathy during treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors is increased with concomitant use of fenofibrates, caution should be used when prescribing fenofibrates with Rosumed [see Warnings and Precautions and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
Cases of myopathy, including rhabdomyolysis, have been reported with HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors, including Rosumed, coadministered with colchicine, and caution should be exercised when prescribing Rosumed with colchicine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Teratogenic effects: Pregnancy Category X.
Rosumed is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides increase during normal pregnancy, and cholesterol products are essential for fetal development. Atherosclerosis is a chronic process and discontinuation of lipid-lowering drugs during pregnancy should have little impact on long-term outcomes of primary hyperlipidemia therapy [see Contraindications ].
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Rosumed in pregnant women. There have been rare reports of congenital anomalies following intrauterine exposure to HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors. In a review of about 100 prospectively followed pregnancies in women exposed to other HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors, the incidences of congenital anomalies, spontaneous abortions, and fetal deaths/stillbirths did not exceed the rate expected in the general population. However, this study was only able to exclude a three-to-fourfold increased risk of congenital anomalies over background incidence. In 89% of these cases, drug treatment started before pregnancy and stopped during the first trimester when pregnancy was identified.
Rosumed crosses the placenta in rats and rabbits. In rats, Rosumed was not teratogenic at systemic exposures equivalent to a human therapeutic dose of 40 mg/day. At 10‑12 times the human dose of 40 mg/day, there was decreased pup survival, decreased fetal body weight among female pups, and delayed ossification. In rabbits, pup viability decreased and maternal mortality increased at doses equivalent to the human dose of 40 mg/day [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2) ].
Rosumed may cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. If the patient becomes pregnant while taking Rosumed, the patient should be apprised of the potential risks to the fetus and the lack of known clinical benefit with continued use during pregnancy.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
It is not known whether Rosumed is excreted in human milk, but a small amount of another drug in this class does pass into breast milk. In rats, breast milk concentrations of Rosumed are three times higher than plasma levels; however, animal breast milk drug levels may not accurately reflect human breast milk levels. Because another drug in this class passes into human milk and because HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors have a potential to cause serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, women who require Rosumed treatment should be advised not to nurse their infants [see Contraindications (4) ].
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of Rosumed in patients 10 to 17 years of age with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were evaluated in a controlled clinical trial of 12 weeks duration followed by 40 weeks of open-label exposure. Patients treated with 5 mg, 10 mg, and 20 mg daily Rosumed had an adverse experience profile generally similar to that of patients treated with placebo [see Adverse Reactions ]. Although not all adverse reactions identified in the adult population have been observed in clinical trials of children and adolescent patients, the same warnings and precautions for adults should be considered for children and adolescents. There was no detectable effect of Rosumed on growth, weight, BMI (body mass index), or sexual maturation [see Clinical Studies (14.5) ] in pediatric patients (10 to 17 years of age). Adolescent females should be counseled on appropriate contraceptive methods while on Rosumed therapy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1) ]. Rosumed has not been studied in controlled clinical trials involving prepubertal patients or patients younger than 10 years of age. Doses of Rosumed greater than 20 mg have not been studied in the pediatric population.
In children and adolescents with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia experience is limited to eight patients (aged 8 years and above).
In a pharmacokinetic study, 18 patients (9 boys and 9 girls) 10 to 17 years of age with heterozygous FH received single and multiple oral doses of Rosumed. Both Cmax and AUC of Rosumed were similar to values observed in adult subjects administered the same doses.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the 10,275 patients in clinical studies with Rosumed, 3159 (31%) were 65 years and older, and 698 (6.8%) were 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
Elderly patients are at higher risk of myopathy and Rosumed should be prescribed with caution in the elderly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
8.6 Renal Impairment
Rosumed exposure is not influenced by mild to moderate renal impairment ; however, exposure to Rosumed is increased to a clinically significant extent in patients with severe renal impairment who are not receiving hemodialysis. Rosumed dosing should be adjusted in patients with severe renal impairment (CLcr < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) not requiring hemodialysis [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) , Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
8.7 Hepatic Impairment
Rosumed is contraindicated in patients with active liver disease, which may include unexplained persistent elevations of hepatic transaminase levels. Chronic alcohol liver disease is known to increase Rosumed exposure; Rosumed should be used with caution in these patients [see Contraindications (4) , Warning and Precautions (5.2) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
8.8 Asian Patients
Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated an approximate 2‑fold increase in median exposure to Rosumed in Asian subjects when compared with Caucasian controls. Rosumed dosage should be adjusted in Asian patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
There is no specific treatment in the event of overdose. In the event of overdose, the patient should be treated symptomatically and supportive measures instituted as required. Hemodialysis does not significantly enhance clearance of Rosumed.
Rosumed (rosuvastatin calcium) is a synthetic lipid-lowering agent for oral administration.
The chemical name for Rosumed calcium is bis[(E)-7-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-6-isopropyl-2-[methyl(methylsulfonyl)amino] pyrimidin-5-yl](3R,5S)-3,5-dihydroxyhept-6-enoic acid] calcium salt with the following structural formula:
The empirical formula for Rosumed calcium is (C22H27FN3O6S)2Ca and the molecular weight is 1001.14. Rosumed calcium is a white amorphous powder that is sparingly soluble in water and methanol, and slightly soluble in ethanol. Rosumed calcium is a hydrophilic compound with a partition coefficient (octanol/water) of 0.13 at pH of 7.0.
Rosumed Tablets for oral administration contain 5, 10, 20, or 40 mg of Rosumed and the following inactive ingredients: Each tablet contains: microcrystalline cellulose NF, lactose monohydrate NF, tribasic calcium phosphate NF, crospovidone NF, magnesium stearate NF, hypromellose NF, triacetin NF, titanium dioxide USP, yellow ferric oxide, and red ferric oxide NF.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Rosumed is a selective and competitive inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme that converts 3‑hydroxy‑3‑methylglutaryl coenzyme A to mevalonate, a precursor of cholesterol. In vivo studies in animals, and in vitro studies in cultured animal and human cells have shown Rosumed to have a high uptake into, and selectivity for, action in the liver, the target organ for cholesterol lowering. In in vivo and in vitro studies, Rosumed produces its lipid-modifying effects in two ways. First, it increases the number of hepatic LDL receptors on the cell-surface to enhance uptake and catabolism of LDL. Second, Rosumed inhibits hepatic synthesis of VLDL, which reduces the total number of VLDL and LDL particles.
Rosumed clearance is not dependent on metabolism by cytochrome P450 3A4 to a clinically significant extent.
Rosumed is a substrate for certain transporter proteins including the hepatic uptake transporter organic anion-transporting polyprotein 1B1 (OATP1B1) and efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Concomitant administration of Rosumed with medications that are inhibitors of these transporter proteins (e.g. cyclosporine, certain HIV protease inhibitors) may result in increased Rosumed plasma concentrations and an increased risk of myopathy [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) ].
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
In a 104-week carcinogenicity study in rats at dose levels of 2, 20, 60, or 80 mg/kg/day by oral gavage, the incidence of uterine stromal polyps was significantly increased in females at 80 mg/kg/day at systemic exposure 20 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC. Increased incidence of polyps was not seen at lower doses.
In a 107-week carcinogenicity study in mice given 10, 60, 200 mg/kg/day by oral gavage, an increased incidence of hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma was observed at 200 mg/kg/day at systemic exposures 20 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC. An increased incidence of hepatocellular tumors was not seen at lower doses.
Rosumed was not mutagenic or clastogenic with or without metabolic activation in the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, the mouse lymphoma assay, and the chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster lung cells. Rosumed was negative in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test.
In rat fertility studies with oral gavage doses of 5, 15, 50 mg/kg/day, males were treated for 9 weeks prior to and throughout mating and females were treated 2 weeks prior to mating and throughout mating until gestation day 7. No adverse effect on fertility was observed at 50 mg/kg/day. In testicles of dogs treated with Rosumed at 30 mg/kg/day for one month, spermatidic giant cells were seen. Spermatidic giant cells were observed in monkeys after 6‑month treatment at 30 mg/kg/day in addition to vacuolation of seminiferous tubular epithelium. Exposures in the dog were 20 times and in the monkey 10 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on body surface area. Similar findings have been seen with other drugs in this class.
13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology
Rosumed crosses the placenta and is found in fetal tissue and amniotic fluid at 3% and 20%, respectively, of the maternal plasma concentration following a single 25 mg/kg oral gavage dose on gestation day 16 in rats. A higher fetal tissue distribution (25% maternal plasma concentration) was observed in rabbits after a single oral gavage dose of 1 mg/kg on gestation day 18.
In female rats given oral gavage doses of 5, 15, 50 mg/kg/day Rosumed before mating and continuing through day 7 postcoitus results in decreased fetal body weight (female pups) and delayed ossification at the high dose (systemic exposures 10 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC).
In pregnant rats given oral gavage doses of 2, 10, 50 mg/kg/day from gestation day 7 through lactation day 21 (weaning), decreased pup survival occurred in groups given 50 mg/kg/day, systemic exposures ≥ 12 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on body surface area.
In pregnant rabbits given oral gavage doses of 0.3, 1, 3 mg/kg/day from gestation day 6 to lactation day 18 (weaning), exposures equivalent to the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on body surface area, decreased fetal viability and maternal mortality was observed.
Rosumed was not teratogenic in rats at ≤ 25 mg/kg/day or in rabbits ≤ 3 mg/kg/day (systemic exposures equivalent to the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC or body surface area, respectively).
Central Nervous System Toxicity
CNS vascular lesions, characterized by perivascular hemorrhages, edema, and mononuclear cell infiltration of perivascular spaces, have been observed in dogs treated with several other members of this drug class. A chemically similar drug in this class produced dose-dependent optic nerve degeneration (Wallerian degeneration of retinogeniculate fibers) in dogs, at a dose that produced plasma drug levels about 30 times higher than the mean drug level in humans taking the highest recommended dose. Edema, hemorrhage, and partial necrosis in the interstitium of the choroid plexus was observed in a female dog sacrificed moribund at day 24 at 90 mg/kg/day by oral gavage (systemic exposures 100 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC). Corneal opacity was seen in dogs treated for 52 weeks at 6 mg/kg/day by oral gavage (systemic exposures 20 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC). Cataracts were seen in dogs treated for 12 weeks by oral gavage at 30 mg/kg/day (systemic exposures 60 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC). Retinal dysplasia and retinal loss were seen in dogs treated for 4 weeks by oral gavage at 90 mg/kg/day (systemic exposures 100 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC). Doses ≤30 mg/kg/day (systemic exposures ≤60 times the human exposure at 40 mg/day based on AUC) did not reveal retinal findings during treatment for up to one year.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
14.1 Hyperlipidemia and Mixed Dyslipidemia
Rosumed reduces Total‑C, LDL‑C, ApoB, nonHDL‑C, and TG, and increases HDL‑C, in adult patients with hyperlipidemia and mixed dyslipidemia.
Dose-Ranging Study: In a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study in patients with hyperlipidemia Rosumed given as a single daily dose for 6 weeks significantly reduced Total‑C, LDL‑C, nonHDL‑C, and ApoB, across the dose range.
Active-Controlled Study: Rosumed was compared with the HMG‑CoA reductase inhibitors atorvastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin in a multicenter, open-label, dose-ranging study of 2240 patients with hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia. After randomization, patients were treated for 6 weeks with a single daily dose of either Rosumed, atorvastatin, simvastatin, or pravastatin (Figure 1 and Table 7).
Figure 1. Percent LDL‑ C Change by Dose of Rosumed, Atorvastatin, Simvastatin, and Pravastatin at Week 6 in Patients with Hyperlipidemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia
Box plots are a representation of the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentile values, with whiskers representing the 10th and 90th percentile values. Mean baseline LDL‑C: 189 mg/dL
Table 7. Percent Change in LDL‑C From Baseline to Week 6 (LS Mean
14.2 Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Active-Controlled Study: In a study of patients with heterozygous FH (baseline mean LDL of 291), patients were randomized to Rosumed 20 mg or atorvastatin 20 mg. The dose was increased by 6-week intervals. Significant LDL-C reductions from baseline were seen at each dose in both treatment groups (Table 8).
Table 8. Mean LDL-C Percentage Change from Baseline
Dose-Response Study: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-response study in patients with baseline TG levels from 273 to 817 mg/dL, Rosumed given as a single daily dose over 6 weeks significantly reduced serum TG levels (Table 9).
14.4 Primary Dysbetalipoproteinemia (Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia)
In a randomized, multicenter, double-blind crossover study, 32 patients (27 with є2/є2 and 4 with apo E mutation [Arg145Cys] with primary dysbetalipoproteinemia (Type III Hyperlipoproteinemia) entered a 6-week dietary lead-in period on the NCEP Therapeutic Lifestyle Change (TLC) diet. Following dietary lead-in, patients were randomized to a sequence of treatments in conjunction with the TLC diet for 6 weeks each: Rosumed 10 mg followed by Rosumed 20 mg or Rosumed 20 mg followed by Rosumed 10 mg. Rosumed reduced nonHDL‑C (primary end point) and circulating remnant lipoprotein levels. Results are shown in the table below.
14.5 Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia
Dose-Titration Study: In an open-label, forced-titration study, homozygous FH patients were evaluated for their response to Rosumed 20 to 40 mg titrated at a 6‑week interval. In the overall population, the mean LDL‑C reduction from baseline was 22%. About one-third of the patients benefited from increasing their dose from 20 mg to 40 mg with further LDL lowering of greater than 6%. In the 27 patients with at least a 15% reduction in LDL‑C, the mean LDL-C reduction was 30% (median 28% reduction). Among 13 patients with an LDL‑C reduction of <15%, 3 had no change or an increase in LDL‑C. Reductions in LDL‑C of 15% or greater were observed in 3 of 5 patients with known receptor negative status.
14.6 Pediatric Patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia
In a double blind, randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled, 12 week study, 176 (97 male and 79 female) children and adolescents with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia were randomized to Rosumed 5, 10 or 20 mg or placebo daily. Patients ranged in age from 10 to 17 years (median age of 14 years) with approximately 30% of the patients 10 to 13 years and approximately 17%, 18%, 40%, and 25% at Tanner stages II, III, IV, and V, respectively. Females were at least 1 year postmenarche. Mean LDL C at baseline was 233 mg/dL (range of 129 to 399). The 12 week double blind phase was followed by a 40 week open label dose-titration phase, where all patients (n=173) received 5 mg, 10 mg or 20 mg Rosumed daily.
Rosumed significantly reduced LDL-C (primary end point), total cholesterol and ApoB levels at each dose compared to placebo. Results are shown in Table 11 below.
At the end of the 12 week, double blind treatment period, the percentage of patients achieving the LDL C goal of less than 110 mg/dL (2.8 mmol/L) was 0% for placebo, 12% for Rosumed 5 mg, 41% for Rosumed 10 mg and 41% for Rosumed 20 mg. For the 40 week, open label phase, 71% of the patients were titrated to the maximum dose of 20 mg and 41% of the patients achieved the LDL C goal of 110 mg/dL.
The long-term efficacy of Rosumed therapy initiated in childhood to reduce morbidity and mortality in adulthood has not been established.
14.7 Slowing of the Progression of Atherosclerosis
In the Measuring Effects on Intima Media Thickness: an Evaluation Of Rosumed 40 mg study, the effect of therapy with Rosumed on carotid atherosclerosis was assessed by B-mode ultrasonography in patients with elevated LDL‑C, at low risk (Framingham risk <10% over ten years) for symptomatic coronary artery disease and with subclinical atherosclerosis as evidenced by carotid intimal-medial thickness (cIMT). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study 984 patients were randomized (of whom 876 were analyzed) in a 5:2 ratio to Rosumed 40 mg or placebo once daily. Ultrasonograms of the carotid walls were used to determine the annualized rate of change per patient from baseline to two years in mean maximum cIMT of 12 measured segments. The estimated difference in the rate of change in the maximum cIMT analyzed over all 12 carotid artery sites between patients treated with Rosumed and placebo-treated patients was -0.0145 mm/year (95% CI –0.0196, –0.0093; p<0.0001).
The annualized rate of change from baseline for the placebo group was +0.0131 mm/year (p<0.0001). The annualized rate of change from baseline for the group treated with Rosumed was -0.0014 mm/year (p=0.32).
At an individual patient level in the group treated with Rosumed, 52.1% of patients demonstrated an absence of disease progression (defined as a negative annualized rate of change), compared to 37.7% of patients in the placebo group.
14.8 Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease
In the Justification for the Use of Statins in Primary Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) study, the effect of Rosumed (rosuvastatin calcium) on the occurrence of major cardiovascular (CV) disease events was assessed in 17,802 men (≥50 years) and women (≥60 years) who had no clinically evident cardiovascular disease, LDL‑C levels <130 mg/dL (3.3 mmol/l) and hs‑CRP levels ≥2 mg/L. The study population had an estimated baseline coronary heart disease risk of 11.6% over 10 years based on the Framingham risk criteria and included a high percentage of patients with additional risk factors such as hypertension (58%), low HDL‑C levels (23%), cigarette smoking (16%), or a family history of premature CHD (12%). Study participants had a median baseline LDL‑C of 108 mg/dL and hsCRP of 4.3 mg/L. Study participants were randomly assigned to placebo (n=8901) or Rosumed 20 mg once daily (n=8901) and were followed for a mean duration of 2 years. The JUPITER study was stopped early by the Data Safety Monitoring Board due to meeting predefined stopping rules for efficacy in rosuvastatin-treated subjects.
The primary end point was a composite end point consisting of the time-to-first occurrence of any of the following major CV events: CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for unstable angina or an arterial revascularization procedure.
Rosumed significantly reduced the risk of major CV events (252 events in the placebo group vs. 142 events in the Rosumed group) with a statistically significant (p<0.001) relative risk reduction of 44% and absolute risk reduction of 1.2%. The risk reduction for the primary end point was consistent across the following predefined subgroups: age, sex, race, smoking status, family history of premature CHD, body mass index, LDL‑C, HDL‑C, and hsCRP levels.
Figure 2. Time to first occurrence of major cardiovascular events in JUPITER
The individual components of the primary end point are presented in Figure 3. Rosumed significantly reduced the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and arterial revascularization procedures. There were no significant treatment differences between the Rosumed and placebo groups for death due to cardiovascular causes or hospitalizations for unstable angina.
Rosumed significantly reduced the risk of myocardial infarction (6 fatal events and 62 nonfatal events in placebo-treated subjects vs. 9 fatal events and 22 nonfatal events in rosuvastatin-treated subjects) and the risk of stroke (6 fatal events and 58 nonfatal events in placebo-treated subjects vs. 3 fatal events and 30 nonfatal events in rosuvastatin-treated subjects).
In a post-hoc subgroup analysis of JUPITER subjects (n=1405; rosuvastatin=725, placebo=680) with a hsCRP ≥2 mg/L and no other traditional risk factors (smoking, BP ≥140/90 or taking antihypertensives, low HDL‑C) other than age, after adjustment for high HDL‑C, there was no significant treatment benefit with Rosumed treatment.
Figure 3. Major CV events by treatment group in JUPITER
At one year, Rosumed increased HDL‑C and reduced LDL‑C, hsCRP, total cholesterol and serum triglyceride levels (p<0.001 for all versus placebo).
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
Rosumed® (rosuvastatin calcium) Tablets are supplied as:
Store at controlled room temperature, 20‑25ºC (68-77ºF). Protect from moisture.
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
17.1 Skeletal Muscle Effects
Patients should be advised to report promptly unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly if accompanied by malaise or fever or if these muscle signs or symptoms persist after discontinuing Rosumed.
17.2 Concomitant Use of Antacids
When taking Rosumed with an aluminum and magnesium hydroxide combination antacid, the antacid should be taken at least 2 hours after Rosumed administration.
If the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus and the lack of known clinical benefit with continued use during pregnancy.
17.4 Liver Enzymes
It is recommended that liver enzyme tests be performed before the initiation of Rosumed and if signs or symptoms of liver injury occur. All patients treated with Rosumed should be advised to promptly report any symptoms that may indicate liver injury, including fatigue, anorexia, right upper abdominal discomfort, dark urine or jaundice.
Rosumed is a trademark of the AstraZeneca group of companies.
© AstraZeneca 2013
Licensed from SHIONOGI & CO., LTD., Osaka, Japan
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP
Wilmington, DE 19850
CRESTOR® (rosuvastatin calcium) Tablets
Read this information carefully before you start taking Rosumed. Each time you refill your prescription for Rosumed, read the patient information, as there may be new information. This summary does not include everything there is to know about Rosumed and does not take the place of talking with your health care professional about your medical condition or treatment.
If you have any questions about Rosumed, ask your health care professional. Only your health care professional can tell you if Rosumed is right for you.
What is Rosumed?
Rosumed is a prescription medicine that belongs to a group of cholesterol-lowering medicines called statins. Along with diet, Rosumed lowers “bad” cholesterol (LDL‑C), increases “good” cholesterol (HDL‑C). If bad cholesterol levels are left untreated, fatty deposits (plaque) can build up in the walls of the blood vessels. This plaque buildup over time, can lead to narrowing of these vessels. This is one of the most common causes of heart disease. By lowering bad cholesterol in your blood, Rosumed can slow this plaque buildup in the walls of blood vessels. Rosumed has been proven to reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes in older adults without known heart disease.
What is Cholesterol?
Cholesterol is a fatty substance, also called a lipid, normally found in your bloodstream. Your body needs a certain amount of cholesterol to function properly. But high cholesterol can lead to health problems. LDL-C is called bad cholesterol because if you have too much in your bloodstream, it can become a danger to your health and can lead to potentially serious conditions. HDL‑C is known as good cholesterol because it may help remove excess cholesterol.
Common health factors such as diabetes, high blood pressure, smoking, obesity, family history of early heart disease, and age can make controlling your cholesterol even more important.
What is Atherosclerosis?
Atherosclerosis is the progressive buildup of plaque in the arteries over time. One major cause is high levels of LDL‑C. Other health factors, such as family history, diabetes, high blood pressure, or if you smoke, or are overweight, may also play a role in the formation of plaque in arteries. Often this plaque starts building up in arteries in early adulthood and gets worse over time.
How Does Rosumed Work?
Most of the cholesterol in your blood is made in the liver. Rosumed works by reducing cholesterol in two ways: Rosumed blocks an enzyme in the liver causing the liver to make less cholesterol, and Rosumed increases the uptake and breakdown by the liver of cholesterol already in the blood.
Who Should Not Take Rosumed?
Do not take Rosumed if you:
The safety and effectiveness of Rosumed have not been established in pediatric patients under the age of 10.
What should I tell my health care professional before taking Rosumed?
Tell your health care professional if you:
Tell your health care professional about all medicines you take or plan to take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Some medicines may interact with Rosumed, causing side effects. It is particularly important to tell your health care professional if you are taking or plan to take medicines for:
-your immune system
Know all of the medicines you take and what they look like. It’s always a good idea to check that you have the right prescription before you leave the pharmacy and before you take any medicine. Keep a list of your medicines with you to show your health care professional.
If you need to go to the hospital or have surgery, tell all of your health care professionals about all medicines that you are taking.
How Should I Take Rosumed?
Take Rosumed exactly as prescribed by your health care professional. Do not change your dose or stop Rosumed without talking to your health care professional, even if you are feeling well.
Your health care professional may do blood tests to check your cholesterol levels before and during your treatment with Rosumed. Your dose of Rosumed may be changed based on these blood tests results.
Rosumed can be taken at any time of day, with or without food.
Swallow the tablets whole.
Your health care professional may start you on a cholesterol lowering diet before giving you Rosumed. Stay on this diet when you take Rosumed.
Wait at least 2 hours after taking Rosumed to take an antacid that contains a combination of aluminum and magnesium hydroxide.
If you miss a dose of Rosumed, take it as soon as you remember. However, do not take 2 doses of Rosumed within 12 hours of each other.
If you take too much Rosumed or overdose, call your health care professional or a Poison Control Center right away or go to the nearest emergency room.
What Should I Avoid While Taking Rosumed?
Talk to your health care professional before you start any new medicines. This includes prescription and nonprescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Rosumed and certain other medicines can interact, causing serious side effects.
Talk to your health care professional if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Do not use Rosumed if you are pregnant, trying to become pregnant or suspect that you are pregnant. If you become pregnant while taking Rosumed, stop taking it and contact your health care professional immediately.
What are the Possible Side Effects of Rosumed?
Rosumed can cause side effects in some people.
Serious side effects may include:
Muscle Problems. Call your health care professional right away if you experience unexplained muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness especially with fever. This may be an early sign of a rare muscle problem that could lead to serious kidney problems. The risk of muscle problems is greater in people who are 65 years of age or older, or who already have thyroid or kidney problems. The chance of muscle problems may be increased if you are taking certain other medicines with Rosumed.
If you have muscle problems that do not go away even after your health care professional has advised you to stop taking Rosumed, notify your health care professional. Your health care professional may do further tests to diagnose the cause of your muscle problems.
Liver problems. Your health care professional should do blood tests to check your liver before you start taking Rosumed and if you have symptoms of liver problems while you take Rosumed. Call your doctor right away if you have any of the following symptoms of liver problems:
- feel unusually tired or weak
- loss of appetite
- upper belly pain
- dark urine
- yellowing of your skin or the whites of your eyes
The most common side effects may include:
Headache, muscle aches and pains, abdominal pain, weakness, and nausea.
The following additional side effects have been reported with Rosumed:
Memory loss and confusion
This is not a complete list of side effects of Rosumed. Talk to your health care professional for a complete list or if you have side effects that bother you or that do not go away.
How Do I Store Rosumed?
Store Rosumed at room temperature, 68 to 77°F (20 to 25°C) and in a dry place.
If your health care professional tells you to stop treatment or if your medicine is out of date, throw the medicine away.
Keep Rosumed and all medicines in a secure place and out of the reach of children.
What are the Ingredients in Rosumed?
Active Ingredient: Rosumed as Rosumed calcium
Inactive Ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose NF, lactose monohydrate NF, tribasic calcium phosphate NF, crospovidone NF, magnesium stearate NF, hypromellose NF, triacetin NF, titanium dioxide USP, yellow ferric oxide, and red ferric oxide NF.
General Information About Rosumed
It is important to take Rosumed as prescribed and to discuss any health changes you experience while taking Rosumed with your health care professional. Do not use Rosumed for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give Rosumed to other people, even if they have the same medical condition you have. It may harm them.
This leaflet summarizes important information about Rosumed. If you would like more information about Rosumed, ask your health care professional. You can also go to the Rosumed website at www.crestor.com or call 1-800-CRESTOR.
Rosumed is a trademark of the AstraZeneca group of companies.
© AstraZeneca 2013
Licensed from SHIONOGI & CO., LTD., Osaka, Japan
AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP
Wilmington, DE 19850
Rev. August, 2013
strucural formula figure one figure two figure three
Rosumed pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Rosumed available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Rosumed destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Rosumed Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Rosumed pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Rosumed?
Depending on the reaction of the Rosumed after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Rosumed not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Rosumed addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
ReviewsDrugs.com conducted a study on Rosumed, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Rosumed consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
One visitor reported price estimatesWhat is your opinion about drug cost? Did you feel the cost is apt, or did you feel it is expensive?
The report given by the sDrugs.com website users shows the following figures about several people who felt the medicine Rosumed is expensive, and the medicine is not expensive. The results are mixed. The perception of the cost of the medicine to be expensive or not depends on the brand name of the medicine, country, and place where it is sold, and the affordability of the patient. You can choose a generic drug in the place of the branded drug to save the cost. The efficiency of the medicine will not vary if it is generic or a branded one.
One visitor reported age
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology