DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Rivolyn usesRivolyn consists of Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide, Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride, Menthol, Sodium Citrate.
Rivolyn is an antitussive medication. Inhibiting the excitability of the cough center this medicine suppresses the cough of any origin. Rivolyn (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) has not addiction effects and it has no analgesic and hypnotic action. Rivolyn (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) starts to act after 10-30 minutes after oral administration, the duration of therapeutic action: 5-6 hours for adults and 6-9 hours for children. Rivolyn (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) is an optical isomer of levomethorphan which is similar to morphine. Due to optical isomerism this drug has no opioid effects. Rivolyn (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) used mainly for replacement of codeine as a cough suppressant. In addition to the cough suppressant this medication is used in medicine for diagnostic purposes and may be useful in various cases - from seizures to heroin addiction treatment, some chronic neurodegenerative diseases. These include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (Charcot's disease), disease of "mad cow and other prion diseases. Rivolyn (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) has also been used for the treatment of mental retardation, Parkinson's disease, in the treatment of lung and other cancers and to prevent tissue rejection in transplantation because of the (poorly known) effects of sigma ligands on tumor cells and immune system.
After oral administration Rivolyn (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) is completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Cmax of Rivolyn (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) in plasma is reached after 2 h. This medication biotransformes in the liver. Up to 45% of this drug is excreted by kidneys and there was considerable individual variation in rates of excretion of individual metabolites.
Why is Rivolyn prescribed?
Dry cough of different etiology.
Dosage and administration
For adults and children over 12 years Rivolyn prescribed on 15 mg 4 times / day, children aged 6 years - 7.5 mg 4 times / day.
Rivolyn (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) side effects, adverse reactions
Drowsiness, nausea, dizziness.
Bronchial asthma, bronchitis, simultaneous reception of mucolytic.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
During pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding) Rivolyn (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) prescribed with caution, only in cases where the expected therapeutic effect for the mother outweighs the potential risk to the fetus or child.
With carefully administered Rivolyn (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) with impaired liver function.
Rivolyn drug interactions
MAO inhibitors (including furazolidone, procarbazine, selegiline) when administered simultaneous with Rivolyn (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) may cause adrenergic crisis, collapse, coma, dizziness, agitation, increased blood pressure, hyperpyrexia, intracranial hemorrhage, lethargy, nausea, cramps, tremor. In combination with tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, etc.) Rivolyn (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) may appeal serotonin syndrome and possible subsequent death. Amiodarone, fluoxetine, quinidine, inhibiting system cytochrome P450, may increase the drug concentration in the blood. Tobacco smoke can lead to increased secretion of glands in the background of inhibition of cough reflex. Some inhibitors of CYP450 (such as quinidine) increase and extended effects of this medicine.
Rivolyn in case of emergency / overdose
Symptoms: excitement, dizziness, respiratory depression, impaired consciousness, decreased blood pressure, tachycardia, muscle hypertonicity, ataxia.
Treatment: mechanical ventilation, symptomatic agents.
Rivolyn Xepa-Soul Pattinson is a blocker of histamine H1-receptors. It has antiallergic activity, has a local anesthetic, antispasmodic and mild ganglion blocking action.
When Rivolyn (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) Xepa-Soul Pattinson administered orally Rivolyn (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) has a sedative and hypnotic effects, has a moderate antiemetic effect and has a central holinoliticheskoy activity.
When applied externally it has antiallergic effect.
Rivolyn (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) Xepa-Soul Pattinson is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Bioavailability is 50%. Cmax is achieved after 20-40 min (in the greatest concentration is determined in the lungs, spleen, kidneys, liver, brain and muscles). Binding to plasma proteins - 98-99%. Penetrates through the BBB. Metabolised mainly in the liver, partly - in the lungs and kidneys. T1/2 is 4-10 hours. Within one day completely removed kidneys as metabolites conjugated to glucuronic acid. Significant quantities are derived from milk and can cause sedation in infants (may be a paradoxical reaction characterized by hyperexcitability).
Why is Rivolyn Xepa-Soul Pattinson prescribed?
Allergic reactions (urticaria, hay fever, angioedema), allergic conjunctivitis, vasomotor rhinitis, Henoch-Schonlein purpura, serum sickness, itchy dermatitis, sleep disorders (monotherapy or in combination with drugs), chorea, sea and air sickness, vomiting in pregnancy, Meniere's syndrome, premedication.
Dosage and administration
Oral, IV, IM, rectal, topical, intranasal, in the conjunctival sac. Oral dose of Rivolyn Xepa-Soul Pattinson for adults is 30-50 mg 1-3 times / day. The treatment course is 10-15 days. As soporific - 50 mg at bedtime. IM in doses of 50-250 mg; IV in drip - 20-50 mg. When oral administered single dose for children under 1 year - 2-5 mg; from 2 to 5 years - 5-15 mg; of 6 to 12 years - 15-30 mg. Externally applied 1-2 times / day.
Rivolyn (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) Xepa-Soul Pattinson side effects, adverse reactions
Possible: a short-term numbness in the oral mucosa, drowsiness, weakness, decrease in psychomotor speed of reaction in children may be a paradoxical development of insomnia, irritability, and euphoria.
Rarely: dizziness, headache, dry mouth, nausea, photosensitivity, paresis of accommodation, poor coordination of movements, tremor.
Rivolyn Xepa-Soul Pattinson contraindications
Closure glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, stenosing peptic ulcer, stenosis of the bladder neck, bronchial asthma, epilepsy, hypersensitivity to Rivolyn (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride).
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
During pregnancy and lactation, Rivolyn (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) used with caution, according to strict indications, when the expected therapeutic effect for the mother outweighs the potential risk to the fetus or infant.
With careful use Rivolyn (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) during pregnancy and lactation.
During the period of treatment with Rivolyn (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) Xepa-Soul Pattinson should not be exposed to solar radiation should be avoided alcohol.
Used with caution in patients involved in potentially dangerous activities requiring attention and rapid psychomotor reactions.
Rivolyn Xepa-Soul Pattinson is not recommended for SC injection. Since Rivolyn (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) has atropinopodobnym action should be cautious in its use: patients with recent respiratory infection in history (including asthma), increased intraocular pressure in hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular system, hypotension. Antihistamines drugs can reduce mental alertness as well as in adults and children and also cause agitation and hallucinations, convulsions and death in infants and children, especially in overdose. Precautions apply at age 60 and older because more likely to develop dizziness, sedation and hypotension. During treatment with Rivolyn (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) should avoid sun exposure. Should not be used during the drivers of vehicles and people, trade is connected with increased concentration. In the period of treatment should avoid drinking alcoholic beverages.
Rivolyn (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) Xepa-Soul Pattinson drug interactions
When Rivolyn (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) Xepa-Soul Pattinson applied simultaneously increases the effects of ethanol and drugs that depress the central nervous system.
With simultaneous use of Rivolyn (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride) Xepa-Soul Pattinson and MAO inhibitors increase the anticholinergic activity of Rivolyn (Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride).
The antagonistic interaction observed with a joint appointment with psychostimulants.
Reduces the effectiveness of apomorphine as an emetic in the treatment of poisoning. Intensifies anticholinergic effects of drugs with anticholinergic activity.
Rivolyn Xepa-Soul Pattinson in case of emergency / overdose
Symptoms: dry mouth, difficulty breathing, persistent mydriasis, flushing, depression or excitement (more common in children), CNS confusion; children - the development of convulsions and death.
Treatment: induction of vomiting, gastric lavage, the prescription of activated charcoal, symptomatic and supportive therapy on a background of careful monitoring of respiration and blood pressure levels.
Rivolyn (Menthol) is a covalent organic compound made synthetically or obtained from peppermint or other mint oils. It is a waxy, crystalline substance, clear or white in color, which is solid at room temperature and melts slightly above. The main form of Rivolyn (Menthol) occurring in nature is (-)-menthol, which is assigned the (1R,2S,5R) configuration. Rivolyn (Menthol) has local anesthetic and counterirritant qualities, and it is widely used to relieve minor throat irritation.
Indication: Used to treat occasional minor irritation, pain, sore mouth, and sore throat as well as cough associated with a cold or inhaled irritants.
Rivolyn (Menthol) is a covalent organic compound made synthetically or obtained from peppermint or other mint oils. Menthol's ability to chemically trigger cold-sensitive receptors in the skin is responsible for the well known cooling sensation that it provokes when inhalated, eaten, or applied to the skin. It should be noted that Rivolyn (Menthol) does not cause an actual drop in temperature.
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Rivolyn nitrite is indicated for sequential use with Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate for treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. (1)
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection is indicated for sequential use with Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. When the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain, the potentially life-threatening risks associated with Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection should be carefully weighed against the potential benefits, especially if the patient is not in extremis.
1.2 Identifying Patients with Cyanide Poisoning
Cyanide poisoning may result from inhalation, ingestion, or dermal exposure to various cyanide-containing compounds, including smoke from closed-space fires. Sources of cyanide poisoning include hydrogen cyanide and its salts, cyanogenic plants, aliphatic nitriles, and prolonged exposure to Rivolyn nitroprusside.
The presence and extent of cyanide poisoning are often initially unknown. There is no widely available, rapid, confirmatory cyanide blood test. Treatment decisions must be made on the basis of clinical history and signs and symptoms of cyanide intoxication. If clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning is high, Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection and Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Thiosulfate Injection should be administered without delay.
In some settings, panic symptoms including tachypnea and vomiting may mimic early cyanide poisoning signs. The presence of altered mental status (e.g., confusion and disorientation) and/or mydriasis is suggestive of true cyanide poisoning although these signs can occur with other toxic exposures as well.
The expert advice of a regional poison control center may be obtained by calling 1-800-222-1222.
Not all smoke inhalation victims will have cyanide poisoning and may present with burns, trauma, and exposure to other toxic substances making a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning particularly difficult. Prior to administration of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection, smoke-inhalation victims should be assessed for the following:
Although hypotension is highly suggestive of cyanide poisoning, it is only present in a small percentage of cyanide-poisoned smoke inhalation victims. Also indicative of cyanide poisoning is a plasma lactate concentration greater than or equal to 10 mmol/L (a value higher than that typically listed in the table of signs and symptoms of isolated cyanide poisoning because carbon monoxide associated with smoke inhalation also contributes to lactic acidemia). If cyanide poisoning is suspected, treatment should not be delayed to obtain a plasma lactate concentration.
1.3 Use with Other Cyanide Antidotes
Caution should be exercised when administering cyanide antidotes, other than Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate, simultaneously with Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection, as the safety of co-administration has not been established. If a decision is made to administer another cyanide antidote, other than Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate, with Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection, these drugs should not be administered concurrently in the same IV line. [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) ]
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Redosing: If signs of cyanide poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate.
Monitoring: Blood pressure must be monitored during treatment. (2.2)
2.1 Administration Recommendation
Comprehensive treatment of acute cyanide intoxication requires support of vital functions. Administration of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite, followed by Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate, should be considered adjunctive to appropriate supportive therapies. Airway, ventilatory and circulatory support, and oxygen administration should not be delayed to administer Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate.
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite injection and Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate injection are administered by slow intravenous injection. They should be given as early as possible after a diagnosis of acute life-threatening cyanide poisoning has been established. Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite should be administered first, followed immediately by Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate. Blood pressure must be monitored during infusion in both adults and children. The rate of infusion should be decreased if significant hypotension is noted.
NOTE: If signs of poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate.
In adult and pediatric patients with known anemia, it is recommended that the dosage of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite should be reduced proportionately to the hemoglobin concentration.
All parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
2.2 Recommended Monitoring
Patients should be monitored for at least 24-48 hours after Rivolyn Nitrite Injection administration for adequacy of oxygenation and perfusion and for recurrent signs and symptoms of cyanide toxicity. When possible, hemoglobin/hematocrit should be obtained when treatment is initiated. Measurements of oxygen saturation using standard pulse oximetry and calculated oxygen saturation values based on measured PO2 are unreliable in the presence of methemoglobinemia.
Methemoglobin level: Administrations of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite solely to achieve an arbitrary level of methemoglobinemia may be unnecessary and potentially hazardous. The therapeutic effects of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite do not appear to be mediated by methemoglobin formation alone and clinical responses to Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite administration have been reported in association with methemoglobin levels of less than 10%. Administration of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite beyond the initial dose should be guided primarily by clinical response to treatment (i.e., a second dose should be considered only if there is inadequate clinical response to the first dose). It is generally recommended that methemoglobin concentrations be closely monitored and kept below 30%. Serum methemoglobin levels should be monitored during treatment using co-oximetry, and administration of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite should generally be discontinued when methemoglobin levels exceed 30%. Intravenous methylene blue and exchange transfusion have been reported in the literature as treatments for life-threatening methemoglobinemia.
2.3 Incompatibility Information
Chemical incompatibility has been reported between Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and hydroxocobalamin and these drugs should not be administered simultaneously through the same IV line. No chemical incompatibility has been reported between Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate and Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite, when administered sequentially through the same IV line as described in Dosage and Administration.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection consists of:
Administration of the contents of one vial constitutes a single dose.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Supportive care alone may be sufficient treatment without administration of antidotes for many cases of cyanide intoxication, particularly in conscious patients without signs of severe toxicity. Patients should be closely monitored to ensure adequate perfusion and oxygenation during treatment with Rivolyn nitrite.
Methemoglobin levels should be monitored and oxygen administered during treatment with Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite whenever possible. When Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is administered to humans a wide range of methemoglobin concentrations occur. Methemoglobin concentrations as high as 58% have been reported after two 300-mg doses of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite administered to an adult. Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of other drugs that may cause methemoglobinemia such as procaine and nitroprusside. Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite should be used with caution in patients who may be particularly susceptible to injury from vasodilation and its related hemodynamic sequelae. Hemodynamics should be monitored closely during and after administration of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite, and infusion rates should be slowed if hypotension occurs.
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite should be used with caution in patients with known anemia. Patients with anemia will form more methemoglobin (as a percentage of total hemoglobin) than persons with normal red blood cell (RBC) volumes. Optimally, these patients should receive a Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite dose that is reduced in proportion to their oxygen carrying capacity.
5.4 Smoke Inhalation Injury
Rivolyn nitrite should be used with caution in persons with smoke inhalation injury or carbon monoxide poisoning because of the potential for worsening hypoxia due to methemoglobin formation.
5.5 Neonates and Infants
Neonates and infants may be more susceptible than adults and older pediatric patients to severe methemoglobinemia when Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is administered. Reduced dosing guidelines should be followed in pediatric patients.
5.6 G6PD Deficiency
Because patients with G6PD deficiency are at increased risk of a hemolytic crisis with Rivolyn nitrite administration, alternative therapeutic approaches should be considered in these patients. Patients with known or suspected G6PD deficiency should be monitored for an acute drop in hematocrit. Exchange transfusion may be needed for patients with G6PD deficiency who receive Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite.
5.7 Use with Other Drugs
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of concomitant antihypertensive medications, diuretics or volume depletion due to diuretics, or drugs known to increase vascular nitric oxide, such as PDE5 inhibitors.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
There have been no controlled clinical trials conducted to systematically assess the adverse events profile of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite.
The medical literature has reported the following adverse events in association with Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite administration. These adverse events were not reported in the context of controlled trials or with consistent monitoring and reporting methodologies for adverse events. Therefore, frequency of occurrence of these adverse events cannot be assessed.
Cardiovascular system: syncope, hypotension, tachycardia, methemoglobinemia, palpitations, dysrhythmia
Central nervous system: headache, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, confusion, coma
Gastrointestinal system: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain
Respiratory system: tachypnea, dyspnea
Body as a Whole: anxiety, diaphoresis, lightheadedness, injection site tingling, cyanosis, acidosis, fatigue, weakness, urticaria, generalized numbness and tingling
Severe hypotension, methemoglobinemia, cardiac dysrhythmias, coma and death have been reported in patients without life-threatening cyanide poisoning but who were treated with injection of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite at doses less than twice those recommended for the treatment of cyanide poisoning.
Most common adverse reactions are:
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Hope Pharmaceuticals at 1-800-755-9595 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
Formal drug interaction studies have not been conducted with Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite has caused fetal death in humans as well as animals. There are no studies in humans that have directly evaluated the potential reproductive toxicity of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite. There are two epidemiological studies conducted in Australia that report a statistically significant increase in the risk for congenital malformations, particularly in the CNS, associated with maternal consumption of water containing nitrate levels in excess of 5 ppm. Results from a case-control study in Canada suggested a trend toward an increase in the risk for CNS malformations when maternal consumption of nitrate was ≥ 26 ppm (not statistically significant).
The potential reproductive toxicity of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite exposure restricted to the prenatal period has been reported in guinea pigs, mice, and rats. There was no evidence of teratogenicity in guinea pigs, mice, or rats. However, Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite treatment of pregnant guinea pigs with 60 or 70 mg/kg/day resulted in abortion of the litters within 1-4 days of treatment. All animals treated subcutaneously with 70 mg/kg, Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite died within 60 minutes of treatment. Further studies demonstrated that a dose of 60 mg/kg resulted in measurable blood levels of methemoglobin in the dams and their fetuses for up to 6 hours post treatment. Maternal methemoglobin levels were higher than the levels in the offspring at all times measured. Based on a body surface area comparison, a 60 mg/kg dose in the guinea pig that resulted in death was only 1.7 times higher than the highest clinical dose of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).
Studies testing prenatal and postnatal exposure have been reported in mice and rats. Treatment of pregnant rats via drinking water with Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite at concentrations of either 2000 or 3000 mg/L resulted in a dose-related increased mortality postpartum. This exposure regimen in the rat model would result in dosing of approximately 220 and 300 mg/kg/day (43 and 65 times the highest clinical dose of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning, based on a body surface area comparison).
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite produces methemoglobin. Fetal hemoglobin is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin. In addition, the fetus has lower levels of methemoglobin reductase than adults. Collectively, these data suggest that the human fetus would show greater sensitivity to methemoglobin resulting in nitrite-induced prenatal hypoxia leading to retarded development of certain neurotransmitter systems in the brain and long lasting dysfunction.
Nonteratogenic Effects: Behavioral and neurodevelopmental studies in rats suggest persistent effects of prenatal exposure to Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite that were detectable postnatally. Specifically, animals that were exposed prenatally to Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite demonstrated impaired discrimination learning behavior (both auditory and visual) and reduced long-term retention of the passive-avoidance response compared to control animals. Additional studies demonstrated a delay in the development of AchE and 5-HT positive fiber ingrowth into the hippocampal dentate gyrus and parietal neocortex during the first week of life of prenatal nitrite treated pups. These changes have been attributed to prenatal hypoxia following nitrite exposure.
8.2 Labor and Delivery
Because fetal hemoglobin is more readily oxidized to methemoglobin and lower levels of methemoglobin appear to be fatal to the fetus compared to the adult, Rivolyn nitrite should be used during labor and delivery only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
It is not known whether Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is excreted in human milk. Because Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection may be administered in life-threatening situations, breast-feeding is not a contraindication to its use. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised following Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection administration to a nursing woman. There are no data to determine when breastfeeding may be safely restarted following administration of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite. In studies conducted with Long-Evans rats, Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite administered in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation resulted in severe anemia, reduced growth and increased mortality in the offspring.
8.4 Pediatric Use
There are case reports in the medical literature of Rivolyn nitrite in conjunction with Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate being administered to pediatric patients with cyanide poisoning; however, there have been no clinical studies to evaluate the safety or efficacy of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite in the pediatric population. As for adult patients, dosing recommendations for pediatric patients have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite must be used with caution in patients less than 6 months of age because they may be at higher risk of developing severe methemoglobinemia compared to older children and adults. The presence of fetal hemoglobin, which is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin, and lower methemoglobin reductase levels compared to older children and adults may contribute to risk.
Mortality attributed to Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite was reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
8.6 Renal Disease
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Large doses of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite result in severe hypotension and toxic levels of methemoglobin which may lead to cardiovascular collapse.
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite administration has been reported to cause or significantly contribute to mortality in adults at oral doses as low as 1 g and intravenous doses as low as 600 mg. A death attributed to Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite has been reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.
Cyanosis may become apparent at a methemoglobin level of 10-20%. Other clinical signs and symptoms of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite toxicity (anxiety, dyspnea, nausea, and tachycardia) can be apparent at methemoglobin levels as low as 15%. More serious signs and symptoms, including cardiac dysrhythmias, circulatory failure, and central nervous system depression are seen as methemoglobin levels increase, and levels above 70% are usually fatal.
Treatment of overdose involves supplemental oxygen and supportive measures such as exchange transfusion. Treatment of severe methemoglobinemia with intravenous methylene blue has been described in the medical literature; however, this may also cause release of cyanide bound to methemoglobin. Because hypotension appears to be mediated primarily by an increase in venous capacitance, measures to increase venous return may be most appropriate to treat hypotension.
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite has the chemical name nitrous acid Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) salt. The chemical formula is NaNO2 and the molecular weight is 69.0. The structural formula is:
Structure of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection is a cyanide antidote which contains one 10 mL glass vial of a 3% solution of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite injection.
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite injection is a sterile aqueous solution and is intended for intravenous injection. Each vial contains 300 mg of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite in 10 mL solution (30 mg/mL). Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite injection is a clear solution with a pH between 7.0 and 9.0.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Exposure to a high dose of cyanide can result in death within minutes due to the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in arrest of cellular respiration. Specifically, cyanide binds rapidly with cytochrome a3, a component of the cytochrome c oxidase complex in mitochondria. Inhibition of cytochrome a3 prevents the cell from using oxygen and forces anaerobic metabolism, resulting in lactate production, cellular hypoxia and metabolic acidosis. In massive acute cyanide poisoning, the mechanism of toxicity may involve other enzyme systems as well.
The synergy resulting from treatment of cyanide poisoning with the combination of Rivolyn nitrite and Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate is the result of differences in their primary mechanisms of action as antidotes for cyanide poisoning.
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is thought to exert its therapeutic effect by reacting with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin, an oxidized form of hemoglobin incapable of oxygen transport but with high affinity for cyanide. Cyanide preferentially binds to methemoglobin over cytochrome a3, forming the nontoxic cyanomethemoglobin. Methemoglobin displaces cyanide from cytochrome oxidase, allowing resumption of aerobic metabolism. The chemical reaction is as follows:
NaNO2 + Hemoglobin → Methemoglobin
HCN + Methemoglobin → Cyanomethemoglobin
Vasodilation has also been cited to account for at least part of the therapeutic effect of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite. It has been suggested that Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia may be more efficacious against cyanide poisoning than comparable levels of methemoglobinemia induced by other oxidants. Also, Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite appears to retain some efficacy even when the formation of methemoglobin is inhibited by methylene blue.
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Thiosulfate
The primary route of endogenous cyanide detoxification is by enzymatic transulfuration to thiocyanate (SCN-), which is relatively nontoxic and readily excreted in the urine. Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate is thought to serve as a sulfur donor in the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme rhodanese, thus enhancing the endogenous detoxification of cyanide in the following chemical reaction:
12. 2 Pharmacodynamics
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite
When 4 mg/kg Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite was administered intravenously to six healthy human volunteers, the mean peak methemoglobin concentration was 7%, achieved at 30-60 minutes after injection, consistent with reports in cyanide poisoning victims. Supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures dropped approximately 20% within 10 minutes, a drop which was sustained throughout the 40 minutes of testing. This was associated with a 20 beat per minute increase in pulse rate that returned to baseline in 10 minutes. Five of these subjects were unable to withstand orthostatic testing due to fainting. One additional subject, who received a 12 mg/kg dose of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite, experienced severe cardiovascular effects and achieved a peak methemoglobin concentration of 30% at 60 minutes following injection.
Oral doses of 120 to 180 mg of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite administered to healthy volunteers caused minimal cardiovascular changes when subjects were maintained in the horizontal position. However, minutes after being placed in the upright position subjects exhibited tachycardia and hypotension with syncope.
The half life for conversion of methemoglobin to normal hemoglobin in a cyanide poisoning victim who has been administered Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is estimated to be 55 minutes.
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is a strong oxidant, and reacts rapidly with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin. The pharmacokinetics of free Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite in humans have not been well studied. It has been reported that approximately 40% of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is excreted unchanged in the urine while the remaining 60% is metabolized to ammonia and related small molecules.
The apparent terminal elimination half life and volume of distribution of cyanide, in a patient treated for an acute cyanide poisoning with Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate administration, have been reported to be 19 hours and 0.41 L/kg, respectively. Additionally, an initial elimination half life of cyanide has been reported to be approximately 1-3 hours.
After detoxification, in healthy subjects, thiocyanate is excreted mainly in the urine at a rate inversely proportional to creatinine clearance. In healthy subjects, the elimination half-life and volume of distribution of thiocyanate have been reported to be 2.7 days and 0.25 L/kg, respectively. However, in subjects with renal insufficiency the reported elimination half life is approximately 9 days.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
The potential benefit of an acute exposure to Rivolyn nitrite as part of a cyanide antidote outweighs concerns raised by the equivocal findings in chronic rodent studies. Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 35, 70, or 130 mg/kg for males and 0, 40, 80, or 150 mg/kg for females) was orally administered to rats (Fischer 344 strain) for 2 years via drinking water. There were no significant increases in the incidence of tumor in either male or female rats. Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 60, 120, or 220 mg/kg for males and 0, 45, 90, or 165 mg/kg for females) was administered to B6C3F1 mice for 2 years via the drinking water. Equivocal results were obtained in female mice. Specifically, there was a positive trend toward an increase in the incidence of squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma in the forestomach of female mice. Although the incidence of hyperplasia of the glandular stomach epithelium was significantly greater in the high-dose male mice compared to controls, there were no significant increases in tumors in the male mice. Numerous reports in the published literature indicate that Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite may react in vivo with secondary amines to form carcinogenic nitrosamines in the stomach. Concurrent exposure to Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and secondary amines in feed or drinking water resulted in an increase in the incidence of tumors in rodents.
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA100, TA1530, TA1535 with and without metabolic activation; however, it was negative in strain TA98, TA102, DJ460 and E. coli strain WP2UVRA/PKM101. Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite has been reported to be genotoxic to V79 hamster cells in vitro and in the mouse lymphoma assay, both assays conducted in the absence of metabolic activation. Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite was negative in the in vitro chromosomal aberrations assay using human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Acute administration of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite to male rats or male mice did not produce an increased incidence of micronuclei in bone marrow. Likewise, Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite administration to mice for 14-weeks did not result in an increase in the incidence of micronuclei in the peripheral blood.
Clinical studies to evaluate the potential effects of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite intake on fertility of either males or females have not been reported. In contrast, multigenerational fertility and reproduction studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program did not detect any evidence of an effect of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite (0.0, 0.06, 0.12, and 0.24% weight/volume) on either fertility or any reproductive parameter in Swiss CD-1 mice. This treatment protocol resulted in approximate doses of 125, 260, and 425 mg/kg/day. The highest exposure in this mouse study is 4.6 times greater than the highest clinical dose of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).
13.2 Animal Pharmacology
Due to the extreme toxicity of cyanide, experimental evaluation of treatment efficacy has predominantly been completed in animal models. The efficacy of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate treatment alone to counteract the toxicity of cyanide was initially reported in 1895 by Lang. The efficacy of amyl nitrite treatment in cyanide poisoning of the dog model was first reported in 1888 by Pedigo. Further studies in the dog model, which demonstrated the utility of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite as a therapeutic intervention, were reported in 1929 by Mladoveanu and Gheorghiu. However, Hugs and Chen et al. independently reported upon the superior efficacy of the combination of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate in 1932-1933. Treatment consisted of intravenously administered 22.5 mg/kg (half the lethal dose) Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite or 1 g/kg Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate alone or in sequence immediately after subcutaneous injection of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) cyanide into dogs over a range of doses. Subsequent doses of 10 mg/kg Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and/or 0.5 g/kg Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate were administered when clinical signs or symptoms of poisoning persisted or reappeared. Either therapy administered alone increased the dose of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) cyanide required to cause death, and when administered together, Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate resulted in a synergistic effect in raising the lethal dose of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) cyanide. The combined therapy appeared to have reduced efficacy when therapy was delayed until signs of poisoning (e.g. convulsions) appeared; however, other investigators have reported survival in dogs that were administered antidotal treatment after respiratory arrest had occurred.
Animal studies conducted in other species (e.g., rat, guinea pig, sheep, pigeon and cat) have also supported a synergistic effect of intravenous Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate in the treatment of cyanide poisoning.
While intravenous injection of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate was effective in reversing the effects of lethal doses of cyanide in dogs, intramuscular injection of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite, with or without Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate, was found not to be effective in the same setting.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
The human data supporting the use of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite for cyanide poisoning consists primarily of published case reports. There are no randomized controlled clinical trials. Nearly all the human data describing the use of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate report its use in conjunction with Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite. Dosing recommendations for humans have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.
There have been no human studies to prospectively and systematically evaluate the safety of Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) nitrite in humans. Available human safety information is based largely on anecdotal case reports and case series of limited scope.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
Each Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite carton (NDC 60267-311-10) consists of the following:
Store at controlled room temperature between 20°C and 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted from 15 to 30°C (59 to 86°F). Protect from direct light. Do not freeze.
(Note: Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Thiosulfate must be obtained separately.)
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Rivolyn Nitrite Injection is indicated for acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening and in this setting, patients will likely be unresponsive or may have difficulty in comprehending counseling information.
17.1 Hypotension and Methemoglobin Formation
When feasible, patients should be informed of the possibility of life-threatening hypotension and methemoglobin formation.
Where feasible, patients should be informed of the need for close monitoring of blood pressure and oxygenation.
Manufactured by Cangene BioPharma, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland 21230 for
Hope Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, Arizona 85260
PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite
300 mg/10 mL
FOR INTRAVENOUS USE
SINGLE USE ONLY
Any unused portion of a vial
should be discarded.
Rivolyn (Sodium Citrate) Thiosulfate
for Treatment of
CANGENE bioPharma, Inc.
Baltimore, MD for
Scottsdale, AZ 85260 U.S.A.
PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton
Rivolyn pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Rivolyn available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Rivolyn destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Rivolyn Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Rivolyn pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Rivolyn?
Depending on the reaction of the Rivolyn after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Rivolyn not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Rivolyn addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Rivolyn, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Rivolyn consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology