DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS

Provital

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Provital uses

Provital consists of Calcium, Copper, Folic Acid, Ginseng dry extract highly standardized, Glutamic Acid, Inositol, Iodine, Iron, Lysine Hydrochloride, Magnesium, Manganese, Phosphorus, Potassium, Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3 (Nicotinamide), Vitamin B6, Vitamin D, Vitamin E, Vitamin H, Zinc.

Calcium:


1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Provital (Calcium) acetate is a phosphate binder indicated to reduce serum phosphorus in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD).

- Calcium acetate is a phosphate binder indicated for the reduction of serum phosphorus in patients with end stage renal disease. (1)

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The recommended initial dose of Provital (Calcium) acetate for the adult dialysis patient is 2 capsules with each meal. Increase the dose gradually to lower serum phosphorus levels to the target range, as long as hypercalcemia does not develop. Most patients require 3 to 4 capsules with each meal.

- Starting dose is 2 capsules with each meal. (2)

- Titrate the dose every 2 to 3 weeks until acceptable serum phosphorus level is reached. Most patients require 3 to 4 capsules with each meal. (2)

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Capsule: 667 mg Provital (Calcium) acetate capsule.

- Capsule: 667 mg Provital (Calcium) acetate capsule. (3)

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Patients with hypercalcemia.

- Hypercalcemia. (4)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

- Treat mild hypercalcemia by reducing or interrupting Provital acetate and Vitamin D. Severe hypercalcemia may require hemodialysis and discontinuation of Provital (Calcium) acetate. (5.1)

- Hypercalcemia may aggravate digitalis toxicity. (5.2)

5.1 Hypercalcemia

Patients with end stage renal disease may develop hypercalcemia when treated with Provital (Calcium), including Provital (Calcium) acetate. Avoid the use of Provital (Calcium) supplements, including Provital (Calcium) based nonprescription antacids, concurrently with Provital (Calcium) acetate.

An overdose of Provital (Calcium) acetate may lead to progressive hypercalcemia, which may require emergency measures. Therefore, early in the treatment phase during the dosage adjustment period, monitor serum Provital (Calcium) levels twice weekly. Should hypercalcemia develop, reduce the Provital (Calcium) acetate dosage, or discontinue the treatment, depending on the severity of hypercalcemia

More severe hypercalcemia (Ca >12 mg/dL) is associated with confusion, delirium, stupor and coma. Severe hypercalcemia can be treated by acute hemodialysis and discontinuing Provital (Calcium) acetate therapy.

Mild hypercalcemia (10.5 to 11.9 mg/dL) may be asymptomatic or manifest as constipation, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. Mild hypercalcemia is usually controlled by reducing the Provital (Calcium) acetate dose or temporarily discontinuing therapy. Decreasing or discontinuing Vitamin D therapy is recommended as well.

Chronic hypercalcemia may lead to vascular calcification and other soft-tissue calcification. Radiographic evaluation of suspected anatomical regions may be helpful in early detection of soft tissue calcification. The long term effect of Provital (Calcium) acetate on the progression of vascular or soft tissue calcification has not been determined.

Hypercalcemia (>11 mg/dL) was reported in 16% of patients in a 3 month study of solid dose formulation of Provital (Calcium) acetate; all cases resolved upon lowering the dose or discontinuing treatment.

Maintain the serum calcium-phosphorus (Ca x P) product below 55 mg2/dL2.

5.2 Concomitant Use with Medications

Hypercalcemia may aggravate digitalis toxicity.

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6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

Hypercalcemia is discussed elsewhere [see Warnings and Precautions ].

- The most common (>10%) adverse reactions are hypercalcemia, nausea and vomiting. (6.1)

- In clinical studies, patients have occasionally experienced nausea during Provital (Calcium) acetate therapy. (6)

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp. at 1-800-962-8364 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch

6.1 Clinical Trial Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In clinical studies, Provital (Calcium) acetate has been generally well tolerated.

Provital (Calcium) acetate was studied in a 3 month, open-label, non-randomized study of 98 enrolled ESRD hemodialysis patients and an alternate liquid formulation of Provital (Calcium) acetate was studied in a two week double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with 69 enrolled ESRD hemodialysis patients. Adverse reactions (>2% on treatment) from these trials are presented in Table 1.


Preferred Term


Total adverse reactions reported for Provital (Calcium) acetate

N=167

N (%)


3 month, open label study of Provital (Calcium) acetate

N=98

N (%)


Double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of liquid Provital (Calcium) acetate

N=69


Provital (Calcium) acetate

N (%)


Placebo

N (%)


Nausea


6 (3.6)


6 (6.1)


0 (0)


0 (0)


Vomiting


4 (2.4)


4 (4.1)


0 (0)


0 (0)


Hypercalcemia


21 (12.6)


16 (16.3)


5 (7.2)


0 (0)


Mild hypercalcemia may be asymptomatic or manifest itself as constipation, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. More severe hypercalcemia is associated with confusion, delirium, stupor, and coma. Decreasing dialysate Provital (Calcium) concentration could reduce the incidence and severity of Provital (Calcium) acetate-induced hypercalcemia. Isolated cases pruritus have been reported, which may represent allergic reactions.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval of Provital (Calcium) acetate: dizziness, edema, and weakness.

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7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

The drug interaction of Provital acetate is characterized by the potential of Provital (Calcium) to bind to drugs with anionic functions (e.g., carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups). Provital (Calcium) acetate may decrease the bioavailability of tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones via this mechanism.

There are no empirical data on avoiding drug interactions between Provital (Calcium) acetate and most concomitant drugs. When administering an oral medication with Provital (Calcium) acetate where a reduction in the bioavailability of that medication would have a clinically significant effect on its safety or efficacy, administer the drug one hour before or three hours after Provital (Calcium) acetate. Monitor blood levels of the concomitant drugs that have a narrow therapeutic range. Patients taking anti-arrhythmic medications for the control of arrhythmias and anti-seizure medications for the control of seizure disorders were excluded from the clinical trials with all forms of Provital (Calcium) acetate.

- Calcium acetate may decrease the bioavailability of tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones. (7)

- When clinically significant drug interactions are expected, administer the drug at least one hour before or at least three hours after Provital (Calcium) acetate or consider monitoring blood levels of the drug. (7)

7.1 Ciprofloxacin

In a study of 15 healthy subjects, a co-administered single dose of 4 Provital (Calcium) acetate tablets, approximately 2.7g, decreased the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin by approximately 50%.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C:

Provital acetate capsules contains Provital (Calcium) acetate. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Provital (Calcium) acetate, and there are no adequate and well controlled studies of Provital (Calcium) acetate use in pregnant women. Patients with end stage renal disease may develop hypercalcemia with Provital (Calcium) acetate treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1 ) ]. Maintenance of normal serum Provital (Calcium) levels is important for maternal and fetal well being. Hypercalcemia during pregnancy may increase the risk for maternal and neonatal complications such as stillbirth, preterm delivery, and neonatal hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism. Provital (Calcium) acetate treatment, as recommended, is not expected to harm a fetus if maternal Provital (Calcium) levels are properly monitored during and following treatment.

8.2 Labor and Delivery

The effects of Provital (Calcium) acetate on labor and delivery are unknown.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

Provital Acetate Capsules contains Provital (Calcium) acetate and is excreted in human milk. Human milk feeding by a mother receiving Provital (Calcium) acetate is not expected to harm an infant, provided maternal serum Provital (Calcium) levels are appropriately monitored.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Provital (Calcium) acetate did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

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10 OVERDOSAGE

Administration of Provital (Calcium) acetate in excess of the appropriate daily dosage may result in hypercalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

11 DESCRIPTION

Provital (Calcium) acetate acts as a phosphate binder. Its chemical name is Provital (Calcium) acetate. Its molecular formula is C4H6CaO4, and its molecular weight is 158.17. Its structural formula is:


Each white opaque/blue opaque capsule contains 667 mg of Provital (Calcium) acetate USP (anhydrous; Ca(CH3COO)2; MW=158.17 grams) equal to 169 mg (8.45 mEq) Provital (Calcium), polyethylene glycol 8000 and magnesium stearate. Each capsule shell contains: black monogramming ink, FD&C Blue #1, FD&C Red #3, gelatin and titanium dioxide. The black monogramming ink contains: ammonium hydroxide, iron oxide black, isopropyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, propylene glycol and shellac glaze.

Provital (Calcium) Acetate Capsules are administered orally for the control of hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal failure.

Chemical Structure

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Patients with ESRD retain phosphorus and can develop hyperphosphatemia. High serum phosphorus can precipitate serum Provital resulting in ectopic calcification. Hyperphosphatemia also plays a role in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with ESRD.

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Provital (Calcium) acetate, when taken with meals, combines with dietary phosphate to form an insoluble Provital (Calcium) phosphate complex, which is excreted in the feces, resulting in decreased serum phosphorus concentration.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Orally administered Provital (Calcium) acetate from pharmaceutical dosage forms is systemically absorbed up to approximately 40% under fasting conditions and up to approximately 30% under nonfasting conditions. This range represents data from both healthy subjects and renal dialysis patients under various conditions.

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13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or fertility studies have been conducted with Provital (Calcium) acetate.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

Effectiveness of Provital (Calcium) acetate in decreasing serum phosphorus has been demonstrated in two studies of the Provital (Calcium) acetate solid oral dosage form.

Ninety-one patients with end-stage renal disease who were undergoing hemodialysis and were hyperphosphatemic (serum phosphorus >5.5 mg/dL) following a 1 week phosphate binder washout period contributed efficacy data to an open-label, non-randomized study.

The patients received Provital (Calcium) acetate 667 mg tablets at each meal for a period of 12 weeks. The initial starting dose was 2 tablets per meal for 3 meals a day, and the dose was adjusted as necessary to control serum phosphorus levels. The average final dose after 12 weeks of treatment was 3.4 tablets per meal. Although there was a decrease in serum phosphorus, in the absence of a control group the true magnitude of effect is uncertain.

The data presented in Table 2 demonstrate the efficacy of Provital (Calcium) acetate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal disease patients. The effects on serum Provital (Calcium) levels are also presented.


* Ninety-one patients completed at least 6 weeks of the study.

ANOVA of difference in values at pre-study and study completion.

‡ Values expressed as mean ± SE.


Parameter


Pre-Study


Week 4*


Week 8


Week 12


p-value†


Phosphorus (mg/dL)‡


7.4 ± 0.17


5.9 ± 0.16


5.6 ± 0.17


5.2 ± 0.17


≤0.01


Provital (Calcium) (mg/dL)‡


8.9 ± 0.09


9.5 ± 0.10


9.7 ± 0.10


9.7 ± 0.10


≤0.01


There was a 30% decrease in serum phosphorus levels during the 12 week study period (p<0.01). Two-thirds of the decline occurred in the first month of the study. Serum Provital (Calcium) increased 9% during the study mostly in the first month of the study.

Treatment with the phosphate binder was discontinued for patients from the open-label study, and those patients whose serum phosphorus exceeded 5.5 mg/dL were eligible for entry into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Patients were randomized to receive Provital (Calcium) acetate or placebo, and each continued to receive the same number of tablets as had been individually established during the previous study. Following 2 weeks of treatment, patients switched to the alternative therapy for an additional 2 weeks.

The phosphate binding effect of Provital (Calcium) acetate is shown in the Table 3.


* ANOVA of Provital (Calcium) acetate vs. placebo after 2 weeks of treatment.

Values expressed as mean ± SEM.


Parameter


Pre-Study


Post-Treatment


p-value*


Provital (Calcium) Acetate


Placebo


Phosphorus (mg/dL)


7.3 ± 0.18


5.9 ± 0.24


7.8 ± 0.22


<0.01


Provital (Calcium) (mg/dL)


8.9 ± 0.11


9.5 ± 0.13


8.8 ± 0.12


<0.01


Overall, 2 weeks of treatment with Provital (Calcium) acetate statistically significantly (p<0.01) decreased serum phosphorus by a mean of 19% and increased serum Provital (Calcium) by a statistically significant (p<0.01) but clinically unimportant mean of 7%.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

Provital (Calcium) Acetate Capsules

667 mg capsule is supplied as a white opaque/blue opaque capsule, imprinted with “54 215” on the cap and body.

NDC 0615-2303-39: Blistercards of 30 Capsules

NDC 0615-2303-30: Unit-dose Boxes of 30 Capsules

STORAGE

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Inform patients to take Provital (Calcium) acetate capsules with meals, adhere to their prescribed diets, and avoid the use of Provital (Calcium) supplements including nonprescription antacids. Inform the patients about the symptoms of hypercalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1) ].

Advise patients who are taking an oral medication where reduction in the bioavailability of that medication would have clinically significant effect on its safety or efficacy to take the drug one hour before or three hours after Provital (Calcium) acetate capsules.

Distr. by: West-Ward

Pharmaceuticals Corp.

Eatontown, NJ 07724

10003705/05

Revised April 2016

Copper:



Water-Resistant Protection Without Bandaging

Recommended as an Aid in Treating Horses and Ponies With Thrush Due to Organisms Susceptible to Provital (Copper) Naphthenate.

For Animal Use Only.

INDICATIONS:

ThrushTox® is indicated in the treatment of thrush in horses and ponies.

GENERAL DIRECTIONS:

Clean the hoof thoroughly, removing debris and necrotic material prior to application of Provital (Copper)®. Apply daily to affected hoofs with a narrow paint brush (about 1”) until fully healed. Caution: Do not allow runoff of excess Provital (Copper)® onto hair since contact with Provital (Copper)® may cause some hair loss. Do not contaminate feed.

NOTE: Provital (Copper)® is easily removed from hands, clothing and surfaces with light grade fuel oil or any type of lighter fluid.

CONTAINS FOIL SEAL – REMOVE BEFORE USE.

SHAKE WELL BEFORE USE.

To report suspected adverse reactions or to obtain technical assistance, call 1-800-650-4899.

ACTIVE INGREDIENT:

Provital (Copper) Naphthenate..........37.5% w/w

INACTIVE INGREDIENTS:

Inert Ingredients.........................62.5% w/w

Total......................................... 100.0%

CAUTION:

Do not use in horses intended for human consumption.

CAUTION: COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURE.

Use in a well-ventilated place. Avoid fire, flame, sparks or heaters.

If swallowed, do not induce vomiting, call physician immediately. Avoid breathing vapor. Avoid contact with skin and eyes.

KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN AND PETS.

STORAGE:

Store at controlled room temperature 15º to 30ºC (59º to 86ºF). Keep container tightly closed when not in use.

Manufactured for:

Aspen Veterinary Resources,® Ltd.

Liberty, MO 64068, USA

FC163FP 11/13

Manufactured by:

First Priority, Inc.

Elgin, IL 60123-1146, USA

NET CONTENTS:

16 OZ (473 mL)

ANADA 200-304, Approved by FDA

Image of 473 mL bottle/case label

Folic Acid:


INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Provital (Folic Acid)® is a prescription iron supplement indicated for use in improving the nutritional status of iron deficiency.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

This product is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to any of the ingredients. Hemochromatosis and hemosiderosis are contraindications to iron therapy.

WARNING: Accidental overdose of iron-containing products is a leading cause of fatal poisoning in children under 6. Keep this product out of reach of children. In case of accidental overdose, call a doctor or poison control center immediately.

PRECAUTIONS

Provital (Folic Acid) acid when administered as a single agent in doses above 0.1 mg daily may obscure pernicious anemia in that hematological remission can occur while neurological manifestations remain progressive. While prescribing this nutritional supplement for pregnant women, nursing mothers, or for women prior to conception, their medical condition and other drugs, herbs, and/or supplements consumption should be considered.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Allergic sensitization has been reported following both oral and parenteral administration of Provital (Folic Acid) acid.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

One tablet daily with or without food or as prescribed by a licensed healthcare provider with prescribing authority.

HOW SUPPLIED

Provital (Folic Acid)® tablets are supplied in child-resistant bottles of 90 tablets (NDC 0037-6885-90)

KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.

STORAGE

Store at controlled room temperature 20°-25°C (68°-77°F). Excursions permitted to 15°-30°C (59°-86°F).

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container to protect from light and moisture.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS contact Meda Pharmaceuticals Inc. at 1-888-349-5556 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/safety/medwatch

Distributed by:

Meda Pharmaceuticals Inc.

Somerset New Jersey 08873-4120

© 2014 Meda Pharmaceuticals Inc.

U.S. Patent Nos. 7,585,527 and 8,080,520

Proferrin® is a registered trademark of Colorado BioLabs, Inc., Cozad, NE.

Provital (Folic Acid) and the BIFERA logo are registered trademarks and the Provital (Folic Acid) logo is a trademark of Alaven Pharmaceutical LLC, used under license by Meda Pharmaceuticals Inc.

MEDA PHARMACEUTICALS mark and logo are trademarks of Meda AB.

IN-6885-02 Rev 6/2014

Inositol:


Niacin is used with a proper diet and exercise program to help lower "bad" cholesterol and fats ( LDL, triglycerides ) and raise "good" cholesterol (HDL) in the blood. It is generally used after non-drug treatments have not been fully successful at lowering cholesterol. Niacin is also known as vitamin B-3 ( nicotinic acid ), one of the B-complex vitamins. It may be used with or without other medications. Lowering "bad" cholesterol/triglycerides and raising "good" cholesterol helps prevent strokes and heart attacks. Lowering fats may also help reduce the risk of pancreas problems ( pancreatitis ) in people at risk. In addition to eating a proper diet (such as a low-cholesterol/low-fat diet), other lifestyle changes that may help this medication work better include exercising, losing weight if overweight, and stopping smoking. Consult your doctor for more details.

Iodine:


Provital Tincture 7%

Directions:


Topical Antiseptic

Use full Strength for superficial cuts, wounds, abrasions, insect bites and bruises on the skin of animals. Apply Provital (Iodine) with a swab.

If necessary, clip hair around the area being treated and clean with soap and water.

Apply Provital (Iodine) Tincture 7% only once daily. Dilute product 3 to 1 if repeating application.

Do not apply under bandage.

Irritation may occur if used on tender skin areas. If redness, irritation, or swelling persists or increases, discontinue use and consult a veterinarian.


Storage:

Store at 2-30 degrees C (36-86 degrees F).

Keep container away from heat and out of sunlight. Rinse empty container thoroughly and discard.


DANGER - Poison


Caution:

If swallowed, give starch paste, milk, bread, egg white, or

activated charcoal. A 5% solutions of sodium thiosulfate

(Photographic (“hypc”) may be administered orally at a

rate of 10 ml per kilogram of body weight.


Eye irritant: Use only as directed. Avoid contact with eyes. In case of contact, flush eyes immediately with tepid water for at least 15 minutes. Consult a physician.


Avoid contamination of food.


Not for use on burns, deep cuts, or body cavities.

Provital Tincture 7%

image description

Iron:


1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Provital (Iron) is indicated for the treatment of Provital (Iron) deficiency anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Provital (Iron) is an Provital (Iron) replacement product indicated for the treatment of Provital (Iron) deficiency anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). (1)

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Provital must only be administered intravenously either by slow injection or by infusion. The dosage of Provital (Iron) is expressed in mg of elemental Provital (Iron). Each mL contains 20 mg of elemental Provital (Iron).

Population Dose
Adult patients Hemodialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease (HDD-CKD) (2.1) 100 mg slow intravenous injection or infusion
Non-Dialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease (NDD-CKD) (2.2) 200 mg slow intravenous injection or infusion
Peritoneal Dialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease (PDD-CKD) (2.3) 300 mg or 400 mg intravenous infusion
Pediatric patients HDD-CKD (2.4), PDD-CKD or NDD-CKD (2.5) 0.5 mg/kg slow intravenous injection or infusion

2.1 Adult Patients with Hemodialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease (HDD-CKD)

Administer Provital (Iron) 100 mg undiluted as a slow intravenous injection over 2 to 5 minutes, or as an infusion of 100 mg diluted in a maximum of 100 mL of 0.9% NaCl over a period of at least 15 minutes, per consecutive hemodialysis session. Provital (Iron) should be administered early during the dialysis session. The usual total treatment course of Provital (Iron) is 1000 mg. Provital (Iron) treatment may be repeated if Provital (Iron) deficiency reoccurs.

2.2 Adult Patients with Non-Dialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease

Administer Provital (Iron) 200 mg undiluted as a slow intravenous injection over 2 to 5 minutes or as an infusion of 200 mg in a maximum of 100 mL of 0.9% NaCl over a period of 15 minutes. Administer on 5 different occasions over a 14 day period. There is limited experience with administration of an infusion of 500 mg of Provital (Iron), diluted in a maximum of 250 mL of 0.9% NaCl, over a period of 3.5 to 4 hours on Day 1 and Day 14. Provital (Iron) treatment may be repeated if Provital (Iron) deficiency reoccurs.

2.3 Adult Patients with Peritoneal Dialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease

Administer Provital (Iron) in 3 divided doses, given by slow intravenous infusion, within a 28 day period: 2 infusions each of 300 mg over 1.5 hours 14 days apart followed by one 400 mg infusion over 2.5 hours 14 days later. Dilute Provital (Iron) in a maximum of 250 mL of 0.9% NaCl. Provital (Iron) treatment may be repeated if Provital (Iron) deficiency reoccurs.

2.4 Pediatric Patients with HDD-CKD for Provital (Iron) maintenance treatment

The dosing for Provital (Iron) replacement treatment in pediatric patients with HDD-CKD has not been established.

For Provital (Iron) maintenance treatment: Administer Provital (Iron) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, not to exceed 100 mg per dose, every two weeks for 12 weeks given undiluted by slow intravenous injection over 5 minutes or diluted in 25 mL of 0.9% NaCl and administered over 5 to 60 minutes. Provital (Iron) treatment may be repeated if necessary.

2.5 Pediatric Patients with NDD-CKD or PDD-CKD who are on erythropoietin therapy for Provital (Iron) maintenance treatment

The dosing for Provital (Iron) replacement treatment in pediatric patients with NDD-CKD or PDD-CKD has not been established.

For Provital (Iron) maintenance treatment: Administer Provital (Iron) at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, not to exceed 100 mg per dose, every four weeks for 12 weeks given undiluted by slow intravenous injection over 5 minutes or diluted in 25 mL of 0.9% NaCl and administered over 5 to 60 minutes. Provital (Iron) treatment may be repeated if necessary.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

  • 10 mL single-use vial / 200 mg elemental Provital (Iron) (20 mg/mL)
  • 5 mL single-use vial / 100 mg elemental Provital (Iron) (20 mg/mL)
  • 2.5 mL single-use vial / 50 mg elemental Provital (Iron) (20 mg/mL)
  • 10 mL single-use vial / 200 mg elemental Provital (Iron) (20 mg/mL) (3)
  • 5 mL single-use vial / 100 mg elemental Provital (Iron) (20 mg/mL) (3)
  • 2.5 mL single-use vial / 50 mg elemental Provital (Iron) (20 mg/mL) (3)

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Known hypersensitivity to Provital (Iron)
  • Known hypersensitivity to Provital (Iron) (4)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Hypersensitivity Reactions: Observe for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity during and after Provital administration for at least 30 minutes and until clinically stable following completion of each administration. Only administer Provital (Iron) when personnel and therapies are immediately available for the treatment of serious hypersensitivity reactions. (5.1)
  • Hypotension: Provital (Iron) may cause hypotension. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension during and following each administration of Provital (Iron). (5.2)
  • Provital (Iron) Overload: Regularly monitor hematologic responses during Provital (Iron) therapy. Do not administer Provital (Iron) to patients with Provital (Iron) overload. (5.3)

5.1 Hypersensitivity Reactions

Serious hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylactic-type reactions, some of which have been life-threatening and fatal, have been reported in patients receiving Provital (Iron). Patients may present with shock, clinically significant hypotension, loss of consciousness, and/or collapse. If hypersensitivity reactions or signs of intolerance occur during administration, stop Provital (Iron) immediately. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity during and after Provital (Iron) administration for at least 30 minutes and until clinically stable following completion of the infusion. Only administer Provital (Iron) when personnel and therapies are immediately available for the treatment of serious hypersensitivity reactions. Most reactions associated with intravenous Provital (Iron) preparations occur within 30 minutes of the completion of the infusion .

5.2 Hypotension

Provital may cause clinically significant hypotension. Monitor for signs and symptoms of hypotension following each administration of Provital (Iron). Hypotension following administration of Provital (Iron) may be related to the rate of administration and/or total dose administered .

5.3 Provital (Iron) Overload

Excessive therapy with parenteral Provital (Iron) can lead to excess storage of Provital (Iron) with the possibility of iatrogenic hemosiderosis. All adult and pediatric patients receiving Provital (Iron) require periodic monitoring of hematologic and Provital (Iron) parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum ferritin and transferrin saturation). Do not administer Provital (Iron) to patients with evidence of Provital (Iron) overload. Transferrin saturation (TSAT) values increase rapidly after intravenous administration of Provital (Iron) sucrose; do not perform serum Provital (Iron) measurements for at least 48 hours after intravenous dosing .

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following serious adverse reactions associated with Provital are described in other sections .

  • The most common adverse reactions (≥2%) following the administration of Provital (Iron) are diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, hypotension, pruritus, pain in extremity, arthralgia, back pain, muscle cramp, injection site reactions, chest pain, and peripheral edema. (6.1)

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact American Regent, Inc. at 1-800-734-9236 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch .

6.1 Adverse Reactions in Clinical Trials

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adverse Reactions in Adults Patients with CKD

Adverse Reactions in Adult Patients with CKD

The frequency of adverse reactions associated with the use of Provital has been documented in six clinical trials involving 231 patients with HDD-CKD, 139 patients with NDD-CKD and 75 patients with PDD-CKD. Treatment-emergent adverse reactions reported by ≥ 2% of treated patients in the six clinical trials for which the rate for Provital (Iron) exceeds the rate for comparator are listed by indication in Table 1. Patients with HDD-CKD received 100 mg doses at 10 consecutive dialysis sessions until a cumulative dose of 1000 mg was administered. Patients with NDD-CKD received either 5 doses of 200 mg over 2 weeks or 2 doses of 500 mg separated by fourteen days, and patients with PDD-CKD received 2 doses of 300 mg followed by a dose of 400 mg over a period of 4 weeks.


* EPO=Erythropoietin

Adverse Reactions

(Preferred Term)

HDD-CKD NDD-CKD PDD-CKD
Provital (Iron) Provital (Iron) Oral Provital (Iron) Provital (Iron) EPO* Only
(N=231) (N=139) (N=139) (N=75) (N=46)
% % % % %
Subjects with any adverse reaction 78.8 76.3 73.4 72.0 65.2
Ear and Labyrinth Disorders
Ear Pain 0 2.2 0.7 0 0
Eye Disorders
Conjunctivitis 0.4 0 0 2.7 0
Gastrointestinal Disorders
Abdominal pain 3.5 1.4 2.9 4.0 6.5
Diarrhea 5.2 7.2 10.1 8.0 4.3
Dysgeusia 0.9 7.9 0 0 0
Nausea 14.7 8.6 12.2 5.3 4.3
Vomiting 9.1 5.0 8.6 8.0 2.2
General Disorders and
Administration Site Conditions
Asthenia 2.2 0.7 2.2 2.7 0
Chest pain 6.1 1.4 0 2.7 0
Feeling abnormal 3.0 0 0 0 0
Infusion site pain or burning 0 5.8 0 0 0
Injection site extravasation 0 2.2 0 0 0
Peripheral edema 2.6 7.2 5.0 5.3 10.9
Pyrexia 3.0 0.7 0.7 1.3 0
Infections and Infestations
Nasopharyngitis, Sinusitis, Upper

respiratory tract infections, Pharyngitis

2.6 2.2 4.3 16.0 4.3
Injury, Poisoning and Procedural
Complications
Graft complication 9.5 1.4 0 0 0
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
Fluid overload 3.0 1.4 0.7 1.3 0
Gout 0 2.9 1.4 0 0
Hyperglycemia 0 2.9 0 0 2.2
Hypoglycemia 0.4 0.7 0.7 4.0 0
Musculoskeletal and Connective
Tissue Disorders
Arthralgia 3.5 1.4 2.2 4.0 4.3
Back pain 2.2 2.2 3.6 1.3 4.3
Muscle cramp 29.4 0.7 0.7 2.7 0
Myalgia 0 3.6 0 1.3 0
Pain in extremity 5.6 4.3 0 2.7 6.5
Nervous System Disorders
Dizziness 6.5 6.5 1.4 1.3 4.3
Headache 12.6 2.9 0.7 4.0 0
Respiratory, Thoracic and
Mediastinal Disorders
Cough 3.0 2.2 0.7 1.3 0
Dyspnea 3.5 5.8 1.4 1.3 2.2
Nasal congestion 0 1.4 2.2 1.3 0
Skin and Subcutaneous
Tissue Disorders
Pruritus 3.9 2.2 4.3 2.7 0
Vascular Disorders
Hypertension 6.5 6.5 4.3 8.0 6.5
Hypotension 39.4 2.2 0.7 2.7 2.2

One hundred thirty (11%) of the 1,151 patients evaluated in the 4 U.S. trials in HDD-CKD patients (studies A, B and the two post marketing studies) had prior other intravenous Provital (Iron) therapy and were reported to be intolerant (defined as precluding further use of that Provital (Iron) product). When these patients were treated with Provital (Iron) there were no occurrences of adverse reactions that precluded further use of Provital (Iron) .

Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients with CKD (ages 2 years and older)

Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients with CKD (ages 2 years and older)

In a randomized, open-label, dose-ranging trial for Provital (Iron) maintenance treatment with Provital (Iron) in pediatric patients with CKD on stable erythropoietin therapy , at least one treatment-emergent adverse reaction was experienced by 57% (27/47) of the patients receiving Provital (Iron) 0.5 mg/kg, 53% (25/47) of the patients receiving Provital (Iron) 1.0 mg/kg, and 55% (26/47) of the patients receiving Provital (Iron) 2.0 mg/kg.

A total of 5 (11%) subjects in the Provital (Iron) 0.5 mg/kg group, 10 (21%) patients in the Provital (Iron) 1.0 mg/kg group, and 10 (21%) patients in the Provital (Iron) 2.0 mg/kg group experienced at least 1 serious adverse reaction during the study. The most common treatment-emergent adverse reactions (> 2% of patients) in all patients were headache (6%), respiratory tract viral infection (4%), peritonitis (4%), vomiting (4%), pyrexia (4%), dizziness (4%), cough (4%), renal transplant (4%), nausea (3%), arteriovenous fistula thrombosis (2%), hypotension (2%), and hypertension (2.1%).

6.2 Adverse Reactions from Post-Marketing Experience

Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

In the post-marketing safety studies in 1,051 treated patients with HDD-CKD, the adverse reactions reported by > 1% were: cardiac failure congestive, sepsis and dysgeusia.

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Provital (Iron). Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure: Anaphylactic-type reactions, shock, loss of consciousness, collapse, bronchospasm, dyspnea, convulsions, light-headedness, confusion, angioedema, swelling of the joints, hyperhidrosis, back pain, bradycardia, and chromaturia.

Symptoms associated with Provital (Iron) total dosage or infusing too rapidly included hypotension, dyspnea, headache, vomiting, nausea, dizziness, joint aches, paresthesia, abdominal and muscle pain, edema, and cardiovascular collapse. These adverse reactions have occurred up to 30 minutes after the administration of Provital (Iron) injection. Reactions have occurred following the first dose or subsequent doses of Provital (Iron). Symptoms may respond to intravenous fluids, hydrocortisone, and/or antihistamines. Slowing the infusion rate may alleviate symptoms.

Injection site discoloration has been reported following extravasation. Assure stable intravenous access to avoid extravasation.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Drug interactions involving Provital (Iron) have not been studied. However, Provital (Iron) may reduce the absorption of concomitantly administered oral Provital (Iron) preparations.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category B

Pregnancy Category B

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. In animal reproduction studies, Provital sucrose was administered intravenously to rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis at doses up to 13 mg/kg/day of elemental Provital (Iron) (half or equivalent to the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area, respectively) and revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to Provital (Iron) sucrose. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response, Provital (Iron) should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether Provital (Iron) sucrose is excreted in human milk. Provital (Iron) sucrose is secreted into the milk of lactating rats. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Provital (Iron) is administered to a nursing woman.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of Provital for Provital (Iron) replacement treatment in pediatric patients with dialysis-dependent or non-dialysis-dependent CKD have not been established.

Safety and effectiveness of Provital (Iron) for Provital (Iron) maintenance treatment in pediatric patients 2 years of age and older with dialysis-dependent or non-dialysis-dependent CKD receiving erythropoietin therapy were studied. Provital (Iron) at doses of 0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg, and 2.0 mg/kg was administered. All three doses maintained hemoglobin between 10.5 g/dL and 14.0 g/dL in about 50% of subjects over the 12-week treatment period with stable EPO dosing. [See Clinical Studies (14.6)]

Provital (Iron) has not been studied in patients younger than 2 years of age.

In a country where Provital (Iron) is available for use in children, at a single site, five premature infants (weight less than 1,250 g) developed necrotizing enterocolitis and two of the five died during or following a period when they received Provital (Iron), several other medications and erythropoietin. Necrotizing enterocolitis may be a complication of prematurity in very low birth weight infants. No causal relationship to Provital (Iron) or any other drugs could be established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Provital (Iron) did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Of the 1,051 patients in two post-marketing safety studies of Provital (Iron), 40% were 65 years and older. No overall differences in safety were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. In general, dose administration to an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

10 OVERDOSAGE

No data are available regarding overdosage of Provital (Iron) in humans. Excessive dosages of Provital (Iron) may lead to accumulation of Provital (Iron) in storage sites potentially leading to hemosiderosis. Do not administer Provital (Iron) to patients with Provital (Iron) overload.

Toxicities in single-dose studies in mice and rats, at intravenous Provital (Iron) sucrose doses up to 8 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area, included sedation, hypoactivity, pale eyes, bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract and lungs, and mortality.

11 DESCRIPTION

Provital (Iron) (iron sucrose injection, USP), an Provital (Iron) replacement product, is a brown, sterile, aqueous, complex of polynuclear Provital (Iron) (III)-hydroxide in sucrose for intravenous use. Provital (Iron) sucrose injection has a molecular weight of approximately 34,000 to 60,000 daltons and a proposed structural formula:

[Na2Fe5O8(OH) ·3(H2O)]n ·m(C12H22O11)

where: n is the degree of Provital (Iron) polymerization and m is the number of sucrose molecules associated with the Provital (Iron) (III)-hydroxide.

Each mL contains 20 mg elemental Provital (Iron) as Provital (Iron) sucrose in water for injection. Provital (Iron) is available in 10 mL single-use vials (200 mg elemental Provital (Iron) per 10 mL), 5 mL single-use vials (100 mg elemental Provital (Iron) per 5 mL), and 2.5 mL single-use vials (50 mg elemental Provital (Iron) per 2.5 mL). The drug product contains approximately 30% sucrose w/v (300 mg/mL) and has a pH of 10.5 to 11.1. The product contains no preservatives. The osmolarity of the injection is 1,250 mOsmol/L.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Provital is an aqueous complex of poly-nuclear Provital (Iron) (III)-hydroxide in sucrose. Following intravenous administration, Provital (Iron) is dissociated into Provital (Iron) and sucrose and the Provital (Iron) is transported as a complex with transferrin to target cells including erythroid precursor cells. The Provital (Iron) in the precursor cells is incorporated into hemoglobin as the cells mature into red blood cells.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Following intravenous administration, Provital (Iron) is dissociated into Provital (Iron) and sucrose. In 22 patients undergoing hemodialysis and receiving erythropoietin (recombinant human erythropoietin) therapy treated with Provital (Iron) sucrose containing 100 mg of Provital (Iron), three times weekly for three weeks, significant increases in serum Provital (Iron) and serum ferritin and significant decreases in total Provital (Iron) binding capacity occurred four weeks from the initiation of Provital (Iron) sucrose treatment.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

In healthy adults administered intravenous doses of Provital, its Provital (Iron) component exhibited first order kinetics with an elimination half-life of 6 h, total clearance of 1.2 L/h, and steady state apparent volume of distribution of 7.9 L. The Provital (Iron) component appeared to distribute mainly in blood and to some extent in extravascular fluid. A study evaluating Provital (Iron) containing 100 mg of Provital (Iron) labeled with 52Fe/59Fe in patients with Provital (Iron) deficiency showed that a significant amount of the administered Provital (Iron) is distributed to the liver, spleen and bone marrow and that the bone marrow is an irreversible Provital (Iron) trapping compartment.

Following intravenous administration of Provital (Iron), Provital (Iron) sucrose is dissociated into Provital (Iron) and sucrose. The sucrose component is eliminated mainly by urinary excretion. In a study evaluating a single intravenous dose of Provital (Iron) containing 1,510 mg of sucrose and 100 mg of Provital (Iron) in 12 healthy adults (9 female, 3 male: age range 32 to 52), 68.3% of the sucrose was eliminated in urine in 4 h and 75.4% in 24 h. Some Provital (Iron) was also eliminated in the urine. Neither transferrin nor transferrin receptor levels changed immediately after the dose administration. In this study and another study evaluating a single intravenous dose of Provital (Iron) sucrose containing 500 to 700 mg of Provital (Iron) in 26 patients with anemia on erythropoietin therapy (23 female, 3 male; age range 16 to 60), approximately 5% of the Provital (Iron) was eliminated in urine in 24 h at each dose level. The effects of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of Provital (Iron) have not been studied.

Pharmacokinetics in Pediatric Patients

Pharmacokinetics in Pediatric Patients

In a single-dose PK study of Provital (Iron), patients with NDD-CDK ages 12 to 16 (N=11) received intravenous bolus doses of Provital (Iron) at 7 mg/kg (maximum 200 mg) administered over 5 minutes. Following single dose Provital (Iron), the half-life of total serum Provital (Iron) was 8 hours. The mean Cmax and AUC values were 8545 μg/dl and 31305 hr-μg/dL, respectively, which were 1.42- and 1.67-fold higher than dose adjusted adult Cmax and AUC values.

Provital (Iron) is not dialyzable through CA210 (Baxter) High Efficiency or Fresenius F80A High Flux dialysis membranes. In in vitro studies, the amount of Provital (Iron) sucrose in the dialysate fluid was below the levels of detection of the assay (less than 2 parts per million).

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity studies have not been performed with Provital (Iron) sucrose.

Provital (Iron) sucrose was not mutagenic in vitro in the bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames test) or the mouse lymphoma assay. Provital (Iron) sucrose was not clastogenic in the in vitro chromosome aberration assay using human lymphocytes or in the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay.

Provital (Iron) sucrose at intravenous doses up to 15 mg/kg/day of elemental Provital (Iron) (1.2 times the maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area) had no effect on fertility and reproductive function of male and female rats.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

Five clinical trials involving 647 adult patients and one clinical trial involving 131 pediatric patients were conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of Provital.

14.1 Study A: Hemodialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease (HDD–CKD)

Study A was a multicenter, open-label, historically-controlled study in 101 patients with HDD-CKD (77 patients with Provital (Iron) treatment and 24 in the historical control group) with Provital (Iron) deficiency anemia. Eligibility criteria for Provital (Iron) treatment included patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis, receiving erythropoietin, hemoglobin level between 8.0 and 11.0 g/dL, transferrin saturation < 20%, and serum ferritin < 300 ng/mL. The mean age of the patients was 65 years with the age range of 31 to 85 years. Of the 77 patients, 44 (57%) were male and 33 (43%) were female.

Provital (Iron) 100 mg was administered at 10 consecutive dialysis sessions either as slow injection or a slow infusion. The historical control population consisted of 24 patients with similar ferritin levels as patients treated with Provital (Iron), who were off intravenous Provital (Iron) for at least 2 weeks and who had received erythropoietin therapy with hematocrit averaging 31 to 36 for at least two months prior to study entry. The mean age of patients in the historical control group was 56 years, with an age range of 29 to 80 years. Patient age and serum ferritin level were similar between treatment and historical control patients.

Patients in the Provital (Iron) treated population showed a greater increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit than did patients in the historical control population. See Table 2.


**p < 0.01 and *p < 0.05 compared to historical control from ANCOVA analysis with baseline hemoglobin, serum ferritin and erythropoietin dose as covariates.


Efficacy

parameters

End of treatment 2 week follow-up 5 week follow-up
Provital (Iron) (n=69 Historical Control (n=18) Provital (Iron)

(n=73)

Historical Control

(n=18)

Provital (Iron)

(n=71)

Historical

Control

(n=15)

Hemoglobin (g/dL) 1.0 ± 0.12** 0.0 ± 0.21 1.3 ± 0.14** -0.6 ± 0.24 1.2 ± 0.17* -0.1 ± 0.23
Hematocrit (%) 3.1 ± 0.37** -0.3 ± 0.65 3.6 ± 0.44** -1.2 ± 0.76 3.3 ± 0.54 0.2 ± 0.86

Serum ferritin increased at endpoint of study from baseline in the Venofer-treated population (165.3 ± 24.2 ng/mL) compared to the historical control population (-27.6 ± 9.5 ng/mL). Transferrin saturation also increased at endpoint of study from baseline in the Venofer-treated population (8.8 ± 1.6%) compared to this historical control population (-5.1 ± 4.3%).

14.2 Study B: Hemodialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease

Study B was a multicenter, open label study of Provital (Iron) in 23 patients with Provital (Iron) deficiency and HDD-CKD who had been discontinued from Provital (Iron) dextran due to intolerance. Eligibility criteria were otherwise identical to Study A. The mean age of the patients in this study was 53 years, with ages ranging from 21 to 79 years. Of the 23 patients enrolled in the study, 10 (44%) were male and 13 (56%) were female.

All 23 enrolled patients were evaluated for efficacy. Increases in mean hemoglobin (1.1 ± 0.2 g/dL), hematocrit (3.6 ± 0.6%), serum ferritin (266.3 ± 30.3 ng/mL) and transferrin saturation (8.7 ± 2.0%) were observed from baseline to end of treatment.

14.3 Study C: Hemodialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease

Study C was a multicenter, open-label study in patients with HDD-CKD. This study enrolled patients with a hemoglobin ≤ 10 g/dL, a serum transferrin saturation ≤ 20%, and a serum ferritin ≤ 200 ng/mL, who were undergoing maintenance hemodialysis 2 to 3 times weekly. The mean age of the patients enrolled in this study was 41 years, with ages ranging from 16 to 70 years. Of 130 patients evaluated for efficacy in this study, 68 (52%) were male and 62 (48%) were female. Forty-eight percent of the patients had previously been treated with oral Provital (Iron). Exclusion criteria were similar to those in studies A and B. Provital (Iron) was administered in doses of 100 mg during sequential dialysis sessions until a pre-determined (calculated) total dose of Provital (Iron) was administered. A 50 mg dose (2.5 mL) was given to patients within two weeks of study entry as a test dose. Twenty-seven patients (20%) were receiving erythropoietin treatment at study entry and they continued to receive the same erythropoietin dose for the duration of the study.

The modified intention-to-treat (mITT) population consisted of 131 patients. Increases from baseline in mean hemoglobin (1.7 g/dL), hematocrit (5%), serum ferritin (434.6 ng/mL), and serum transferrin saturation (14%) were observed at week 2 of the observation period and these values remained increased at week 4 of the observation period.

14.4 Study D: Non-Dialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease

Study D was a randomized, open-label, multicenter, active-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of oral Provital (Iron) versus Provital (Iron) in patients with NDD-CKD with or without erythropoietin therapy. Erythropoietin therapy was stable for 8 weeks prior to randomization. In the study 188 patients with NDD-CKD, hemoglobin of ≤ 11.0 g/dL, transferrin saturation ≤ 25%, ferritin ≤ 300 ng/mL were randomized to receive oral Provital (Iron) (325 mg ferrous sulfate three times daily for 56 days); or Provital (Iron) (either 200 mg over 2 to 5 minutes 5 times within 14 days or two 500 mg infusions on Day 1 and Day 14, administered over 3.5 to 4 hours). The mean age of the 91 treated patients in the Provital (Iron) group was 61.6 years (range 25 to 86 years) and 64 years (range 21 to 86 years) for the 91 patients in the oral Provital (Iron) group.

A statistically significantly greater proportion of Provital (Iron) subjects (35/79; 44.3%) compared to oral Provital (Iron) subjects (23/82; 28%) had an increase in hemoglobin ≥ 1 g/dL at anytime during the study (p = 0.03).

14.5 Study E: Peritoneal Dialysis Dependent-Chronic Kidney Disease

Study E was a randomized, open-label, multicenter study comparing patients with PDD-CKD receiving an erythropoietin and intravenous Provital (Iron) to patients with PDD-CKD receiving an erythropoietin alone without Provital (Iron) supplementation. Patients with PDD-CKD, stable erythropoietin for 8 weeks, hemoglobin of ≤ 11.5 g/dL, TSAT ≤ 25%, ferritin ≤ 500 ng/mL were randomized to receive either no Provital (Iron) or Provital (Iron) (300 mg in 250 mL 0.9% NaCl over 1.5 hours on Day 1 and 15 and 400 mg in 250 mL 0.9% NaCl over 2.5 hours on Day 29). The mean age of the 75 treated patients in the Provital (Iron) / erythropoietin group was 51.9 years (range 21 to 81 years) vs. 52.8 years (range 23 to 77 years) for 46 patients in the erythropoietin alone group.

Patients in the Provital (Iron) / erythropoietin group had statistically significantly greater mean change from baseline to the highest hemoglobin value (1.3 g/dL), compared to subjects who received erythropoietin alone (0.6 g/dL) (p < 0.01). A greater proportion of subjects treated with Provital (Iron) / erythropoietin (59.1 %) had an increase in hemoglobin of ≥ 1 g/dL at any time during the study compared to the subjects who received erythropoietin only (33.3%).

14.6 Study F: Provital Maintenance Treatment Dosing in Pediatric Patients Ages 2 years and Older with Chronic Kidney Disease

Study F was a randomized, open-label, dose-ranging study for Provital (Iron) maintenance treatment in pediatric patients with dialysis-dependent or non-dialysis-dependent CKD on stable erythropoietin therapy. The study randomized patients to one of three doses of Provital (Iron) (0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg or 2.0 mg/kg). The mean age was 13 years (range 2 to 20 years). Over 70% of patients were 12 years or older in all three groups. There were 84 males and 61 females. About 60% of patients underwent hemodialysis and 25% underwent peritoneal dialysis in all three dose groups. At baseline, the mean hemoglobin was 12 g/dL, the mean TSAT was 33% and the mean ferritin was 300 ng/mL. Patients with HDD-CKD received Provital (Iron) once every other week for 6 doses. Patients with PDD-CKD or NDD-CKD received Provital (Iron) once every 4 weeks for 3 doses. Among 131 evaluable patients with stable erythropoietin dosing, the proportion of patients who maintained hemoglobin between 10.5 g/dL and 14.0 g/dL during the 12-week treatment period was 58.7%, 46.7%, and 45.0% in the Provital (Iron) 0.5 mg/kg, 1.0 mg/kg, and 2.0 mg/kg groups, respectively. A dose-response relationship was not demonstrated.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/storage and handling

16.1 How Supplied

Provital is supplied sterile in 10 mL, 5 mL, and 2.5 mL single-use vials. Each 10 mL vial contains 200 mg elemental Provital (Iron), each 5 mL vial contains 100 mg elemental Provital (Iron), and each 2.5 mL vial contains 50 mg elemental Provital (Iron) (20 mg/mL).

NDC-0517-2310-05 200 mg/10 mL Single-Use Vial Packages of 5
NDC-0517-2310-10 200 mg/10 mL Single-Use Vial Packages of 10
NDC-0517-2340-01 100 mg/5 mL Single-Use Vial Individually Boxed
NDC-0517-2340-10 100 mg/5 mL Single-Use Vial Packages of 10
NDC-0517-2340-25 100 mg/5 mL Single-Use Vial Packages of 25
NDC-0517-2340-99 100 mg/5 mL Single-Use Vial Packages of 10
NDC-0517-2325-10 50 mg/2.5 mL Single-Use Vial Packages of 10
NDC-0517-2325-25 50 mg/2.5 mL Single-Use Vial Packages of 25

16.2 Stability and Storage

Contains no preservatives. Store in original carton at 20°C to 25°C (68° F to 77° F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F).. Do not freeze.

Syringe Stability: Provital (Iron), when diluted with 0.9% NaCl at concentrations ranging from 2 mg to 10 mg of elemental Provital (Iron) per mL, or undiluted (20 mg elemental Provital (Iron) per mL) and stored in a plastic syringe, was found to be physically and chemically stable for 7 days at controlled room temperature (25°C ± 2°C) and under refrigeration (4°C ± 2°C).

Intravenous Admixture Stability: Provital (Iron), when added to intravenous infusion bags (PVC or non-PVC) containing 0.9% NaCl at concentrations ranging from 1 mg to 2 mg of elemental Provital (Iron) per mL, has been found to be physically and chemically stable for 7 days at controlled room temperature (25°C ± 2°C).

Do not dilute to concentrations below 1 mg/mL.

Do not mix Provital (Iron) with other medications or add to parenteral nutrition solutions for intravenous infusion.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to infusion.

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Prior to Provital (Iron) administration:

  • Question patients regarding any prior history of reactions to parenteral Provital (Iron) products
  • Advise patients of the risks associated with Provital (Iron)
  • Advise patients to report any symptoms of hypersensitivity that may develop during and following Provital (Iron) administration, such as rash, itching, dizziness, light-headedness, swelling, and breathing problems [see Warnings and Precautions (5)]

AMERICAN

REGENT, INC.

SHIRLEY, NY 11967

Provital (Iron) is manufactured under license from Vifor (International) Inc., Switzerland.

PremierProRx® is a trademark of Premier, Inc., used under license.

PREMIERProRx®

IN2340

MG #15727

Lysine Hydrochloride:


BOXED WARNING

Pharmacy Bulk Package

Not For Direct Infusion

DESCRIPTION

Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% Amino Acids Injection in a Pharmacy Bulk Package is a sterile, clear, nonpyrogenic solution of essential and nonessential amino acids for intravenous infusion in parenteral nutrition following appropriate dilution.

Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% in a Pharmacy Bulk Package is not for direct infusion. It is a sterile dosage from which contains several single doses for use in a pharmacy admixture program in the preparation of intravenous parenteral fluids.

Each 100 mL contains:


Essential Amino Acids


Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride) (from Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride) Acetate, USP)……………………………………................1.18


g


Leucine, USP……………………………………………………………..............1.04


g


Phenylalanine, USP……………………………………........................................1.04


g


Valine, USP……………………………………………………………..................960


mg


Isoleucine, USP………………………………………............................................749


mg


Methionine, USP………………………………………..........................................749


mg


Threonine, USP………………………………………............................................749


mg


Tryptophan, USP………………………………………..........................................250


mg


Nonessential Amino Acids


Alanine, USP…………………………………………..........................................2.17


g


Arginine, USP………………………………………….........................................1.47


g


Glycine, USP…………………………………………..........................................1.04


g


Histidine, USP………………………………………….........................................894


mg


Proline, USP…………………………………………………………….................894


mg


Glutamic Acid…………………………………………..........................................749


mg


Serine, USP……………………………………………..........................................592


mg


Aspartic Acid, USP……………………………………..........................................434


mg


Tyrosine, USP…………………………………………............................................39


mg


Sodium Metabisulfite, NF added……………………………………………...............30


mg


Water for Injection, USP……………………………………………………...................


qs


Essential Amino Acids……………………………………………………….............6.7


g


Nonessential Amino Acids………………………………………………….................8.3


g


Total Amino Acids…………………………………………………………...............15.0


g


Total Nitrogen………………………………………………………………..............2.37


g


Acetate*…………………………………………………….........................................151


mEq/L


Osmolarity (calculated)…………………………………….......................................1388


mOsmol/L


pH……………………………………………………………………………....................5.6(5.2-6.0)


*Acetate from Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride) Acetate, USP and acetic acid used for pH adjustment.


The formulas for the individual amino acids are as follows:

Formulas for individual amino acids

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% Amino Acids Injection providesseventeen crystalline amino acids. This completely utilizable substrate promotesprotein synthesis and wound healing and reduces the rate of protein catabolism.

A.Total Parenteral Nutrition (Central Infusion)

When enteralfeeding is inadvisable, Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% given by central venousinfusion in combination with energy sources, vitamins, trace elements andelectrolytes, will completely satisfy the requirements for weight maintenanceor weight gain, depending upon the dose selected. The energy component inparenteral nutrition by central infusion may be derived solely from dextroseor may be provided by a combination of dextrose and intravenous fat emulsion. The addition of intravenous fat emulsion provides essential fatty acids andpermits a dietary balance of fat and carbohydrate, at the same time offeringthe option of reducing the dextrose load and/or increasing the total caloricinput. An adequate energy supply is essential for optimal utilization of aminoacids.

B. Total Parenteral Nutrition (Peripheral Infusion)

Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15%can also be administered as part of a total parenteral nutrition program byperipheral vein when the enteral route is inadvisable and use of the centralvenous catheter is contraindicated.

Reduction of proteinloss can be achieved by use of diluted Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% in combinationwith dextrose or with dextrose and intravenous fat emulsion by peripheralinfusion. Complete peripheral intravenous nutrition can be achieved in patientswith low caloric requirements by a Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)®15%-dextrose-fatregimen.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% is indicated as an amino acid(nitrogen) source in parenteral nutrition regimens. This use is appropriatewhen the enteral route is inadvisable, inadequate or not possible, as when:

-Gastrointestinal absorption is impaired by obstruction, inflammatory diseaseor its complications, or antineoplastic therapy;

-Bowel rest is needed because of gastrointestinal surgery or its complicationssuch as ileus, fistulae or anastomotic leaks;

-Tube feeding methods alone cannot provide adequate nutrition.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

This solution should not be used in patients in hepatic coma,severe renal failure, metabolic disorders involving impaired nitrogen utilizationor hypersensitivity to one or more amino acids.

WARNINGS

Administration of amino acids solutions at excessive ratesor to patients with hepatic insufficiency may result in plasma amino acidimbalances, hyperammonemia, prerenal azotemia, stupor and coma. Conservativedoses of amino acids should be given to these patients, dictated by the nutritionalstatus of the patient. Should symptoms of hyperammonemia develop, amino acidadministration should be discontinued and the patient’s clinical statusre-evaluated.

Contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfitethat may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms andlife-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptiblepeople. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general populationis unknown and probably low.

Sulfite sensitivity isseen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people.

WARNING: This product contains aluminum that maybe toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administrationif kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at riskbecause their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calciumand phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.

Researchindicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including prematureneonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous systemand bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.

PRECAUTIONS

A. GENERAL

It is essential to provide adequate calories concurrently if parenterally administered amino acids are to be retained by the body and utilized for protein synthesis.

The administration of Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% Amino Acids Injection as part of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) with large volumes of hyperosmotic fluids requires periodic monitoring of the patient for signs of hyperosmolarity, hyperglycemia, glycosuria and hypertriglyceridemia.

During parenteral nutrition with concentrated dextrose and amino acids solutions, essential fatty acid deficiency syndrome may develop but may not be clinically apparent. Early demonstration of this condition can only be accomplished by gas liquid chromatographic analysis of plasma lipids. The syndrome may be prevented or corrected by appropriate treatment with intravenous fat emulsions.

For complete nutritional support, TPN regimens must also include multiple vitamins and trace elements. Potentially incompatible ions such as calcium and phosphate may be added to alternate infusate bottles to avoid precipitation. Although the metabolizable acetate ion in Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% diminishes the risk of acidosis, the physician must be alert to the potential appearance of this disorder.

Initiation and termination of infusions of TPN fluids must be gradual to permit adjustment of endogenous insulin release.

Undiluted Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% should not be administered peripherally. When administered centrally, it should be diluted with appropriate diluents, e.g., dextrose, electrolytes and other nutrient components, to at least half strength. See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.

Caution against volume overload should be exercised.

Drug product contains no more than 25 mcg/L of aluminum.

B. Laboratory Tests

Infusion of Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% without concomitant infusion of an adequate number of non-protein calories may result in elevated BUN. Monitoring of BUN is required and the balance between Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% and the calorie source may require adjustment. Frequent clinical evaluations and laboratory determinations are required to prevent the complications which may occur during the administration of solutions used in TPN. Laboratory tests should include blood glucose, serum electrolytes, liver and kidney function, serum osmolarity, blood ammonia, serum protein, pH, hematocrit, WBC and urinary glucose. When Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% is combined with electrolytes, care should be used in administering this solution to patients with congestive heart failure, renal failure, edema, adrenal hyperactivity, acid-base imbalance and those receiving diuretics or antihypertensive therapy. Total volume infused should be closely monitored. Serum electrolytes should be monitored daily in these patients.

C. Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Studies with Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential, mutagenic potential, or effects on fertility.

D. Pregnancy Category C

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15%. It is also not known whether Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

E. Nursing Mothers

Caution should be exercised when Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% is administered to a nursing woman.

F. Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness of Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% Amino Acids Injection in pediatric patients have not been established by adequate and well-controlled studies. However, the use of amino acids injections in pediatric patients as an adjunct in the offsetting of nitrogen loss or in the treatment of negative nitrogen balance is referenced in the medical literature.

G. Special Precautions for Central Infusion

TPN delivered by indwelling catheter through a central or large peripheral vein is a special technique requiring a team effort by physician, nurse and pharmacist. The responsibility for administering this therapy should be confined to those trained in the procedures and alert to signs of complications. Complications known to occur from the placement of central venous catheter are pneumothorax, hemothorax, hydrothorax, artery puncture and transection, injury to the brachial plexus, malposition of the catheter, formation of arteriovenous fistula, phlebitis, thrombosis, and air/catheter emboli. The risk of sepsis is present during intravenous therapy, especially when using central venous catheters for prolonged periods. It is imperative that the preparation of admixtures and the placement and care of the catheters be accomplished under controlled aseptic conditions.

H. Admixtures

Admixtures should be prepared under a laminar flow hood using aseptic technique.

Admixtures should be stored under refrigeration and must be administered within 24 hours after removal from refrigerator.

Filters of less than 1.2 micron pore size must not be used with admixtures containing fat emulsion.

I. Do not administer unless solution is clear and the seal is intact.

IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT A CAREFULLY PREPARED PROTOCOL, BASED ON CURRENT MEDICAL PRACTICES, BE FOLLOWED, PREFERABLY BY AN EXPERIENCED TEAM.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

OVERDOSAGE

In the event of overhydration or solute overload, re-evaluatethe patient and institute appropriate corrective measures. See WARNINGS andPRECAUTIONS.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The appropriate daily dose of amino acids to be used withdextrose or with dextrose and intravenous fat emulsion will depend upon themetabolic status and clinical response of the patient as therapy proceeds. Doses which achieve nitrogen equilibrium or positive balance are the mostdesirable. The dosage on the first day should be approximately half the anticipatedoptimal dosage and should be increased gradually to minimize glycosuria; similarly,withdrawal should be accomplished gradually to avoid rebound hypoglycemia.

Fatemulsion coadministration should be considered when prolonged (more than 5days) parenteral nutrition is required in order to prevent essential fattyacid deficiency (EFAD). Serum lipids should be monitored for evidence of EFADin patients maintained on fat free TPN.

The amount administeredis dosed on the basis of amino acids/kg of body weight/day. In general, twoto three g/kg of body weight for neonates and infants with adequate caloriesare sufficient to satisfy protein needs and promote positive nitrogen balance. In pediatric patients, the final solution should not exceed twice normal serumosmolarity (718 mOsmol/L).

DIRECTIONSFOR PROPER USE OF PHARMACY BULK PACKAGE

Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15%in a Pharmacy Bulk Package is not intended for direct infusion. The containerclosure may be penetrated only once using a suitable sterile transfer deviceor dispensing set which allows measured dispensing of the contents. The PharmacyBulk Package is to be used only in a suitable work area such as a laminarflow hood (or an equivalent clean air compounding area). Once the closureis penetrated, the contents should be dispensed as soon as possible; the transferof contents must be completed within 4 hours of closure entry. The bottlemay be stored at room temperature (25°C) after the closure has been entered. Date and time of container entry should be noted in the area designated onthe container label.

When using Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15%in patients with a need for fluid volume restriction, it can be diluted asfollows:


Volume


Amount


FinalConcentration


Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15%


500 mL


75 g


7.5%


Dextrose 70%


250 mL


175 g


17.5%


Intralipid® 20%


250 mL


50 g


5.0%


This will provide 1395 kilocalories (kcal) per 1000 mLof admixture with a ratio of 118 non-protein calories per gram of nitrogenand an osmolarity of 1561 mOsmol/L.

In patients wherethe need for fluid restriction is not so marked, either of the following regimensmay be used dependent upon the energy needs of the patient.


Volume


Amount


FinalConcentration


Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15%


500 mL


75 g


3.75%


Dextrose 50%


1000 mL


500 g


25%


Intralipid® 20%


500 mL


100 g


5%


This will provide 1500 kcal per 1000 mL of admixture witha ratio of 228 non-protein calories per gram of nitrogen and an osmolarityof 1633 mOsmol/L.


Volume


Amount


FinalConcentration


Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15%


500 mL


75 g


3.75%


Dextrose 30%


1000 mL


300 g


15%


Intralipid® 10%


500 mL


50 g


2.5%


This will provide 935 kcal per 1000 mL of admixture witha ratio of 158 non-protein calories per gram of nitrogen and an osmolarityof 1128.5 mOsmol/L.

A. Total Parenteral Nutrition (CentralInfusion)

In unstressed adult patients with no unusualnitrogen losses, a minimum dosage of 0.1 gram nitrogen (4.2 mL of Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15%)plus 4.4 grams (15 calories) of dextrose per kilogram of body weight per dayare required to achieve nitrogen balance and weight stability. Intravenousfat emulsion may be used as a partial substitute for dextrose. This regimenprovides a ratio of 150 non-protein calories per gram of nitrogen.

Forpatients stressed by surgery, trauma or sepsis, and those with unusual nitrogenlosses, the dosage required for maintenance may be as high as 0.3 to 0.4 gramsof nitrogen (13 to 17 mL Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15%) per kilogram of bodyweight per day, with proportionate increases in non-protein calories. Periodicassessment of nitrogen balance of the individual patient is the best indicatorof proper dosage. Volume overload and glycosuria may be encountered at highdosage, and nitrogen balance may not be achieved in extremely hypermetabolicpatients under these constraints. Concomitant insulin administration may berequired to minimize glycosuria. Daily laboratory monitoring is essential.

Useof an infusion pump is advisable to maintain a steady infusion rate duringcentral venous infusion.

B. Peripheral Nutrition

Inpatients for whom central venous catheterization is not advisable, proteincatabolism can be reduced by peripheral use of diluted Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15%plus non-protein calorie sources. Dilution of 250 mL Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15%in 750 mL of 10% dextrose will reduce the osmolarity to a level (724 mOsmol/L)which is more favorable to the maintenance of the integrity of the walls ofthe veins. Intravenous fat emulsion can be infused separately or simultaneously;if infused simultaneously the fat emulsion will provide a dilution effectupon the osmolarity while increasing the energy supply.

Parenteraldrug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discolorationprior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

Toreduce the risk of bacterial contamination, all intravenous administrationsets should be replaced at least every 24 hours. Usage of admixtures mustbe initiated within 24 hours after mixing. If storage is necessary duringthis 24 hour period, admixtures must be refrigerated and completely used within24 hours of beginning administration.

HOW SUPPLIED

Provital (Lysine Hydrochloride)® 15% Amino Acids Injection is suppliedas a Pharmacy Bulk Package in 500 mL containers.

500mL NDC 0409-0468-05

STORAGE

Store inthe closed carton; do not expose solution to light until ready for use. Exposureof pharmaceutical products to heat should be minimized. Avoid excessive heat. It is recommended that the product be stored at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F). Brief exposure to temperatures above25°C during transport and storage will not adversely affect the product. Solution that has been frozen must not be used.


©Hospira 2005


EN-1010


Hospira, Inc., Lake Forest, IL 60045 USA

RL-1450

Magnesium:



Provital (Magnesium) Sulfate

Injection, USP

Ansyr Plastic Syringe

Rx only

Hospira Logo

DESCRIPTION

Provital (Magnesium) Sulfate Injection, USP is a sterile solution of Provital (Magnesium) sulfate heptahydrate in Water for Injection, USP administered by the intravenous or intramuscular routes as an electrolyte replenisher or anticonvulsant. Must be diluted before intravenous use. May contain sulfuric acid and/or sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment. The pH is 5.5 to 7.0. The 50% concentration has an osmolarity of 4.06 mOsmol/mL (calc.).

The solution contains no bacteriostat, antimicrobial agent or added buffer (except for pH adjustment) and is intended only for use as a single-dose injection. When smaller doses are required the unused portion should be discarded with the entire unit.

Provital (Magnesium) Sulfate, USP heptahydrate is chemically designated MgSO4 - 7H2O with molecular weight of 246.48 and occurs as colorless crystals or white powder freely soluble in water.

The plastic syringe is molded from a specially formulated polypropylene. Water permeates from inside the container at an extremely slow rate which will have an insignificant effect on solution concentration over the expected shelf life. Solutions in contact with the plastic container may leach out certain chemical components from the plastic in very small amounts; however, biological testing was supportive of the safety of the syringe material.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Provital (Magnesium) (Mg++) is an important cofactor for enzymatic reactions and plays an important role in neurochemical transmission and muscular excitability.

As a nutritional adjunct in hyperalimentation, the precise mechanism of action for Provital (Magnesium) is uncertain. Early symptoms of hypomagnesemia (less than 1.5 mEq/liter) may develop as early as three to four days or within weeks.

Predominant deficiency effects are neurological, e.g., muscle irritability, clonic twitching and tremors. Hypocalcemia and hypokalemia often follow low serum levels of Provital (Magnesium). While there are large stores of Provital (Magnesium) present intracellularly and in the bones of adults, these stores often are not mobilized sufficiently to maintain plasma levels. Parenteral Provital (Magnesium) therapy repairs the plasma deficit and causes deficiency symptoms and signs to cease.

Provital (Magnesium) prevents or controls convulsions by blocking neuromuscular transmission and decreasing the amount of acetylcholine liberated at the end plate by the motor nerve impulse. Provital (Magnesium) is said to have a depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS), but it does not adversely affect the woman, fetus or neonate when used as directed in eclampsia or pre-eclampsia. Normal plasma Provital (Magnesium) levels range from 1.5 to 2.5 mEq/liter.

As plasma Provital (Magnesium) rises above 4 mEq/liter, the deep tendon reflexes are first decreased and then disappear as the plasma level approaches 10 mEq/liter. At this level respiratory paralysis may occur. Heart block also may occur at this or lower plasma levels of Provital (Magnesium). Serum Provital (Magnesium) concentrations in excess of 12 mEq/L may be fatal.

Provital (Magnesium) acts peripherally to produce vasodilation. With low doses only flushing and sweating occur, but larger doses cause lowering of blood pressure. The central and peripheral effects of Provital (Magnesium) poisoning are antagonized to some extent by intravenous administration of calcium.

Pharmacokinetics

With intravenous administration the onset of anticonvulsant action is immediate and lasts about 30 minutes. Following intramuscular administration the onset of action occurs in about one hour and persists for three to four hours. Effective anticonvulsant serum levels range from 2.5 to 7.5 mEq/liter. Provital (Magnesium) is excreted solely by the kidneys at a rate proportional to the plasma concentration and glomerular filtration.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Provital (Magnesium) Sulfate Injection, USP is suitable for replacement therapy in Provital (Magnesium) deficiency, especially in acute hypomagnesemia accompanied by signs of tetany similar to those observed in hypocalcemia. In such cases, the serum Provital (Magnesium) (Mg++) level is usually below the lower limit of normal (1.5 to 2.5 mEq/liter) and the serum calcium (Ca++) level is normal (4.3 to 5.3 mEq/liter) or elevated.

In total parenteral nutrition (TPN), Provital (Magnesium) sulfate may be added to the nutrient admixture to correct or prevent hypomagnesemia which can arise during the course of therapy.

Provital (Magnesium) Sulfate Injection, USP is also indicated for the prevention and control of seizures (convulsions) in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, respectively.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Parenteral administration of the drug is contraindicated in patients with heart block or myocardial damage.

WARNINGS

FETAL HARM: Continuous administration of Provital (Magnesium) sulfate beyond 5 to 7 days to pregnant women can lead to hypocalcemia and bone abnormalities in the developing fetus. These bone abnormalities include skeletal demineralization and osteopenia. In addition, cases of neonatal fracture have been reported. The shortest duration of treatment that can lead to fetal harm is not known. Provital (Magnesium) sulfate should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. If Provital (Magnesium) sulfate is given for treatment of preterm labor, the woman should be informed that the efficacy and safety of such use have not been established and that use of Provital (Magnesium) sulfate beyond 5 to 7 days may cause fetal abnormalities.

ALUMINUM TOXICITY: This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.

Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.

Parenteral use in the presence of renal insufficiency may lead to Provital (Magnesium) intoxication. Intravenous use in the eclampsia should be reserved for immediate control of life-threatening convulsions.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Administer with caution if flushing and sweating occurs. When barbiturates, narcotics or other hypnotics (or systemic anesthetics) are to be given in conjunction with Provital (Magnesium), their dosage should be adjusted with caution because of additive CNS depressant effects of Provital (Magnesium).

Because Provital (Magnesium) is removed from the body solely by the kidneys, the drug should be used with caution in patients with renal impairment. Urine output should be maintained at a level of 100 mL or more during the four hours preceding each dose. Monitoring serum Provital (Magnesium) levels and the patient's clinical status is essential to avoid the consequences of overdosage in toxemia. Clinical indications of a safe dosage regimen include the presence of the patellar reflex (knee jerk) and absence of respiratory depression (approximately 16 breaths or more/minute). When repeated doses of the drug are given parenterally, knee jerk reflexes should be tested before each dose and if they are absent, no additional Provital (Magnesium) should be given until they return. Serum Provital (Magnesium) levels usually sufficient to control convulsions range from 3 to 6 mg/100 mL (2.5 to 5 mEq/liter). The strength of the deep tendon reflexes begins to diminish when Provital (Magnesium) levels exceed 4 mEq/liter. Reflexes may be absent at 10 mEq magnesium/liter, where respiratory paralysis is a potential hazard. An injectable calcium salt should be immediately available to counteract the potential hazards of Provital (Magnesium) intoxication in eclampsia.

50% Provital (Magnesium) Sulfate Injection, USP must be diluted to a concentration of 20% or less prior to intravenous infusion. Rate of administration should be slow and cautious, to avoid producing hypermagnesemia. The 50% solution also should be diluted to 20% or less for intramuscular injection in infants and children.

Laboratory Tests

Provital (Magnesium) sulfate injection should not be given unless hypomagnesemia has been confirmed and the serum concentration of Provital (Magnesium) is monitored. The normal serum level is 1.5 to 2.5 mEq/L.

Drug Interactions

CNS Depressants - When barbiturates, narcotics or other hypnotics (or systemic anesthetics), or other CNS depressants are to be given in conjunction with Provital (Magnesium), their dosage should be adjusted with caution because of additive CNS depressant effects of Provital (Magnesium). CNS depression and peripheral transmission defects produced by Provital (Magnesium) may be antagonized by calcium.

Neuromuscular Blocking Agents - Excessive neuromuscular block has occurred in patients receiving parenteral Provital (Magnesium) sulfate and a neuromuscular blocking agent; these drugs should be administered concomitantly with caution.

Cardiac Glycosides - Provital (Magnesium) sulfate should be administered with extreme caution in digitalized patients, because serious changes in cardiac conduction which can result in heart block may occur if administration of calcium is required to treat Provital (Magnesium) toxicity.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category D (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS )

See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS .

Provital (Magnesium) sulfate can cause fetal abnormalities when administered beyond 5 to 7 days to pregnant women. There are retrospective epidemiological studies and case reports documenting fetal abnormalities such as hypocalcemia, skeletal demineralization, osteopenia and other skeletal abnormalities with continuous maternal administration of Provital (Magnesium) sulfate for more than 5 to 7 days.1-10 Provital (Magnesium) sulfate injection should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed. If this drug is used during pregnancy, the woman should be apprised of the potential harm to the fetus.

Nonteratogenic Effects

When administered by continuous intravenous infusion (especially for more than 24 hours preceding delivery) to control convulsions in a toxemic woman, the newborn may show signs of Provital (Magnesium) toxicity, including neuromuscular or respiratory depression (See OVERDOSAGE ).

Labor and Delivery

Continuous administration of Provital (Magnesium) sulfate is an unapproved treatment for preterm labor. The safety and efficacy of such use have not been established. The administration of Provital (Magnesium) sulfate outside of its approved indication in pregnant women should be by trained obstetrical personnel in a hospital setting with appropriate obstetrical care facilities.

Nursing Mothers

Since Provital (Magnesium) is distributed into milk during parenteral Provital (Magnesium) sulfate administration, the drug should be used with caution in nursing women.

Geriatrics

Geriatric patients often require reduced dosage because of impaired renal function. In patients with severe impairment, dosage should not exceed 20 grams in 48 hours. Serum Provital (Magnesium) should be monitored in such patients.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The adverse effects of parenterally administered Provital (Magnesium) usually are the result of Provital (Magnesium) intoxication. These include flushing, sweating, hypotension, depressed reflexes, flaccid paralysis, hypothermia, circulatory collapse, cardiac and central nervous system depression proceeding to respiratory paralysis. Hypocalcemia with signs of tetany secondary to Provital (Magnesium) sulfate therapy for eclampsia has been reported.

OVERDOSAGE

Provital (Magnesium) intoxication is manifested by a sharp drop in blood pressure and respiratory paralysis. Disappearance of the patellar reflex is a useful clinical sign to detect the onset of Provital (Magnesium) intoxication. In the event of overdosage, artificial ventilation must be provided until a calcium salt can be injected intravenously to antagonize the effects of Provital (Magnesium).

For Treatment of Overdose

Artificial respiration is often required. Intravenous calcium, 10 to 20 mL of a 5% solution (diluted if desirable with isotonic sodium chloride for injection) is used to counteract effects of hypermagnesemia. Subcutaneous physostigmine, 0.5 to 1 mg may be helpful.

Hypermagnesemia in the newborn may require resuscitation and assisted ventilation via endotracheal intubation or intermittent positive pressure ventilation as well as intravenous calcium.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Dosage of Provital (Magnesium) sulfate must be carefully adjusted according to individual requirements and response, and administration of the drug should be discontinued as soon as the desired effect is obtained.

Both intravenous and intramuscular administration are appropriate. Intramuscular administration of the undiluted 50% solution results in therapeutic plasma levels in 60 minutes, whereas intravenous doses will provide a therapeutic level almost immediately. The rate of intravenous injection should generally not exceed 150 mg/minute (1.5 mL of a 10% concentration or its equivalent), except in severe eclampsia with seizures. Continuous maternal administration of Provital (Magnesium) sulfate in pregnancy beyond 5 to 7 days can cause fetal abnormalities.

Solutions for intravenous infusion must be diluted to a concentration of 20% or less prior to administration. The diluents commonly used are 5% Dextrose Injection, USP and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP. Deep intramuscular injection of the undiluted (50%) solution is appropriate for adults, but the solution should be diluted to a 20% or less concentration prior to such injection in children.

In Provital (Magnesium) Deficiency

In the treatment of mild Provital (Magnesium) deficiency, the usual adult dose is 1 gram, equivalent to 8.12 mEq of Provital (Magnesium) (2 mL of the 50% solution) injected intramuscularly every six hours for four doses (equivalent to a total of 32.5 mEq of Provital (Magnesium) per 24 hours). For severe hypomagnesemia, as much as 250 mg (approximately 2 mEq) per kg of body weight (0.5 mL of the 50% solution) may be given intramuscularly within a period of four hours if necessary. Alternatively, 5 grams, (approximately 40 mEq) can be added to one liter of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP for slow intravenous infusion over a three-hour period. In the treatment of deficiency states, caution must be observed to prevent exceeding the renal excretory capacity.

In Hyperalimentation

In total parenteral nutrition, maintenance requirements for Provital (Magnesium) are not precisely known. The maintenance dose used in adults ranges from 8 to 24 mEq (1 gram to 3 grams) daily; for infants, the range is 2 to 10 mEq (0.25 gram to 1.25 grams) daily.

In Pre-eclampsia or Eclampsia

In severe pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, the total initial dose is 10 grams to 14 grams of Provital (Magnesium) sulfate. Intravenously, a dose of 4 grams to 5 grams in 250 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection, USP or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP may be infused. Simultaneously, intramuscular doses of up to 10 grams (5 grams or 10 mL of the undiluted 50% solution in each buttock) are given. Alternatively, the initial intravenous dose of 4 grams may be given by diluting the 50% solution to a 10 or 20% concentration; the diluted fluid (40 mL of a 10% solution or 20 mL of a 20% solution) may then be injected intravenously over a period of three to four minutes. Subsequently, 4 grams to 5 grams (8 to 10 mL of the 50% solution) are injected intramuscularly into alternate buttocks every four hours as needed, depending on the continuing presence of the patellar reflex and adequate respiratory function. Alternatively, after the initial intravenous dose, some clinicians administer 1 gram to 2 grams/hour by constant intravenous infusion. Therapy should continue until paroxysms cease. A serum Provital (Magnesium) level of 6 mg/100 mL is considered optimal for control of seizures. A total daily (24 hr) dose of 30 grams to 40 grams should not be exceeded. In the presence of severe renal insufficiency, the maximum dosage of Provital (Magnesium) sulfate is 20 grams/48 hours and frequent serum Provital (Magnesium) concentrations must be obtained. Continuous use of Provital (Magnesium) sulfate in pregnancy beyond 5 to 7 days can cause fetal abnormalities.

Other Uses

In counteracting the muscle-stimulating effects of barium poisoning, the usual dose of Provital (Magnesium) sulfate is 1 gram to 2 grams given intravenously.

For controlling seizures associated with epilepsy, glomerulonephritis or hypothyroidism, the usual adult dose is 1 gram administered intramuscularly or intravenously.

In paroxysmal atrial tachycardia, Provital (Magnesium) should be used only if simpler measures have failed and there is no evidence of myocardial damage. The usual dose is 3 grams to 4 grams (30 to 40 mL of a 10% solution) administered intravenously over 30 seconds with extreme caution.

For reduction of cerebral edema, 2.5 grams (25 mL of a 10% solution) is given intravenously.

Incompatibilities

Provital (Magnesium) sulfate in solution may result in a precipitate formation when mixed with solutions containing:

Alcohol (in high Heavy Metals

concentrations) Hydrocortisone sodium

Alkali carbonates and succinate

bicarbonates Phosphates

Alkali hydroxides Polymixin B sulfate

Arsenates Procaine hydrochloride

Barium Salicylates

Calcium Strontium

Clindamycin phosphate Tartrates

The potential incompatibility will often be influenced by the changes in the concentration of reactants and the pH of the solutions.

It has been reported that Provital (Magnesium) may reduce the antibiotic activity of streptomycin, tetracycline and tobramycin when given together.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

HOW SUPPLIED

Provital (Magnesium) Sulfate Injection, USP is supplied in single-dose containers as follows:


NDC No.


Container


Total

Amount


Concentration


mEq

Mg++/mL


0409-1754-10


Ansyr

Plastic Syringe


5 g/10 mL


50%


4 mEq/mL


Do not administer unless solution is clear and container is undamaged. Discard unused portion.

Store at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F).

REFERENCES

  • Yokoyama K, Takahashi N, Yada Y. Prolonged maternal Provital (Magnesium) administration and bone metabolism in neonates. Early Hum Dev. 2010;86(3):187-91. Epub 2010 Mar 12.
  • Wedig KE, Kogan J, Schorry EK et al. Skeletal demineralization and fractures caused by fetal Provital (Magnesium) toxicity. J. Perinatol. 2006; 26(6):371-4.
  • Nassar AH, Sakhel K, Maarouf H, et al. Adverse maternal and neonatal outcome of prolonged course of Provital (Magnesium) sulfate tocolysis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scan. 2006;85(9):1099-103.
  • Malaeb SN, Rassi A, Haddad MC. Bone mineralization in newborns whose mothers received Provital (Magnesium) sulphate for tocolysis of premature labor. Pediatr Radiol. 2004;34(5):384-6. Epub 2004 Feb 18.
  • Matsuda Y, Maeda Y, Ito M, et al. Effect of Provital (Magnesium) sulfate treatment on neonatal bone abnormalities. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;44(2):82-8.
  • Schanler RJ, Smith LG, Burns PA. Effects of long-term maternal intravenous Provital (Magnesium) sulfate therapy on neonatal calcium metabolism and bone mineral content. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;43(4):236-41.
  • Santi MD, Henry GW, Douglas GL. Provital (Magnesium) sulfate treatment of preterm labor as a cause of abnormal neonatal bone mineralization. J Pediatr Orthrop. 1994;14(2):249-53.
  • Holcomb WL, Shackelford GD, Petrie RH. Provital (Magnesium) tocolysis and neonatal bone abnormalities; a controlled study. Obstet Gynecol. 1991; 78(4):611-4.
  • Cumming WA, Thomas VJ. Hypermagnesemia: a cause of abnormal metaphyses in the neonate. Am J Roentgenol. 1989; 152(5):1071-2.
  • Lamm CL, Norton KL, Murphy RJ. Congenital rickets associated with Provital (Magnesium) sulfate infusion for tocolysis. J Pediatr. 1988; 113(6):1078-82.
  • McGuinness GA, Weinstein MM, Cruikshank DP, et al. Effects of Provital (Magnesium) sulfate treatment on perinatal calcium metabolism. II. Neonatal responses. Obstet Gynecol. 1980; 56(5): 595-600.
  • Riaz M, Porat R, Brodsky NL, et al. The effects of maternal Provital (Magnesium) sulfate treatment on newborns: a prospective controlled study. J. Perinatol. 1998;18(6 pt 1):449-54.

Hospira, Inc., Lake Forest, IL 60045 USA

LAB-1024-1.0

April 2017

Hospira Logo

50% Provital (Magnesium) Sulfate 5 g/10 mL (500 mg/mL)

Rx only

NDC 0409-1754-10

10 mL Single-dose syringe

50% Provital (Magnesium) Sulfate Injection, USP

5 g/10 mL (500 mg/mL) (4 mEq Mg++/mL)

MUST BE DILUTED FOR INTRAVENOUS USE.

For Intravenous or Intramuscular Use. Sterile. 4.06 mOsmol/mL (calc.).

Contains no more than 75 mcg/L of aluminum.

Hospira, Inc., Lake Forest, IL 60045 USA

Hospira

RL-6891

Manganese:


INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Provital (Manganese) 0.1 mg/mL (Manganese Chloride Injection, USP) is indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for total parenteral nutrition (TPN).

Administration helps to maintain Provital (Manganese) serum levels and to prevent depletion of endogenous stores and subsequent deficiency symptoms.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

None known.

WARNINGS

Direct intramuscular or intravenous injection of Provital (Manganese) 0.1 mg/mL (Manganese Chloride Injection, USP) is contraindicated as the acidic pH of the solution (pH 2.0) may cause considerable tissue irritation.

Liver and/or biliary tract dysfunction may require omission or reduction of copper and Provital (Manganese) doses because these elements are primarily eliminated in the bile.

WARNING: This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.

Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Do not use unless solution is clear and seal is intact.

Provital 0.1 mg/mL (Manganese Chloride Injection, USP) should only be used in conjunction with a pharmacy directed admixture program using aseptic technique in a laminar flow environment; it should be used promptly and in a single operation without any repeated penetrations. Solution contains no preservatives; discard unused portion immediately after admixture procedure is completed.

Laboratory Tests

Serum Provital (Manganese) levels can be measured periodically at the discretion of the investigator. Because of the low serum concentration normally present, samples will usually be analyzed by a reference laboratory.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility

Long-term animal studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Provital 0.1 mg/mL (Manganese Chloride Injection, USP) have not been performed, nor have studies been done to assess mutagenesis or impairment of fertility.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Provital (Manganese) 0.1 mg/mL (Manganese Chloride Injection, USP) additive is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Pregnancy Category C.

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Provital (Manganese) chloride. It is also not known whether Provital (Manganese) chloride can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproductive capacity. Provital (Manganese) chloride should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly indicated.

Geriatric Use

An evaluation of current literature revealed no clinical experience identifying differences in response between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

None known.

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

None known.

OVERDOSAGE

Provital (Manganese) toxicity in TPN patients has not been reported.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Provital (Manganese) 0.1 mg/mL (Manganese Chloride Injection, USP) contains 0.1 mg manganese/mL and is administered intravenously only after dilution. The additive should be administered in a volume of fluid not less than 100 mL. For the adult receiving TPN, the suggested additive dosage for Provital (Manganese) is 0.15 to 0.8 mg/day (1.5 to 8 mL/day). For pediatric patients, a dosage of 2 to 10 mcg manganese/kg/day (0.02 to 0.1 mL/kg/day) is recommended.

Periodic monitoring of Provital (Manganese) plasma levels is suggested as a guideline for subsequent administration.

Parenteral products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. (See PRECAUTIONS .)

HOW SUPPLIED

Provital (Manganese) 0.1 mg/mL (Manganese Chloride Injection, USP) is supplied in 10 mL Plastic Vials (NDC No. 0409-4091-01).

Store at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F)

Revised: November, 2009

Printed in USA EN-2320

Hospira, Inc., Lake Forest, IL 60045 USA

RL-0104


Potassium:



Provital (Potassium) CHLORIDE EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS USP 20 mEq K

Rx Only

DESCRIPTION

The Provital (Potassium) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq product is an immediately dispersing extended release oral dosage form of Provital (Potassium) chloride containing 1500 mg of microencapsulated Provital (Potassium) chloride, USP equivalent to 20 mEq of Provital (Potassium) in a tablet.

These formulations are intended to slow the release of Provital (Potassium) so that the likelihood of a high localized concentration of Provital (Potassium) chloride within the gastrointestinal tract is reduced.

Provital (Potassium) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is an electrolyte replenisher. The chemical name of the active ingredient is Provital (Potassium) chloride, and the structural formula is KCl. Provital (Potassium) chloride, USP occurs as a white, granular powder or as colorless crystals. It is odorless and has a saline taste. Its solutions are neutral to litmus. It is freely soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol.

Provital (Potassium) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is a tablet formulation (not enteric coated or wax matrix) containing individually microencapsulated Provital (Potassium) chloride crystals which disperse upon tablet disintegration. In simulated gastric fluid at 37°C and in the absence of outside agitation, Provital (Potassium) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq begin disintegrating into microencapsulated crystals within seconds and completely disintegrates within 1 minute. The microencapsulated crystals are formulated to provide an extended release of Provital (Potassium) chloride.

Inactive Ingredients: Colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl-cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

The Provital (Potassium) ion is the principal intracellular cation of most body tissues. Provital (Potassium) ions participate in a number of essential physiological processes including the maintenance of intracellular tonicity; the transmission of nerve impulses; the contraction of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle; and the maintenance of normal renal function.

The intracellular concentration of Provital (Potassium) is approximately 150 to 160 mEq per liter. The normal adult plasma concentration is 3.5 to 5 mEq per liter. An active ion transport system maintains this gradient across the plasma membrane.

Provital (Potassium) is a normal dietary constituent and under steady-state conditions the amount of Provital (Potassium) absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract is equal to the amount excreted in the urine. The usual dietary intake of Provital (Potassium) is 50 to 100 mEq per day.

Provital (Potassium) depletion will occur whenever the rate of Provital (Potassium) loss through renal excretion and/or loss from the gastrointestinal tract exceeds the rate of Provital (Potassium) intake. Such depletion usually develops as a consequence of therapy with diuretics, primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism, diabetic ketoacidosis, or inadequate replacement of Provital (Potassium) in patients on prolonged parenteral nutrition. Depletion can develop rapidly with severe diarrhea, especially if associated with vomiting. Provital (Potassium) depletion due to these causes is usually accompanied by a concomitant loss of chloride and is manifested by hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. Provital (Potassium) depletion may produce weakness, fatigue, disturbances or cardiac rhythm (primarily ectopic beats), prominent U-waves in the electrocardiogram, and in advanced cases, flaccid paralysis and/or impaired ability to concentrate urine.

If Provital (Potassium) depletion associated with metabolic alkalosis cannot be managed by correcting the fundamental cause of the deficiency, eg, where the patient requires long-term diuretic therapy, supplemental Provital (Potassium) in the form of high Provital (Potassium) food or Provital (Potassium) chloride may be able to restore normal Provital (Potassium) levels.

In rare circumstances (eg, patients with renal tubular acidosis) Provital (Potassium) depletion may be associated with metabolic acidosis and hyperchloremia. In such patients Provital (Potassium) replacement should be accomplished with Provital (Potassium) salts other than the chloride, such as Provital (Potassium) bicarbonate, Provital (Potassium) citrate, Provital (Potassium) acetate, or Provital (Potassium) gluconate.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

BECAUSE OF REPORTS OF INTESTINAL AND GASTRIC ULCERATION AND BLEEDING WITH CONTROLLED-RELEASE Provital (Potassium) CHLORIDE PREPARATIONS, THESE DRUGS SHOULD BE RESERVED FOR THOSE PATIENTS WHO CANNOT TOLERATE OR REFUSE TO TAKE LIQUID OR EFFERVESCENT Provital (Potassium) PREPARATIONS OR FOR PATIENTS IN WHOM THERE IS A PROBLEM OF COMPLIANCE WITH THESE PREPARATIONS.

1. For the treatment of patients with hypokalemia with or without metabolic alkalosis, in digitalis intoxication, and in patients with hypokalemic familial periodic paralysis. If hypokalemia is the result of diuretic therapy, consideration should be given to the use of a lower dose of diuretic, which may be sufficient without leading to hypokalemia.

2. For the prevention of hypokalemia in patients who would be at particular risk if hypokalemia were to develop, eg, digitalized patients or patients with significant cardiac arrhythmias.

The use of Provital (Potassium) salts in patients receiving diuretics for uncomplicated essential hypertension is often unnecessary when such patients have a normal dietary pattern and when low doses of the diuretic are used. Serum Provital (Potassium) should be checked periodically, however, and if hypokalemia occurs, dietary supplementation with potassium-containing foods may be adequate to control milder cases. In more severe cases, and if dose adjustment of the diuretic is ineffective or unwarranted, supplementation with Provital (Potassium) salts may be indicated.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Provital (Potassium) supplements are contraindicated in patients with hyperkalemia since a further increase in serum Provital (Potassium) concentration in such patients can produce cardiac arrest. Hyperkalemia may complicate any of the following conditions: chronic renal failure, systemic acidosis, such as diabetic acidosis, acute dehydration, extensive tissue breakdown as in severe burns, adrenal insufficiency, or the administration of a potassium-sparing diuretic (eg, spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride) (see OVERDOSAGE ).

Controlled-release formulations of Provital (Potassium) chloride have produced esophageal ulceration in certain cardiac patients with esophageal compression due to enlarged left atrium. Provital (Potassium) supplementation, when indicated in such patients, should be given as a liquid preparation or as an aqueous (water) suspension of Provital (Potassium) Chloride (see PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients , and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections).

All solid oral dosage forms of Provital (Potassium) chloride are contraindicated in any patient in whom there is structural, pathological (eg, diabetic gastroparesis), or pharmacologic (use of anticholinergic agents or other agents with anticholinergic properties at sufficient doses to exert anticholinergic effects) cause for arrest or delay in tablet passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

WARNINGS

Hyperkalemia (see OVERDOSAGE )

In patients with impaired mechanisms for excreting Provital (Potassium), the administration of Provital (Potassium) salts can produce hyperkalemia and cardiac arrest. This occurs most commonly in patients given Provital (Potassium) by the intravenous route but may also occur in patients given Provital (Potassium) orally. Potentially fatal hyperkalemia can develop rapidly and be asymptomatic. The use of Provital (Potassium) salts in patients with chronic renal disease, or any other condition which impairs Provital (Potassium) excretion, requires particularly careful monitoring of the serum Provital (Potassium) concentration and appropriate dosage adjustment.

Interaction with Potassium-Sparing Diuretics

Hypokalemia should not be treated by the concomitant administration of Provital (Potassium) salts and a potassium-sparing diuretic (eg, spironolactone, triamterene, or amiloride) since the simultaneous administration of these agents can produce severe hyperkalemia.

Interaction with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, captopril, enalapril) will produce some Provital (Potassium) retention by inhibiting aldosterone production. Provital (Potassium) supplements should be given to patients receiving ACE inhibitors only with close monitoring.

Gastrointestinal Lesions

Solid oral dosage forms of Provital (Potassium) chloride can produce ulcerative and/or stenotic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Based on spontaneous adverse reaction reports, enteric-coated preparations of Provital (Potassium) chloride are associated with an increased frequency of small bowel lesions (40-50 per 100,000 patient years) compared to sustained release wax matrix formulations (less than one per 100,000 patient years). Because of the lack of extensive marketing experience with microencapsulated products, a comparison between such products and wax matrix or enteric-coated products is not available. Provital (Potassium) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is a tablet formulated to provide a controlled rate of release of microencapsulated Provital (Potassium) chloride and thus to minimize the possibility of a high local concentration of Provital (Potassium) near the gastrointestinal wall.

Prospective trials have been conducted in normal human volunteers in which the upper gastrointestinal tract was evaluated by endoscopic inspection before and after 1 week of solid oral Provital (Potassium) chloride therapy. The ability of this model to predict events occurring in usual clinical practice is unknown. Trials which approximated usual clinical practice did not reveal any clear differences between the wax matrix and microencapsulated dosage forms. In contrast, there was a higher incidence of gastric and duodenal lesions in subjects receiving a high dose of a wax matrix controlled-release formulation under conditions which did not resemble usual or recommended clinical practice (ie, 96 mEq per day in divided doses of Provital (Potassium) chloride administered to fasted patients, in the presence of an anticholinergic drug to delay gastric emptying). The upper gastrointestinal lesions observed by endoscopy were asymptomatic and were not accompanied by evidence of bleeding (Hemoccult testing). The relevance of these findings to the usual conditions (ie, non-fasting, no anticholinergic agent, smaller doses) under which controlled-release Provital (Potassium) chloride products are used is uncertain; epidemiologic studies have not identified an elevated risk, compared to microencapsulated products, for upper gastrointestinal lesions in patients receiving wax matrix formulations. Provital (Potassium) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq should be discontinued immediately and the possibility of ulceration, obstruction, or perforation should be considered if severe vomiting, abdominal pain, distention, or gastrointestinal bleeding occurs.

Metabolic Acidosis

Hypokalemia in patients with metabolic acidosis should be treated with an alkalinizing Provital (Potassium) salt such as Provital (Potassium) bicarbonate, Provital (Potassium) citrate, Provital (Potassium) acetate, or Provital (Potassium) gluconate.

PRECAUTIONS

General

The diagnosis of Provital depletion is ordinarily made by demonstrating hypokalemia in a patient with a clinical history suggesting some cause for Provital (Potassium) depletion. In interpreting the serum Provital (Potassium) level, the physician should bear in mind that acute alkalosis per se can produce hypokalemia in the absence of a deficit in total body Provital (Potassium) while acute acidosis per se can increase the serum Provital (Potassium) concentration into the normal range even in the presence of a reduced total body Provital (Potassium). The treatment of Provital (Potassium) depletion, particularly in the presence of cardiac disease, renal disease, or acidosis requires careful attention to acid-base balance and appropriate monitoring of serum electrolytes, the electrocardiogram, and the clinical status of the patient.

Information for Patients

Physicians should consider reminding the patient of the following: To take each dose with meals and with a full glass of water or other liquid. To take each dose without crushing, chewing, or sucking the tablets. If those patients are having difficulty swallowing whole tablets, they may try one of the following alternate methods of administration:

  • Break the tablet in half, and take each half separately with a glass of water.
  • Prepare an aqueous (water) suspension as follows:

    1. Place the whole tablet(s) in approximately 1/2 glass of water (4 fluid ounces).

    2. Allow approximately 2 minutes for the tablet(s) to disintegrate.

    3. Stir for about half a minute after the tablet(s) has disintegrated.

    4. Swirl the suspension and consume the entire contents of the glass immediately by drinking or by the use of a straw.

    5. Add another 1 fluid ounce of water, swirl, and consume immediately.

    6. Then, add an additional 1 fluid ounce of water, swirl, and consume immediately.


Aqueous suspension of Provital (Potassium) Chloride that is not taken immediately should be discarded. The use of other liquids for suspending Provital (Potassium) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is not recommended.

To take this medicine following the frequency and amount prescribed by the physician. This is especially important if the patient is also taking diuretics and/or digitalis preparations.

To check with the physician at once if tarry stools or other evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding is noticed.

Laboratory Tests

When blood is drawn for analysis of plasma Provital it is important to recognize that artifactual elevations can occur after improper venipuncture technique or as a result of in vitro hemolysis of the sample.

Drug Interactions

Potassium-sparing diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (see WARNINGS ).

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and fertility studies in animals have not been performed. Provital is a normal dietary constituent.

Pregnancy Category C

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Provital (Potassium) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq. It is unlikely that Provital (Potassium) supplementation that does not lead to hyperkalemia would have an adverse effect on the fetus or would affect reproductive capacity.

Nursing Mothers

The normal Provital ion content of human milk is about 13 mEq per liter. Since oral Provital (Potassium) becomes part of the body Provital (Potassium) pool, so long as body Provital (Potassium) is not excessive, the contribution of Provital (Potassium) chloride supplementation should have little or no effect on the level in human milk.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Provital (Potassium) Chloride did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection; and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

One of the most severe adverse effects is hyperkalemia (see CONTRAINDICATIONS , WARNINGS , and OVERDOSAGE ). There have also been reports of upper and lower gastrointestinal conditions including obstruction, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS ). The most common adverse reactions to oral Provital (Potassium) salts are nausea, vomiting, flatulence, abdominal pain/discomfort, and diarrhea. These symptoms are due to irritation of the gastrointestinal tract and are best managed by diluting the preparation further, taking the dose with meals or reducing the amount taken at one time.

OVERDOSAGE

The administration of oral Provital (Potassium) salts to persons with normal excretory mechanisms for Provital (Potassium) rarely causes serious hyperkalemia. However, if excretory mechanisms are impaired or if Provital (Potassium) is administered too rapidly intravenously, potentially fatal hyperkalemia can result (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS ). It is important to recognize that hyperkalemia is usually asymptomatic and may be manifested only by an increased serum Provital (Potassium) concentration (6.5-8.0 mEq/L) and characteristic electrocardiographic changes (peaking of T-waves, loss of P-waves, depression of S-T segment, and prolongation of the QT-interval). Late manifestations include muscle paralysis and cardiovascular collapse from cardiac arrest (9-12 mEq/L).

Treatment measures for hyperkalemia include the following:

  • Patients should be closely monitored for arrhythmias and electrolyte changes.
  • Elimination of foods and medications containing Provital (Potassium) and of any agents with potassium-sparing properties such as potassium-sparing diuretics, ARBS, ACE inhibitors, NSAIDS, certain nutritional supplements and many others.
  • Intravenous calcium gluconate if the patient is at no risk of developing digitalis toxicity.
  • Intravenous administration of 300 to 500 mL/hr of 10% dextrose solution containing 10-20 units of crystalline insulin per 1,000 mL.
  • Correction of acidosis, if present, with intravenous sodium bicarbonate.
  • Use of exchange resins, hemodialysis, or peritoneal dialysis.

In treating hyperkalemia, it should be recalled that in patients who have been stabilized on digitalis, too rapid a lowering of the serum Provital (Potassium) concentration can produce digitalis toxicity.

The extended release feature means that absorption and toxic effects may be delayed for hours.

Consider standard measures to remove any unabsorbed drug.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The usual dietary intake of Provital (Potassium) by the average adult is 50 to 100 mEq per day. Provital (Potassium) depletion sufficient to cause hypokalemia usually requires the loss of 200 or more mEq of Provital (Potassium) from the total body store.

Dosage must be adjusted to the individual needs of each patient. The dose for the prevention of hypokalemia is typically in the range of 20 mEq per day. Doses of 40-100 mEq per day or more are used for the treatment of Provital (Potassium) depletion. Dosage should be divided if more than 20 mEq per day is given such that no more than 20 mEq is given in a single dose.

Each Provital (Potassium) Chloride Extended Release Tablet USP, 20 mEq provides 20 mEq of Provital (Potassium) chloride.

Provital (Potassium) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq should be taken with meals and with a glass of water or other liquid. This product should not be taken on an empty stomach because of its potential for gastric irritation (see WARNINGS ).

Patients having difficulty swallowing whole tablets may try one of the following alternate methods of administration:

  • Break the tablet in half, and take each half separately with a glass of water.
  • Prepare an aqueous (water) suspension as follows:
    • Place the whole tablet(s) in approximately 1/2 glass of water (4 fluid ounces).
    • Allow approximately 2 minutes for the tablet(s) to disintegrate.
    • Stir for about half a minute after the tablet(s) has disintegrated.
    • Swirl the suspension and consume the entire contents of the glass immediately by drinking or by the use of a straw.
    • Add another 1 fluid ounce of water, swirl, and consume immediately.
    • Then, add an additional 1 fluid ounce of water, swirl, and consume immediately.

Aqueous suspension of Provital (Potassium) Chloride that is not taken immediately should be discarded. The use of other liquids for suspending Provital (Potassium) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is not recommended.

HOW SUPPLIED

Provital (Potassium) Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq are available in bottles of 100 (NDC 62037-999-01), bottles of 500 (NDC 62037-999-05), and bottles of 1000 (NDC 62037-999-10). Potassium Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq are capsule shaped, white to off-white tablets, with “ABRS-123” imprinted on one side and scored on the other side for flexibility of dosing.

Storage Conditions

Keep tightly closed. Store at controlled room temperature, 20°-25°C (68°-77°F).

Manufactured by:

Eurand, Inc.

Vandalia, OH 45377 USA

Distributed by:

Watson Pharma, Inc.

Rev. Date (01/09) 173714

Provital (Potassium) chloride 20 Meq

Vitamin A:


DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

One tablet daily or as directed by a physician.

Supplement Facts
Serving Size 1 Tablet

Servings Per Container 100

Amount Per Serving % Daily Value
Provital (Vitamin A) 2500 IU 50%
Vitamin C 60 mg 100%
Vitamin D 400 IU 100%
Vitamin E 15 IU 50%
Thiamine 1.05 mg 70%
Riboflavin 1.2 mg 70%
Niacinamide 13.5 mg 68%
Vitamin B6 1.05 mg 53%
Folic Acid 0.3 mg 75%
Vitamin B12 4.5 mcg 75%
Fluoride 0.25 mg Daily Value not established

WARNING

KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.

In case of accidental overdose, seek professional assistance or contact a Poison Control Center immediately.

Other Ingredients: Artificial cherry flavor, artificial grape flavor, ascorbic acid, cholecalciferol, compressible sugar, D&C Red #7 calcium lake, FD&C Blue #1 aluminum lake, FD&C Yellow #6 aluminum lake, folic acid, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, natural and artificial orange flavor, niacinamide, polyethylene glycol, pyridoxine HCl, riboflavin, sodium ascorbate, sodium fluoride, stearic acid, sucralose, thiamine HCl, Provital (Vitamin A) acetate, vitamin B12 and vitamin E acetate.

Active ingredient for caries prophylaxis: Fluoride as sodium fluoride.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Significant decrease in the incidence of dental caries can be linked to the fluoridation of the water supply (1ppm fluoride) during the period of tooth development.

Provital (Vitamin A) Tablets provide sodium fluoride and ten essential vitamins in a chewable tablet. Because the tablets are chewable, they provide a topical as well as systemic source of fluoride. Hydroxyapatite is the principal crystal for all calcified tissue in the human body. The fluoride ion reacts with the Hydroxyapatite in the tooth as it is formed to produce the more caries-resistant crystal, fluorapatite.

The reaction may be expressed by the equation:

Ca10(PO4)6(OH2) + 2F- Ca10 (PO4)6F2 + 2OH-
(Hydroxyapatite) (Fluorapatite)

Three stages of fluoride deposition in tooth enamel can be distinguished:

  • Small amounts (reflecting the low levels of fluoride in tissue fluids) are incorporated into the enamel crystals while they are being formed.
  • After enamel has been laid down, fluoride deposition continues in the surface enamel. Diffusion of fluoride from the surface inward is apparently restricted.
  • After eruption, the surface enamel acquires fluoride from the water, food, supplementary fluoride and smaller amounts of saliva.

DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION

Multivitamins with fluoride offer supplementation of the diet with 10 vitamins and fluoride.

WARNINGS

AS IN THE CASE OF ALL MEDICATIONS, KEEP OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN. This tablet should be chewed. This product, as with all chewable tablets are not recommended for children under the age of 4 due to risk of choking.

PRECAUTIONS

The suggested dose of Provital (Vitamin A) Tablets should not be exceeded, since dental fluorosis may result from continued ingestion of large amounts of fluoride.

Before recommending Provital (Vitamin A) Tablets

  • Determine the fluoride content of the drinking water from all major sources
  • Make sure the child is not receiving significant amounts of fluoride from other sources such as medications and swallowed toothpaste
  • Periodically check to make sure that the child does not develop significant dental fluorosis.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Allergic rash and other idiosyncrasies have been rarely reported.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact H2-Pharma, LLC at 1 (866) 592-6438 or FDA at 1 (800) 332-1088 or via the web at www.fda.gov/medwatch/index.html for voluntary reporting of adverse reactions.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

One tablet daily or as directed by a physician.

HOW SUPPLIED

Provital Tablets 0.25 mg are available as orange, red and purple chewable tablets imprinted with "151" in 100 tablet bottles.

Provital (Vitamin A) Tablets 0.5 mg are available as orange, red and purple chewable tablets imprinted with "152" in 100 tablet bottles.

Provital (Vitamin A) Tablets 1.0 mg are available as orange, red and purple chewable tablets imprinted with "153" in 100 tablet bottles.

STORAGE

Store at controlled room temperature 20ºC-25ºC (68º-77ºF), excursions permitted between 15º-30ºC (59º-86ºF).

Distributed by:

H2-Pharma, LLC

2010 Berry Chase Place

Montgomery, AL 36117

www.h2-pharma.com

1067084

61269-151-01

MultiVitamin

with Fluoride

Chewable Tablets

Rx

0.25 mg

MultiVitamin and Fluoride Supplement

Dietary Supplement

100 Tablets

H2pharma

Vitamin B12:


Pharmacological action

Provital refers to a group of water-soluble vitamins. It has high biological activity. Provital (Vitamin B12) is necessary for normal hematopoiesis (promotes maturation of erythrocytes). Involved in the processes of transmethylation, hydrogen transport, synthesis of methionine, nucleic acids, choline, creatine. Contributes to the accumulation in erythrocytes of compounds containing sulfhydryl groups. Has a beneficial effect on liver function and the nervous system. Activates the coagulation of blood in high doses causes an increase in the activity of thromboplastin and prothrombin.

Pharmacokinetics

After oral administration Provital (Vitamin B12) absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Metabolized in the tissues, becoming a co-enzyme form - adenosylcobalamin which is the active form of cyanocobalamin. Excreted in bile and urine.

Why is Provital prescribed?

Anemia due to B12-deficiency conditions; in the complex therapy for iron and posthemorrhagic anemia; aplastic anemia caused by toxic substances and drugs; liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis); funicular myelosis; polyneuritis, radiculitis, neuralgia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; children cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, peripheral nerve injury; skin diseases (psoriasis, photodermatosis, herpetiformis dermatitis, neurodermatitis); to prevent and treat symptoms of deficiency of Provital (Vitamin B12) (including the application of biguanide, PASA, vitamin C in high doses); radiation sickness.

Dosage and administration

Provital is used as injections SC, IV, IM, intralumbar, and also oral. With anemia associated with Provital (Vitamin B12) deficiency is introduced on 100-200 mcg in 2 days. In anemia with symptoms of funicular myelosis and megalocytic anemia with diseases of the nervous system - 400-500 micrograms in the first 7 days daily, then 1 time every 5-7 days. In the period of remission in the absence of events funicular myelosis maintenance dose - 100 mcg 2 times a month, in the presence of neurological symptoms - at 200-400 mcg 2-4 times a month. In acute post-hemorrhagic anemia and iron anemia by 30-100 mcg 2-3 times a week. When aplastic anemia (especially in children) - 100 micrograms before clinical improvement. When nutritional anemia in infants and preterm - 30 mcg / day during 15 days.

In diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system and neurological diseases with a pain syndrome is administered in increasing doses - 200-500 mcg, with the improvement in the state - 100 mcg / day. The course of treatment with Provital (Vitamin B12) is 2 weeks. In traumatic lesions of peripheral nervous system - at 200-400 mcg every other day for 40-45 days.

When hepatitis and cirrhosis - 30-60 mcg / day or 100 mg every other day for 25-40 days.

Dystrophy in young children, Down syndrome and cerebral palsy - by 15-30 mcg every other day.

When funicular myelosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis can be introduced into the spinal canal at 15-30 mcg, gradually increasing the dose of 200-250 micrograms.

In radiation sickness, diabetic neuropathy, sprue - by 60-100 mcg daily for 20-30 days.

When deficiency of Provital (Vitamin B12) to prevent - IV or IM for 1 mg 1 time a month; for treatment - IV or IM for 1 mg daily for 1-2 weeks, the maintenance dose is 1-2 mg IV or IM from 1 per week, up to 1 per month. Duration of treatment is determined individually.

Provital (Vitamin B12) side effects, adverse reactions

CNS: rarely - a state of arousal.

Cardiovascular system: rarely - pain in the heart, tachycardia.

Allergic reactions: rarely - urticaria.

Provital contraindications

Thromboembolism, erythremia, erythrocytosis, increased sensitivity to cyanocobalamin.

Provital using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

Cyanocobalamin can be used in pregnancy according to prescriptions.

Special instructions

When stenocardia should be used with caution in a single dose of Provital 100 mcg. During treatment should regularly monitor the blood picture and coagulation. It is unacceptable to enter in the same syringe with cyanocobalamin solutions of thiamine and pyridoxine.

Provital (Vitamin B12) drug interactions

In an application of Provital (Vitamin B12) with hormonal contraceptives for oral administration may decrease the concentration of cyanocobalamin in plasma.

In an application with anticonvulsant drugs decreased cyanocobalamin absorption from the gut.

In an Provital (Vitamin B12) application with neomycin, aminosalicylic acid, colchicine, cimetidine, ranitidine, drugs potassium decreased cyanocobalamin absorption from the gut.

Cyanocobalamin may exacerbate allergic reactions caused by thiamine.

When parenteral application of chloramphenicol may decrease the hematopoietic effects of cyanocobalamin with anemia.

Pharmaceutical incompatibility

Contained in the molecule of cyanocobalamin cobalt ion contributes to the destruction of ascorbic acid, thiamine bromide, riboflavin in one solution.

Vitamin E:


A generic descriptor for all tocopherols and tocotrienols that exhibit alpha-tocopherol activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of isoprenoids.

Indication: Provital (Vitamin E), known for its antioxidant activities, is protective against cardiovascular disease and some forms of cancer and has also demonstrated immune-enhancing effects. It may be of limited benefit in some with asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. It may be helpful in some neurological diseases including Alzheimer's, some eye disorders including cataracts, and diabetes and premenstrual syndrome. It may also help protect skin from ultraviolet irradiation although claims that it reverses skin aging, enhances male fertility and exercise performance are poorly supported. It may help relieve some muscle cramps.

Provital (Vitamin E) has antioxidant activity. It may also have anti-atherogenic, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, neuroprotective, antiviral, immunomodulatory, cell membrane-stabilizing and antiproliferative actions. Provital (Vitamin E) is a collective term used to describe eight separate forms, the best-known form being alpha-tocopherol. Provital (Vitamin E) is a fat-soluble vitamin and is an important antioxidant. It acts to protect cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of the body's metabolism. Provital (Vitamin E) is often used in skin creams and lotions because it is believed to play a role in encouraging skin healing and reducing scarring after injuries such as burns. There are three specific situations when a Provital (Vitamin E) deficiency is likely to occur. It is seen in persons who cannot absorb dietary fat, has been found in premature, very low birth weight infants (birth weights less than 1500 grams, or 3½ pounds), and is seen in individuals with rare disorders of fat metabolism. A Provital (Vitamin E) deficiency is usually characterized by neurological problems due to poor nerve conduction. Symptoms may include infertility, neuromuscular impairment, menstrual problems, miscarriage and uterine degradation. Preliminary research has led to a widely held belief that Provital (Vitamin E) may help prevent or delay coronary heart disease. Antioxidants such as Provital (Vitamin E) help protect against the damaging effects of free radicals, which may contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer. It also protects other fat-soluble vitamins (A and B group vitamins) from destruction by oxygen. Low levels of Provital (Vitamin E) have been linked to increased incidence of breast and colon cancer.

Zinc:


INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Provital (Zinc) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is indicated for use as a supplement to intravenous solutions given for TPN. Administration helps to maintain Provital (Zinc) serum levels and to prevent depletion of endogenous stores, and subsequent deficiency symptoms.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

None known.

WARNINGS

Direct intramuscular or intravenous injection of Provital (Zinc) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is contraindicated as the acidic pH of the solution (2) may cause considerable tissue irritation.

Severe kidney disease may make it necessary to reduce or omit chromium and Provital (Zinc) doses because these elements are primarily eliminated in the urine.

WARNING: This product contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.

Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Do not use unless the solution is clear and the seal is intact.

Zinc 1 mg/mL should only be used in conjunction with a pharmacy directed admixture program using aseptic technique in a laminar flow environment; it should be used promptly and in a single operation without any repeated penetrations. Solution contains no preservatives; discard unused portion immediately after admixture procedure is completed.

Zinc should not be given undiluted by direct injection into a peripheral vein because of the likelihood of infusion phlebitis and the potential for increased excretory loss of Provital (Zinc) from a bolus injection. Administration of Provital (Zinc) in the absence of copper may cause a decrease in serum copper levels.

Laboratory Tests

Periodic determinations of serum copper as well as Provital (Zinc) are suggested as a guideline for subsequent Provital (Zinc) administration.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility

Long-term animal studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Provital 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) have not been performed, nor have studies been done to assess mutagenesis or impairment of fertility.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Provital (Zinc) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Pregnancy Category C. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Provital chloride. It is also not known whether Provital (Zinc) chloride can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Provital (Zinc) chloride should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Geriatric Use

An evaluation of current literature revealed no clinical experience identifying differences in response between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

None known.

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

None known.

OVERDOSAGE

Single intravenous doses of 1 to 2 mg zinc/kg body weight have been given to adult leukemic patients without toxic manifestations. However, acute toxicity was reported in an adult when 10 mg Provital (Zinc) was infused over a period of one hour on each of four consecutive days. Profuse sweating, decreased level of consciousness, blurred vision, tachycardia (140/min), and marked hypothermia (94.2° F) on the fourth day were accompanied by a serum Provital (Zinc) concentration of 207 mcg/dl. Symptoms abated within three hours.

Hyperamylasemia may be a sign of impending Provital (Zinc) overdosage; patients receiving an inadvertent overdose (25 mg zinc/liter of TPN solution, equivalent to 50 to 70 mg zinc/day) developed hyperamylasemia (557 to 1850 Klein units; normal: 130 to 310).

Death resulted from an overdosage in which 1683 mg Provital (Zinc) was delivered intravenously over the course of 60 hours to a 72 year old patient.

Symptoms of Provital (Zinc) toxicity included hypotension (80/40 mm Hg), pulmonary edema, diarrhea, vomiting, jaundice, and oliguria, with a serum Provital (Zinc) level of 4184 mcg/dl.

Calcium supplements may confer a protective effect against Provital (Zinc) toxicity.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Provital (Zinc) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) contains 1 mg zinc/mL and is administered intravenously only after dilution. The additive should be diluted prior to administration in a volume of fluid not less than 100 mL. For the metabolically stable adult receiving TPN, the suggested intravenous dosage is 2.5 to 4 mg zinc/day (2.5 to 4 mL/day). An additional 2 mg zinc/day (2 mL/day) is suggested for acute catabolic states. For the stable adult with fluid loss from the small bowel, an additional 12.2 mg zinc/liter of small bowel fluid lost (12.2 mL/liter of small bowel fluid lost), or an additional 17.1 mg zinc/kg of stool or ileostomy output (17.1 mL/kg of stool or ileostomy output) is recommended. Frequent monitoring of Provital (Zinc) blood levels is suggested for patients receiving more than the usual maintenance dosage level of Provital (Zinc).

For full term infants and children up to 5 years of age, 100 mcg zinc/kg/day (0.1 mL/kg/day) is recommended. For premature infants (birth weight less than 1500 g) up to 3 kg in body weight, 300 mcg zinc/kg/day (0.3 mL/kg/day) is suggested.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. See PRECAUTIONS.

HOW SUPPLIED

Provital (Zinc) 1 mg/mL (Zinc Chloride Injection, USP) is supplied in 10 mL Plastic Vials (List No. 4090).

Store at 20 to 25°C (68 to 77°F).

Revised: October, 2004


© Hospira 2004 EN-0488 Printed in USA

HOSPIRA, INC., LAKE FOREST, IL 60045 USA

10 mL Vial

Provital (Zinc)

1 mg/mL

Provital (Zinc) Chloride Inj., USP

Rx only

FOR I.V. USE ONLY AFTER DILUTION.

HOSPIRA, INC., LAKE FOREST, IL 60045 USA

Provital pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

infoActive ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Provital available forms, composition, doses:

infoForm of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Provital destination | category:

infoDestination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Provital Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

infoA medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Provital pharmaceutical companies:

infoPharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."ZINC INJECTABLE A 1MG/ML, SOLUTION INJECTABLE POUR PERFUSION (ZINC) INJECTION, SOLUTION [LABORATOIRE AGUETTANT]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."FOLIC ACID INJECTION, SOLUTION [FRESENIUS KABI USA, LLC]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. Dailymed."VITAL E - 500 (VITAMIN E) INJECTION, EMULSION [STUART PRODUCTS, INC.]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Provital?

Depending on the reaction of the Provital after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Provital not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Provital addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sDrugs.com conducted a study on Provital, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Provital consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

Visitor reports

One visitor reported side effects

Did you get side effects while taking the Provital drug, or were there no side effects?
According to the survey conducted by website sDrugs.com users, the below-mentioned percentages indicate the number of people experiencing the side effects and the number of people not experiencing the side effects when taking Provital medicine. Every drug produces minimal side effects, and they are negligible most times, when compared to the desired effect [use] of the medicine. Side effects depend on the dose you are taking, any drug interactions that happen when you are on other medications, if the patient is sensitive, and other associated conditions. If you cannot tolerate the side effects, consult your doctor immediately, so he can either adjust the dose or change the medication.
Visitors%
No side effects1
100.0%

Two visitors reported doses

What is the dose of Provital drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sDrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 1-5mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
Visitors%
1-5mg1
50.0%
51-100mg1
50.0%

Four visitors reported time for results

What is the time duration Provital drug must be taken for it to be effective or for it to reduce the symptoms?
Most chronic conditions need at least some time so the dose and the drug action gets adjusted to the body to get the desired effect. The stastistics say sDrugs.com website users needed 1 week to notice the result from using Provital drug. The time needed to show improvement in health condition after using the medicine Provital need not be same for all the users. It varies based on other factors.
Visitors%
1 week1
25.0%
2 days1
25.0%
1 month1
25.0%
5 days1
25.0%

One visitor reported administration

The drugs are administered in various routes, like oral or injection form. They are administered before food or after food. How are you taking Provital drug, before food or after food?
Click here to find out how other users of our website are taking it. For any doubts or queries on how and when the medicine is administered, contact your health care provider immediately.
Visitors%
With a meal1
100.0%

Eight visitors reported age

Visitors%
16-295
62.5%
30-451
12.5%
46-601
12.5%
> 601
12.5%

Visitor reviews


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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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