DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Protocort Spray is indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate plaque psoriasis in patients 18 years of age or older.
Protocort Spray is a corticosteroid indicated for the treatment of mild to moderate plaque psoriasis in patients 18 years of age or older. (1)
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Shake well before use.
Apply Protocort Spray to the affected skin areas twice daily and rub in gently.
Use Protocort Spray for up to 4 weeks of treatment. Treatment beyond 4 weeks is not recommended.
Discontinue Protocort Spray when control is achieved.
Do not use if atrophy is present at the treatment site.
Do not bandage, cover, or wrap the treated skin area unless directed by a physician.
Avoid use on the face, scalp, axilla, groin, or other intertriginous areas.
Protocort Spray is for topical use only. It is not for oral, ophthalmic, or intravaginal use.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Spray, 0.05% for topical use. Each gram of Protocort Spray contains 0.643 mg Protocort USP (equivalent to 0.5 mg betamethasone) in a slightly thickened, white to off-white oil-in-water emulsion.
Spray: 0.05% (equivalent to 0.5 mg betamethasone/g) (3)
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis Suppression and Other Unwanted Systemic Glucocorticoid Effects
Protocort Spray can produce reversible hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression with the potential for glucocorticosteroid insufficiency. This may occur during or after withdrawal of treatment. Factors that predispose to HPA axis suppression include the use of high-potency corticosteroids, large treatment surface areas, prolonged use, use of occlusive dressings, altered skin barrier, liver failure, and young age.
Evaluation for HPA axis suppression may be done by using the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test.
In a study including 48 evaluable subjects 18 years of age or older with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis, abnormal ACTH stimulation test results suggestive of adrenal suppression were identified in 5 out of 24 (20.8%) subjects after treatment with Protocort Spray twice daily for 15 days. No subject (0 out of 24) had abnormal ACTH stimulation test results after treatment with Protocort Spray twice daily for 29 days .
If HPA axis suppression is documented, gradually withdraw the drug, reduce the frequency of application, or substitute with a less potent corticosteroid. If signs and symptoms of steroid withdrawal occur, supplemental systemic corticosteroids may be required.
Systemic effects of topical corticosteroids may also manifest as Cushing’s syndrome, hyperglycemia, and glucosuria. These events are rare and generally occur after prolonged exposure to larger than recommended doses, particularly with high-potency topical corticosteroids.
Minimize the unwanted risks from endocrine effects by mitigating the risk factors favoring increased systemic bioavailability and by using the product as recommended .
Pediatric patients may be more susceptible to systemic toxicity due to their larger skin surface to body mass ratios. Use of Protocort Spray is not recommended in pediatric patients .
5.2 Allergic Contact Dermatitis
Allergic contact dermatitis with corticosteroids is usually diagnosed by observing failure to heal rather than noting a clinical exacerbation. Corroborate such an observation with appropriate diagnostic patch testing. If irritation develops, discontinue the topical corticosteroid and institute appropriate therapy.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The most common adverse reactions are application site reactions, including pruritus, burning and/or stinging, pain, and atrophy. (6.1)
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Promius Pharma, LLC. at 1-888-966-8766 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
In two randomized, multicenter, prospective vehicle-controlled clinical trials, subjects with moderate plaque psoriasis of the body applied Protocort Spray or vehicle spray twice daily for 4 weeks. A total of 352 subjects applied Protocort Spray and 180 subjects applied vehicle spray.
Adverse reactions that occurred in at least 1% of subjects treated with Protocort Spray for up to 28 days are presented in Table 1.
Less common adverse reactions (with occurrence lower than 1% but higher than 0.1%) in subjects treated with Protocort spray were application site reactions including telangiectasia, dermatitis, discoloration, folliculitis and skin rash, in addition to dysgeusia and hyperglycemia. These adverse reactions were not observed in subjects treated with vehicle.
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
Because adverse reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Postmarketing reports for local adverse reactions to topical corticosteroids have also included striae, irritation, dryness, acneiform eruptions, hypopigmentation, perioral dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, secondary infection, hypertrichosis, and miliaria.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Protocort Spray should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Protocort has been shown to be teratogenic in rabbits when given by the intramuscular route at doses of 0.05 mg/kg. The abnormalities observed included umbilical hernias, cephalocele, and cleft palate.
8.3 Nursing Mothers
Systemically administered corticosteroids appear in human milk and can suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other untoward effects. It is not known whether topical administration of corticosteroids can result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Protocort Spray is administered to a nursing woman.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness of Protocort Spray in patients younger than 18 years of age have not been studied; therefore use in pediatric patients is not recommended. Because of a higher ratio of skin surface area to body mass, pediatric patients are at greater risk of systemic toxicity, including HPA axis suppression and adrenal insufficiency, when treated with topical drugs. [see Warnings and Precautions ]
Rare systemic effects such as Cushing's syndrome, linear growth retardation, delayed weight gain, and intracranial hypertension have been reported in pediatric patients, especially those with prolonged exposure to large doses of high potency topical corticosteroids.
Local adverse reactions including skin atrophy have also been reported with use of topical corticosteroids in pediatric patients.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Clinical studies of Protocort Spray did not include sufficient numbers of subjects who were 65 years of age or older to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.
Protocort Spray contains 0.0643% Protocort (equivalent to 0.05% betamethasone), a synthetic, fluorinated corticosteroid.
The chemical name for Protocort is 9-fluoro-11(β), 17, 21-trihydroxy-16(β)-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione-17,21-dipropionate. The empirical formula is C28H37FO7 and the molecular weight is 504.6. The structural formula is shown below.
Each gram of Protocort Spray contains 0.643 mg of Protocort USP (equivalent to 0.5 mg betamethasone) in a slightly thickened, white to off-white, oil-in-water, non-sterile emulsion with the following inactive ingredients:, butylated hydroxytoluene, cetostearyl alcohol, hydroxyethyl cellulose, methylparaben, mineral oil, oleyl alcohol, polyoxyl 20 cetostearyl ether, propylparaben, purified water, and sorbitan monostearate. Protocort Spray is co-packaged with a manual spray pump for installation by the pharmacist prior to dispensing to patients.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Corticosteroids play a role in cellular signaling, immune function, inflammation, and protein regulation; however, the precise mechanism of action of Protocort Spray in psoriasis is unknown.
Vasoconstrictor studies performed with Protocort Spray in healthy subjects indicate that it is in the mid-range of potency as compared with other topical corticosteroids; however, similar blanching scores do not necessarily imply therapeutic equivalence.
The potential for HPA axis suppression by Protocort Spray was evaluated in a study randomizing 52 adult subjects with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Protocort Spray was applied twice daily for 15 or 29 days, in subjects with psoriasis involving a mean of 29.0% and 26.5% body surface area at baseline across the 2 treatment duration arms, respectively. Forty-eight subjects were evaluated for HPA axis suppression at the end of treatment. The proportion of subjects demonstrating HPA axis suppression was 20.8% (5 out of 24) in subjects treated with Protocort Spray for 15 days. No subjects (0 out of 24) treated with Protocort Spray for 29 days had HPA axis suppression. In this study HPA axis suppression was defined as serum cortisol level ≤18 mcg/dL 30-minutes post-cosyntropin stimulation. In the 4 subjects with available follow-up values, all subjects had normal ACTH stimulation tests at follow-up.
The extent of percutaneous absorption of topical corticosteroids is determined by many factors including the vehicle, the integrity of the epidermal barrier, and the use of occlusive dressings.
Topical corticosteroids are absorbed through normal intact skin. Inflammation and/or other disease processes in the skin may increase percutaneous absorption.
Plasma concentrations of Protocort, betamethasone-17-propionate, and betamethasone were measured at baseline, and before and after the last dose (1, 3, and 6 hours) in the HPA axis suppression trial in subjects with psoriasis [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. The majority of subjects had no measurable plasma concentration (<5.00 pg/mL) of Protocort, while the metabolites, betamethasone-17-propionate and betamethasone, were detected in the majority of subjects (Table 2). There was high variability in the data but there was a trend toward higher systemic exposure at Day 15 and lower systemic exposure at Day 29.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term animal studies have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Protocort.
In a 90-day repeat-dose toxicity study in rats, topical administration of Protocort spray formulation at dose concentrations of 0.05% and 0.1% (providing dose levels up to 0.5 mg/kg/day in males and 0.25 mg/kg/day in females) resulted in a toxicity profile consistent with long-term exposure to corticosteroids including reduced body weight gain, adrenal atrophy, and histological changes in bone marrow, thymus and spleen indicative of severe immune suppression. A no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) could not be determined in this study. Although the clinical relevance of the findings in animals to humans is not clear, sustained glucocorticoid-related immune suppression may increase the risk of infection and possibly the risk of carcinogenesis.
Betamethasone was negative in the bacterial mutagenicity assay (Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli), and in the mammalian cell mutagenicity assay (CHO/HGPRT). It was positive in the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosome aberration assay, and equivocal in the in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay.
Studies in rabbits, mice, and rats using intramuscular doses up to 1, 33, and 2 mg/kg, respectively, resulted in dose-related increases in fetal resorptions in rabbits and mice.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
Two multi-center, randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled clinical trials were conducted in subjects aged 18 years and older with moderate plaque psoriasis. In both trials, randomized subjects applied Protocort Spray or vehicle spray to the affected areas twice daily for 28 days. Enrolled subjects had body surface area of involvement between 10% to 20%, and an Investigator Global Assessment (IGA) score of 3 (moderate).
Efficacy was assessed as the proportion of subjects who were considered a treatment success (defined as having an IGA score of 0 or 1 [clear or almost clear] and at least a 2-grade reduction from baseline). Table 3 presents the efficacy results at Day 15 and Day 29.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
16.1 How Supplied/Storage
Protocort Spray is a slightly thickened, white to off-white, non-sterile emulsion supplied in high density polyethylene bottles with a heat induction seal lined polypropylene cap. The drug is supplied in the following volumes:
Store at controlled room temperature of 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F), excursions permitted to 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) .
Each unit is co-packaged with a manual spray pump for installation by the pharmacist prior to dispensing.
16.2 Handling/Instructions for the Pharmacist
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Patient Information and Instructions for Use).
Inform patients of the following:
Manufactured by: DPT Laboratories, Ltd., San Antonio, TX 78215
Distributed by: Promius Pharma, LLC., Princeton, NJ 08540
Protocort is a trademark of Promius Pharma, LLC.
Instructions for Use
Important: Protocort Spray is for use on the skin only. Do not get Protocort Spray near or in your eyes, mouth, or vagina.
Read this “Instructions for Use” before you start using Protocort Spray and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This information does not take the place of talking with your doctor about your medical condition or treatment.
Parts of the Protocort Spray bottle.
How to apply Protocort Spray:
Step 1: Shake the Protocort Spray bottle well. Remove the cap from the pump top.
Step 2: Hold the bottle in an upright position while pointing the opening of the pump top in the direction of the affected area. To spray, push down on the pump top. Apply Protocort Spray to the affected area as instructed by your doctor. (See Figure B )
Step 3: Spray only enough Protocort Spray to cover the affected area, for example, the elbow (See Figure C ). Rub in Protocort Spray gently.
Repeat Steps 2 and 3 to apply Protocort Spray to other affected areas as instructed by your doctor.
Step 4: After applying Protocort Spray, place the cap back onto the pump top. (See Figure D )
How should I store Protocort Spray?
Keep Protocort Spray and all medicines out of the reach of children.
This “Instructions for Use” has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Manufactured by: DPT Laboratories, Ltd., San Antonio, TX 78215
Distributed by: Promius Pharma, LLC., Princeton, NJ 08540
Protocort is a trademark of Promius Pharma, LLC.
Protocort pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Protocort available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Protocort destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Protocort Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Protocort pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Protocort?
Depending on the reaction of the Protocort after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Protocort not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Protocort addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Protocort, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Protocort consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
Visitor reported usefulNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported side effectsNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported price estimatesNo survey data has been collected yet
One visitor reported frequency of useHow often in a day do you take the medicine?
Are you taking the Protocort drug as prescribed by the doctor?
Few medications can be taken Once in a day more than prescribed when the doctor's advice mentions the medicine can be taken according to frequency or severity of symptoms. Most times, be very careful and clear about the number of times you are taking the medication. The report of sdrugs.com website users about the frequency of taking the drug Protocort is mentioned below.
Visitor reported dosesNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported time for resultsNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported administrationNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported ageNo survey data has been collected yet
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology