Protocide

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Protocide uses


WARNING: POTENTIAL RISK FOR CARCINOGENICITY

Carcinogenicity has been seen in mice and rats treated chronically with metronidazole, another nitroimidazole agent ( 13.1). Although such data have not been reported for Protocide, the two drugs are structurally related and have similar biologic effects. Its use should be reserved for the conditions described in INDICATIONS AND USAGE ( 1).

WARNING: POTENTIAL RISK FOR CARCINOGENICITY

See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.

Carcinogenicity has been seen in mice and rats treated chronically with metronidazole, another nitroimidazole agent ( 13.1). Although such data have not been reported for Protocide, the two drugs are structurally related and have similar biologic effects. Use should be limited to approved indications only.

Indications and Usage, Bacterial Vaginosis ( 1.4) 5/2007

Dosage and Administration, Bacterial Vaginosis ( 2.6) 5/2007

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Protocide is a nitroimidazole antimicrobial indicated for:

  • Trichomoniasis
  • Giardiasis: in patients age 3 and older ( 1.2)
  • Amebiasis: in patients age 3 and older ( 1.3)
  • Bacterial Vaginosis: in non-pregnant, adult women ( 1.4, 8.1)

1.1 Trichomoniasis

Protocide is indicated for the treatment of trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis. The organism should be identified by appropriate diagnostic procedures. Because trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease with potentially serious sequelae, partners of infected patients should be treated simultaneously in order to prevent re-infection .

1.2 Giardiasis

Protocide is indicated for the treatment of giardiasis caused by Giardia duodenalis in both adults and pediatric patients older than three years of age .

1.3 Amebiasis

Protocide is indicated for the treatment of intestinal amebiasis and amebic liver abscess caused by Entamoeba histolytica in both adults and pediatric patients older than three years of age. It is not indicated in the treatment of asymptomatic cyst passage .

1.4 Bacterial Vaginosis

Protocide is indicated for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (formerly referred to as Haemophilus vaginitis, Gardnerella vaginitis, nonspecific vaginitis, or anaerobic vaginosis) in non-pregnant women .

Other pathogens commonly associated with vulvovaginitis such as Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans and Herpes simplex virus should be ruled out.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Protocide and other antibacterial drugs, Protocide should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

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2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

  • Trichomoniasis: a single 2 g oral dose taken with food. Treat sexual partners with the same dose and at the same time
  • Giardiasis: Adults: a single 2 g dose taken with food. Pediatric patients older than three years of age: a single dose of 50 mg/kg (up to 2 g) with food ( 2.4)
  • Amebiasis, Intestinal: Adults: 2 g per day for 3 days with food. Pediatric patients older than three years of age: 50 mg/kg/day (up to 2 g per day) for 3 days with food ( 2.5). Amebic liver abscess: Adults: 2 g per day for 3-5 days with food. Pediatric patients older than three years of age: 50 mg/kg/day (up to 2 g per day) for 3-5 days with food ( 2.5)
  • Bacterial vaginosis: Non-pregnant, adult women: 2 g once daily for 2 days taken with food, or 1 g once daily for 5 days taken with food ( 2.6)

2.1 Dosing Instructions

It is advisable to take Protocide with food to minimize the incidence of epigastric discomfort and other gastrointestinal side-effects. Food does not affect the oral bioavailability of Protocide .

Alcoholic beverages should be avoided when taking Protocide and for 3 days afterwards .

2.2 Compounding of the Oral Suspension

For those unable to swallow tablets, Protocide tablets may be crushed in artificial cherry syrup to be taken with food.

Procedure for Extemporaneous Pharmacy Compounding of the Oral Suspension: Pulverize four 500 mg oral tablets with a mortar and pestle. Add approximately 10 mL of cherry syrup to the powder and mix until smooth. Transfer the suspension to a graduated amber container. Use several small rinses of cherry syrup to transfer any remaining drug in the mortar to the final suspension for a final volume of 30 mL. The suspension of crushed tablets in artificial cherry syrup is stable for 7 days at room temperature. When this suspension is used, it should be shaken well before each administration.

2.3 Trichomoniasis

The recommended dose in both females and males is a single 2 g oral dose taken with food. Since trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted disease, sexual partners should be treated with the same dose and at the same time.

2.4 Giardiasis

The recommended dose in adults is a single 2 g dose taken with food. In pediatric patients older than three years of age, the recommended dose is a single dose of 50 mg/kg with food.

2.5 Amebiasis

Intestinal: The recommended dose in adults is a 2 g dose per day for 3 days taken with food. In pediatric patients older than three years of age, the recommended dose is 50 mg/kg/day (up to 2 g per day) for 3 days with food.

Amebic Liver Abscess: The recommended dose in adults is a 2 g dose per day for 3-5 days taken with food. In pediatric patients older than three years of age, the recommended dose is 50 mg/kg/day (up to 2 g per day) for 3-5 days with food. There are limited pediatric data on durations of therapy exceeding 3 days, although a small number of children were treated for 5 days without additional reported adverse reactions. Children should be closely monitored when treatment durations exceed 3 days.

2.6 Bacterial Vaginosis

The recommended dose in non-pregnant females is a 2 g oral dose once daily for 2 days taken with food or a 1 g oral dose once daily for 5 days taken with food. The use of Protocide in pregnant patients has not been studied for bacterial vaginosis.

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3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

  • 500 mg tablets are pink, oval, scored tablets, with TM debossed on one side and 500 on the other

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

The use of Protocide is contraindicated:

  • In patients with a previous history of hypersensitivity to Protocide or other nitroimidazole derivatives. Reported reactions have ranged in severity from urticaria to Stevens-Johnson syndrome .
  • During first trimester of pregnancy .
  • In nursing mothers: Interruption of breast-feeding is recommended during Protocide therapy and for 3 days following the last dose .
  • Prior history of hypersensitivity to Protocide or other nitroimidazole derivatives ( 4, 6.1, 6.2)
  • First trimester of pregnancy ( 4, 8.1)
  • Nursing mothers, unless breast-feeding is interrupted during Protocide therapy and for 3 days following the last dose ( 4, 8.3)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Seizures and neuropathy have been reported. Discontinue Protocide if abnormal neurologic signs develop
  • Vaginal candidiasis may develop with Protocide and require treatment with an antifungal agent ( 5.2)
  • Use Protocide with caution in patients with blood dyscrasias. Protocide may produce transient leukopenia and neutropenia ( 5.3, 7.3)

5.1 Neurological Adverse Reactions

Convulsive seizures and peripheral neuropathy, the latter characterized mainly by numbness or paresthesia of an extremity, have been reported in patients treated with Protocide. The appearance of abnormal neurologic signs demands the prompt discontinuation of Protocide therapy.

5.2 Vaginal Candidiasis

The use of Protocide may result in Candida vaginitis. In a clinical study of 235 women who received Protocide for bacterial vaginosis, a vaginal fungal infection developed in 11 of all study subjects .

5.3 Blood Dyscrasia

Protocide should be used with caution in patients with evidence of or history of blood dyscrasia .

5.4 Drug Resistance

Prescribing Protocide in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

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6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

Most common adverse reactions for a single 2 g dose of Protocide are metallic/bitter taste, nausea, weakness/fatigue/malaise, dyspepsia/cramps/epigastric discomfort, vomiting, anorexia, headache, dizziness and constipation ( 6.1)

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Mission Pharmacal Company at 1-855-778-0177or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch

6.1 Clinical Studies Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Among 3669 patients treated with a single 2 g dose of Protocide, in both controlled and uncontrolled trichomoniasis and giardiasis clinical studies, adverse reactions were reported by 11.0% of patients. For multi-day dosing in controlled and uncontrolled amebiasis studies, adverse reactions were reported by 13.8% of 1765 patients. Common (≥ 1% incidence) adverse reactions reported by body system are as follows. (Note: Data described in Table 1 below are pooled from studies with variable designs and safety evaluations.)

Other adverse reactions reported with Protocide include:

Central Nervous System: Two serious adverse reactions reported include convulsions and transient peripheral neuropathy including numbness and paresthesia . Other CNS reports include vertigo, ataxia, giddiness, insomnia, drowsiness.

Gastrointestinal: tongue discoloration, stomatitis, diarrhea

Hypersensitivity: urticaria, pruritis, rash, flushing, sweating, dryness of mouth, fever, burning sensation, thirst, salivation, angioedema

Renal: darkened urine

Cardiovascular: palpitations

Hematopoietic: transient neutropenia, transient leukopenia

Other: Candida overgrowth, increased vaginal discharge, oral candidiasis, hepatic abnormalities including raised transaminase level, arthralgias, myalgias, and arthritis.

2 g single dose Multi-day dose
GI: Metallic/bitter taste 3.7% 6.3%
Nausea 3.2% 4.5%
Anorexia 1.5% 2.5%
Dyspepsia/cramps/epigastric discomfort 1.8% 1.4%
Vomiting 1.5% 0.9%
Constipation 0.4% 1.4%
CNS: Weakness/fatigue/malaise 2.1% 1.1%
Dizziness 1.1% 0.5%
Other: Headache 1.3% 0.7%
Total patients with adverse reactions 11.0%

(403/3669)

13.8%

(244/1765)

Rare reported adverse reactions include bronchospasm, dyspnea, coma, confusion, depression, furry tongue, pharyngitis and reversible thrombocytopenia.

Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients: In pooled pediatric studies, adverse reactions reported in pediatric patients taking Protocide were similar in nature and frequency to adult findings including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, taste change, anorexia, and abdominal pain.

Bacterial vaginosis: The most common adverse reactions in treated patients (incidence >2%), which were not identified in the trichomoniasis, giardiasis and amebiasis studies, are gastrointestinal: decreased appetite, and flatulence; renal: urinary tract infection, painful urination, and urine abnormality; and other reactions including pelvic pain, vulvo-vaginal discomfort, vaginal odor, menorrhagia, and upper respiratory tract infection .

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified and reported during post-approval use of Protocide. Because the reports of these reactions are voluntary and the population is of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate the frequency of the reaction or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Severe acute hypersensitivity reactions have been reported on initial or subsequent exposure to Protocide. Hypersensitivity reactions may include urticaria, pruritis, angioedema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and erythema multiforme.

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7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Although not specifically identified in studies with Protocide, the following drug interactions were reported for metronidazole, a chemically-related nitroimidazole. Therefore, these drug interactions may occur with Protocide.

The following drug interactions were reported for metronidazole, a chemically-related nitroimidazole and may therefore occur with Protocide:

  • Warfarin and other oral coumarin anticoagulants: Anticoagulant dosage may need adjustment during and up to 8 days after Protocide therapy
  • Alcohol-containing beverages/preparations: Avoid during and up to 3 days after Protocide therapy ( 7.1)
  • Lithium: Monitor serum lithium concentrations ( 7.1)
  • Cyclosporine, tacrolimus: Monitor for toxicities of these immunosuppressive drugs ( 7.1)
  • Fluorouracil: Monitor for fluorouracil-associated toxicities ( 7.1)
  • Phenytoin, fosphenytoin: Adjustment of anticonvulsant and/or Protocide dose(s) may be needed ( 7.1, 7.2)
  • CYP3A4 inducers/inhibitors: Monitor for decreased Protocide effect or increased adverse reactions ( 7.2)

7.1 Potential Effects of Protocide on Other Drugs

Warfarin and Other Oral Coumarin Anticoagulants: As with metronidazole, Protocide may enhance the effect of warfarin and other coumarin anticoagulants, resulting in a prolongation of prothrombin time. The dosage of oral anticoagulants may need to be adjusted during Protocide co-administration and up to 8 days after discontinuation.

Alcohols, Disulfiram: Alcoholic beverages and preparations containing ethanol or propylene glycol should be avoided during Protocide therapy and for 3 days afterward because abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and flushing may occur. Psychotic reactions have been reported in alcoholic patients using metronidazole and disulfiram concurrently. Though no similar reactions have been reported with Protocide, Protocide should not be given to patients who have taken disulfiram within the last two weeks.

Lithium: Metronidazole has been reported to elevate serum lithium levels. It is not known if Protocide shares this property with metronidazole, but consideration should be given to measuring serum lithium and creatinine levels after several days of simultaneous lithium and Protocide treatment to detect potential lithium intoxication.

Phenytoin, Fosphenytoin: Concomitant administration of oral metronidazole and intravenous phenytoin was reported to result in prolongation of the half-life and reduction in the clearance of phenytoin. Metronidazole did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of orally-administered phenytoin.

Cyclosporine, Tacrolimus: There are several case reports suggesting that metronidazole has the potential to increase the levels of cyclosporine and tacrolimus. During Protocide co-administration with either of these drugs, the patient should be monitored for signs of calcineurin-inhibitor associated toxicities.

Fluorouracil: Metronidazole was shown to decrease the clearance of fluorouracil, resulting in an increase in side-effects without an increase in therapeutic benefits. If the concomitant use of Protocide and fluorouracil cannot be avoided, the patient should be monitored for fluorouracil-associated toxicities.

7.2 Potential Effects of Other Drugs on Protocide

CYP3A4 Inducers and Inhibitors: Simultaneous administration of Protocide with drugs that induce liver microsomal enzymes, i.e., CYP3A4 inducers such as phenobarbital, rifampin, phenytoin, and fosphenytoin, may accelerate the elimination of Protocide, decreasing the plasma level of Protocide. Simultaneous administration of drugs that inhibit the activity of liver microsomal enzymes, i.e., CYP3A4 inhibitors such as cimetidine and ketoconazole, may prolong the half-life and decrease the plasma clearance of Protocide, increasing the plasma concentrations of Protocide.

Cholestyramine: Cholestyramine was shown to decrease the oral bioavailability of metronidazole by 21%. Thus, it is advisable to separate dosing of cholestyramine and Protocide to minimize any potential effect on the oral bioavailability of Protocide.

Oxytetracycline: Oxytetracycline was reported to antagonize the therapeutic effect of metronidazole.

7.3 Laboratory Test Interactions

Protocide, like metronidazole, may interfere with certain types of determinations of serum chemistry values, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST, SGOT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT, SGPT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, and hexokinase glucose. Values of zero may be observed. All of the assays in which interference has been reported involve enzymatic coupling of the assay to oxidation-reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD +↔ NADH). Potential interference is due to the similarity of absorbance peaks of NADH and Protocide.

Protocide, like metronidazole, may produce transient leukopenia and neutropenia; however, no persistent hematological abnormalities attributable to Protocide have been observed in clinical studies. Total and differential leukocyte counts are recommended if re-treatment is necessary.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

  • Pediatric Use: Data on Protocide use in children is limited to treatment of giardiasis and amebiasis in patients age 3 and older
  • Hemodialysis patients: If Protocide is administered the same day and prior to hemodialysis, administer an additional ½ dose after end of hemodialysis ( 8.6, 12.3)
See 17 for PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Revised: 5/2007

8.1 Pregnancy

Teratogenic effects: Pregnancy Category C

The use of Protocide in pregnant patients has not been studied. Since Protocide crosses the placental barrier and enters fetal circulation it should not be administered to pregnant patients in the first trimester.

Embryo-fetal developmental toxicity studies in pregnant mice indicated no embryo-fetal toxicity or malformations at the highest dose level of 2,500 mg/kg (approximately 6.3-fold the highest human therapeutic dose based upon body surface area conversions). In a study with pregnant rats a slightly higher incidence of fetal mortality was observed at a maternal dose of 500 mg/kg (2.5-fold the highest human therapeutic dose based upon body surface area conversions). No biologically relevant neonatal developmental effects were observed in rat neonates following maternal doses as high as 600 mg/kg (3-fold the highest human therapeutic dose based upon body surface area conversions). Although there is some evidence of mutagenic potential and animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, the use of Protocide after the first trimester of pregnancy requires that the potential benefits of the drug be weighed against the possible risks to both the mother and the fetus.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

Protocide is excreted in breast milk in concentrations similar to those seen in serum. Protocide can be detected in breast milk for up to 72 hours following administration. Interruption of breast-feeding is recommended during Protocide therapy and for 3 days following the last dose.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Other than for use in the treatment of giardiasis and amebiasis in pediatric patients older than three years of age, safety and effectiveness of Protocide in pediatric patients have not been established.

Pediatric Administration: For those unable to swallow tablets, Protocide tablets may be crushed in artificial cherry syrup, to be taken with food .

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Protocide did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

8.6 Renal Impairment

Because the pharmacokinetics of Protocide in patients with severe renal impairment are not significantly different from those in healthy subjects, no dose adjustments are necessary in these patients.

Patients undergoing hemodialysis: If Protocide is administered on the same day as and prior to hemodialysis, it is recommended that an additional dose of Protocide equivalent to one-half of the recommended dose be administered after the end of the hemodialysis .

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

There are no data on Protocide pharmacokinetics in patients with impaired hepatic function. Reduced elimination of metronidazole, a chemically-related nitroimidazole, has been reported in this population. Usual recommended doses of Protocide should be administered cautiously in patients with hepatic dysfunction .

10 OVERDOSAGE

There are no reported overdoses with Protocide in humans.

Treatment of Overdosage: There is no specific antidote for the treatment of overdosage with Protocide; therefore, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. Gastric lavage may be helpful. Hemodialysis can be considered because approximately 43% of the amount present in the body is eliminated during a 6-hour hemodialysis session.

11 DESCRIPTION

Protocide is a synthetic antiprotozoal and antibacterial agent. It is 1-[2-(ethylsulfonyl)ethyl]-2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, a second-generation 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole, which has the following chemical structure:

Protocide pink oral tablets contain 500 mg of Protocide. Inactive ingredients include croscarmellose sodium, FD&C Red 40 lake, FD&C Yellow 6 lake, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polydextrose, polyethylene glycol, pregelatinized corn starch, titanium dioxide, and triacetin.

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12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Protocide is an antiprotozoal, antibacterial agent. .

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption: After oral administration, Protocide is rapidly and completely absorbed. A bioavailability study of Protocide tablets was conducted in adult healthy volunteers. All subjects received a single oral dose of 2 g (four 500 mg tablets) of Protocide following an overnight fast. Oral administration of four 500 mg tablets of Protocide under fasted conditions produced a mean peak plasma concentration (C max) of 47.7 (±7.5) µg/mL with a mean time to peak concentration (T max) of 1.6 (±0.7) hours, and a mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC, 0-∞) of 901.6 (± 126.5) µg/hr/mL at 72 hours. The elimination half-life (T 1/2) was 13.2 (±1.4) hours. Mean plasma levels decreased to 14.3 µg/mL at 24 hours, 3.8 µg/mL at 48 hours and 0.8 µg/mL at 72 hours following administration. Steady-state conditions are reached in 2½ - 3 days of multi-day dosing.

Administration of Protocide tablets with food resulted in a delay in T max of approximately 2 hours and a decline in C max of approximately 10% , compared to fasted conditions. However, administration of Protocide with food did not affect AUC or T 1/2 in this study.

In healthy volunteers, administration of crushed Protocide tablets in artificial cherry syrup, [prepared as described in Dosage and Administration ( 2.2) ] after an overnight fast had no effect on any pharmacokinetic parameter as compared to tablets swallowed whole under fasted conditions.

Distribution: Protocide is distributed into virtually all tissues and body fluids and also crosses the blood-brain barrier. The apparent volume of distribution is about 50 liters. Plasma protein binding of Protocide is 12%. Protocide crosses the placental barrier and is secreted in breast milk.

Metabolism: Protocide is significantly metabolized in humans prior to excretion. Protocide is partly metabolized by oxidation, hydroxylation, and conjugation. Protocide is the major drug-related constituent in plasma after human treatment, along with a small amount of the 2-hydroxymethyl metabolite.

Protocide is biotransformed mainly by CYP3A4. In an in vitro metabolic drug interaction study, Protocide concentrations of up to 75 µg/mL did not inhibit the enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4.

The potential of Protocide to induce the metabolism of other drugs has not been evaluated.

Elimination: The plasma half-life of Protocide is approximately 12-14 hours. Protocide is excreted by the liver and the kidneys. Protocide is excreted in the urine mainly as unchanged drug (approximately 20-25% of the administered dose). Approximately 12% of the drug is excreted in the feces.

Patients with impaired renal function: The pharmacokinetics of Protocide in patients with severe renal impairment (CrCL < 22 mL/min) are not significantly different from the pharmacokinetics seen in healthy subjects. However, during hemodialysis, clearance of Protocide is significantly increased; the half-life is reduced from 12.0 hours to 4.9 hours. Approximately 43% of the amount present in the body is eliminated during a 6-hour hemodialysis session . The pharmacokinetics of Protocide in patients undergoing routine continuous peritoneal dialysis have not been investigated.

Patients with impaired hepatic function: There are no data on Protocide pharmacokinetics in patients with impaired hepatic function. Reduction of metabolic elimination of metronidazole, a chemically-related nitroimidazole, in patients with hepatic dysfunction has been reported in several studies .

12.4 Microbiology

Mechanism of Action: Protocide is an antiprotozoal, antibacterial agent. The nitro- group of Protocide is reduced by cell extracts of Trichomonas. The free nitro- radical generated as a result of this reduction may be responsible for the antiprotozoal activity. Chemically reduced Protocide was shown to release nitrites and cause damage to purified bacterial DNA in vitro. Additionally, the drug caused DNA base changes in bacterial cells and DNA strand breakage in mammalian cells. The mechanism by which Protocide exhibits activity against Giardia and Entamoeba species is not known.

Antibacterial: Culture and sensitivity testing of bacteria are not routinely performed to establish the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis ; standard methodology for the susceptibility testing of potential bacterial pathogens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus spp. or Mycoplasma hominis, has not been defined. The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. Protocide is active in vitro against most strains of the following organisms that have been reported to be associated with bacterial vaginosis:

  • Bacteroides spp.
  • Gardnerella vaginalis
  • Prevotella spp.
Protocide does not appear to have activity against most strains of vaginal lactobacilli.

Antiprotozoal: Protocide demonstrates activity both in vitro and in clinical infections against the following protozoa: Trichomonas vaginalis; Giardia duodenalis (also termed G. lamblia); and Entamoeba histolytica.

For protozoal parasites, standardized susceptibility tests do not exist for use in clinical microbiology laboratories.

Drug Resistance: The development of resistance to Protocide by G. duodenalis, E. histolytica, or bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis has not been examined.

Cross-resistance: Approximately 38% of T. vaginalis isolates exhibiting reduced susceptibility to metronidazole also show reduced susceptibility to Protocide in vitro. The clinical significance of such an effect is not known.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Protocide and other antibacterial drugs, Protocide should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Metronidazole, a chemically-related nitroimidazole, has been reported to be carcinogenic in mice and rats but not hamsters. In several studies metronidazole showed evidence of pulmonary, hepatic, and lymphatic tumorigenesis in mice and mammary and hepatic tumors in female rats. Protocide carcinogenicity studies in rats, mice or hamsters have not been reported.

Protocide was mutagenic in the TA 100, S. typhimurium tester strain both with and without the metabolic activation system and was negative for mutagenicity in the TA 98 strain. Mutagenicity results were mixed in the TA 1535, 1537, and 1538 strains. Protocide was also mutagenic in a tester strain of Klebsiella pneumonia. Protocide was negative for mutagenicity in a mammalian cell culture system utilizing Chinese hamster lung V79 cells (HGPRT test system) and negative for genotoxicity in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) sister chromatid exchange assay. Protocide was positive for in vivo genotoxicity in the mouse micronucleus assay.

In a 60-day fertility study, Protocide reduced fertility and produced testicular histopathology in male rats at a 600 mg/kg/day dose level (approximately 3-fold the highest human therapeutic dose based upon body surface area conversions). Spermatogenic effects resulted from 300 and 600 mg/kg/day dose levels. The no observed adverse reaction level for testicular and spermatogenic effects was 100 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.5-fold the highest human therapeutic dose based upon body surface area conversions). This effect is characteristic of agents in the 5-nitroimidazole class.

13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

In acute studies with mice and rats, the LD 50 for mice was generally > 3,600 mg/kg for oral administration and was > 2,300 mg/kg for intraperitoneal administration. In rats, the LD 50 was > 2,000 mg/kg for both oral and intraperitoneal administration.

A repeated-dose toxicology study has been performed in beagle dogs using oral dosing of Protocide at 100 mg/kg/day, 300 mg/kg/day, and 1000 mg/kg/day for 28-days. On Day 18 of the study, the highest dose was lowered to 600 mg/kg/day due to severe clinical symptoms. The two compound-related effects observed in the dogs treated with Protocide were increased atrophy of the thymus in both sexes at the middle and high doses, and atrophy of the prostate at all doses in the males. A no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 100 mg/kg/day for females was determined. There was no NOAEL identified for males because of minimal atrophy of the prostate at 100 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.9-fold the highest human dose based upon plasma AUC comparisons).

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Trichomoniasis

Protocide use in trichomoniasis has been well documented in 34 published reports from the world literature involving over 2,800 patients treated with Protocide. In four published, blinded, randomized, comparative studies of the 2 g Protocide single oral dose where efficacy was assessed by culture at time points post-treatment ranging from one week to one month, reported cure rates ranged from 92% (37/40) to 100% (65/65) (n=172 total subjects). In four published, blinded, randomized, comparative studies where efficacy was assessed by wet mount between 7-14 days post-treatment, reported cure rates ranged from 80% (8/10) to 100% (16/16) (n=116 total subjects). In these studies, Protocide was superior to placebo and comparable to other anti-trichomonal drugs. The single oral 2 g Protocide dose was also assessed in four open-label trials in men (one comparative to metronidazole and 3 single-arm studies). Parasitological evaluation of the urine was performed both pre- and post-treatment and reported cure rates ranged from 83% (25/30) to 100% (80/80) (n=142 total subjects).

14.2 Giardiasis

Protocide (2 g single dose) use in giardiasis has been documented in 19 published reports from the world literature involving over 1,600 patients (adults and pediatric patients). In eight controlled studies involving a total of 619 subjects of whom 299 were given the 2 g × 1 day (50 mg/kg × 1 day in pediatric patients) oral dose of Protocide, reported cure rates ranged from 80% (40/50) to 100% (15/15). In three of these trials where the comparator was 2 to 3 days of various doses of metronidazole, reported cure rates for metronidazole were 76% (19/25) to 93% (14/15). Data comparing a single 2 g dose of Protocide to usually recommended 5-7 days of metronidazole are limited.

14.3 Intestinal Amebiasis

Protocide use in intestinal amebiasis has been documented in 26 published reports from the world literature involving over 1,400 patients. Most reports utilized Protocide 2 g/day × 3 days. In four published, randomized, controlled studies of the 2 g/day × 3 days oral dose of Protocide, reported cure rates after 3 days of therapy among a total of 220 subjects ranged from 86% (25/29) to 93% (25/27).

14.4 Amebic Liver Abscess

Protocide use in amebic liver abscess has been documented in 18 published reports from the world literature involving over 470 patients. Most reports utilized Protocide 2 g/day × 2-5 days. In seven published, randomized, controlled studies (1 double-blind, 1 single-blind, 5 open-label) of the 2 g/day × 2-5 days oral dose of Protocide accompanied by aspiration of the liver abscess when clinically necessary, reported cure rates among 133 subjects ranged from 81% (17/21) to 100% (16/16). Four of these studies utilized at least 3 days of Protocide.

14.5 Bacterial Vaginosis

A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 235 non-pregnant women was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Protocide for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. A clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was based on Amsel's criteria and defined by the presence of an abnormal homogeneous vaginal discharge that (a) has a pH of greater than 4.5, (b) emits a "fishy" amine odor when mixed with a 10% KOH solution, and (c) contains ≥20% clue cells on microscopic examination. Clinical cure required a return to normal vaginal discharge and resolution of all Amsel's criteria. A microbiologic diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis was based on Gram stain of the vaginal smear demonstrating (a) markedly reduced or absent Lactobacillus morphology, (b) predominance of Gardnerella morphotype, and (c) absent or few white blood cells, with quantification of these bacterial morphotypes to determine the Nugent score, where a score ≥4 was required for study inclusion and a score of 0-3 considered a microbiologic cure. Therapeutic cure was a composite endpoint, consisting of both a clinical cure and microbiologic cure. In patients with all four Amsel's criteria and with a baseline Nugent score ≥4, Protocide oral tablets given as either 2 g once daily for 2 days or 1 g once daily for 5 days demonstrated superior efficacy over placebo tablets as measured by therapeutic cure, clinical cure, and a microbiologic cure.

Outcome Protocide

1 g × 5 days

(n=76)

Protocide

2 g × 2 days

(n=73)

Placebo

(n=78)

% Cure % Cure % Cure

Therapeutic Cure

Difference 2

97.5% CI 3


36.8

31.7

(16.8, 46.6)


27.4

22.3

(8.0, 36.6)


5.1


Clinical Cure

Difference 2

97.5% CI 3


51.3

39.8

(23.3, 56.3)


35.6

24.1

(7.8, 40.3)


11.5


Nugent Score Cure

Difference 2

97.5% CI 3


38.2

33.1

(18.1, 48.0)


27.4

22.3

(8.0, 36.6)


5.1

1Modified Intent-to-Treat defined as all patients randomized with a baseline

Nugent score of at least 4

2Difference in cure rates (Tindamax-placebo)

3CI: confidence interval

p-values for both Protocide regimens vs. placebo for therapeutic, clinical and

Nugent score cure rates for both 2 and 5 days <0.001

The therapeutic cure rates reported in this clinical study conducted with Protocide were based on resolution of 4 out of 4 Amsel's criteria and a Nugent score of <4. The cure rates for previous clinical studies with other products approved for bacterial vaginosis were based on resolution of either 2 or 3 out of 4 Amsel's criteria. At the time of approval for other products for bacterial vaginosis, there was no requirement for a Nugent score on Gram stain, resulting in higher reported rates of cure for bacterial vaginosis for those products than for those reported here for Protocide.

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

17.1 Administration of Drug

Patients should be told to take Protocide with food to minimize the incidence of epigastric discomfort and other gastrointestinal side-effects. Food does not affect the oral bioavailability of Protocide.

17.2 Alcohol Avoidance

Patients should be told to avoid alcoholic beverages and preparations containing ethanol or propylene glycol during Protocide therapy and for 3 days afterward because abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headaches, and flushing may occur.

17.3 Drug Resistance

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Protocide should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Protocide is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Protocide or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

1

Protocide pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Protocide available forms, composition, doses:

Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Protocide destination | category:

Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Protocide Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Protocide pharmaceutical companies:

Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."TINDAMAX (TINIDAZOLE) TABLET, FILM COATED [DEPARTMENT OF STATE HEALTH SERVICES, PHARMACY BRANCH]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."TINIDAZOLE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "tinidazole". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Protocide?

Depending on the reaction of the Protocide after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Protocide not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Protocide addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sdrugs.com conducted a study on Protocide, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Protocide consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

Visitor reports

One visitor reported useful

How is the drug Protocide useful in reducing or relieving the symptoms? How useful is it?
According to the survey conducted by the website sdrugs.com, there are variable results and below are the percentages of the users that say the medicine is useful to them and that say it is not helping them much. It is not ideal to continue taking the medication if you feel it is not helping you much. Contact your healthcare provider to check if there is a need to change the medicine or if there is a need to re-evaluate your condition. The usefulness of the medicine may vary from patient to patient, depending on the other diseases he is suffering from and slightly depends on the brand name.
Visitors%
Useful1
100.0%

One visitor reported side effects

Did you get side effects while taking the Protocide drug, or were there no side effects?
According to the survey conducted by website sdrugs.com users, the below-mentioned percentages indicate the number of people experiencing the side effects and the number of people not experiencing the side effects when taking Protocide medicine. Every drug produces minimal side effects, and they are negligible most times, when compared to the desired effect [use] of the medicine. Side effects depend on the dose you are taking, any drug interactions that happen when you are on other medications, if the patient is sensitive, and other associated conditions. If you cannot tolerate the side effects, consult your doctor immediately, so he can either adjust the dose or change the medication.
Visitors%
No side effects1
100.0%

Visitor reported price estimates

No survey data has been collected yet

One visitor reported frequency of use

How often in a day do you take the medicine?
Are you taking the Protocide drug as prescribed by the doctor?

Few medications can be taken 4 times in a day more than prescribed when the doctor's advice mentions the medicine can be taken according to frequency or severity of symptoms. Most times, be very careful and clear about the number of times you are taking the medication. The report of sdrugs.com website users about the frequency of taking the drug Protocide is mentioned below.
Visitors%
4 times in a day1
100.0%

One visitor reported doses

What is the dose of Protocide drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sdrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 101-200mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
Visitors%
101-200mg1
100.0%

Visitor reported time for results

No survey data has been collected yet

One visitor reported administration

The drugs are administered in various routes, like oral or injection form. They are administered before food or after food. How are you taking Protocide drug, before food or after food?
Click here to find out how other users of our website are taking it. For any doubts or queries on how and when the medicine is administered, contact your health care provider immediately.
Visitors%
With a meal1
100.0%

One visitor reported age

Visitors%
> 601
100.0%

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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