DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen usesPropoxyphene; Acetaminophen consists of Acetaminophen, Propoxyphene Napsylate.
Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen is an analgesic-antipyretic. It has analgesic, antipyretic and weak anti-inflammatory action. The mechanism of action is associated with inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, the predominant influence on the thermoregulation center in the hypothalamus, enhances heat transfer.
Why is Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen (Acetaminophen) prescribed?
Pain weak and moderate intensity of different genesis (including headache, migraine, toothache, neuralgia, myalgia, algomenorrhea; pain in trauma, burns). Fever in infectious and inflammatory diseases.
Paracetamol dosage and administration
Oral or rectally adults and adolescents with a body weight over 60 kg is used in a single dose of 500 mg, the multiplicity of admission - up to 4 times / Maximum duration of treatment - 5-7 days.
Maximum dose: single - 1 g, daily - 4 g.
Single dose for oral administration for children aged 6-12 years - 250-500 mg, 1-5 years - 120-250 mg, from 3 months to 1 year - 60-120 mg, up to 3 months - 10 mg / kg. Single dose rectal in children aged 6-12 years - 250-500 mg, 1-5 years - 125-250 mg.
Multiplicity - 4 at intervals of not less than 4 h. The maximum duration of treatment - 3 days.
Maximum dose: 4 single dose per day.
Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen side effects, adverse reactions
Digestive system: rarely - dyspepsia; long-term use at high doses - hepatotoxic effects, methemoglobinemia, renal dysfunction and liver, hypochromic anemia. Hemopoietic system: rarely - thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis. Allergic reactions: rarely - skin rash, itching, hives.
Chronic active alcoholism, increased sensitivity to paracetamol, marked disturbances of liver function and / or kidney disease, anemia, pregnancy.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Paracetamol crosses the placental barrier. So far, no observed adverse effects of paracetamol on the fetus in humans.
Paracetamol is excreted in breast milk: the content in milk was 0.04-0.23% of the dose adopted mother.
If necessary, use of paracetamol during pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding) should carefully weigh the potential benefits of therapy for the mother and the potential risk to the fetus or child.
In experimental studies found no embryotoxic, teratogenic and mutagenic action of paracetamol.
Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen is used with caution in patients with disorders of the liver and kidneys, with benign hyperbilirubinemia, as well as in elderly patients.
With prolonged use of paracetamol is necessary to monitor patterns of peripheral blood and functional state of the liver.
Used for treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome in combination with pamabrom (diuretic, a derivative of xanthine) and mepyramine (Histamine H1-receptors blocker).
Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen (Acetaminophen) Drug Interactions
With the simultaneous use with inducers of microsomal liver enzymes, means having hepatotoxic effect, increasing the risk of hepatotoxic action of paracetamol.
With the simultaneous use of anticoagulants may be slight to moderate increase in prothrombin time.
With the simultaneous use of anticholinergics may decrease absorption of paracetamol.
With the simultaneous use of oral contraceptives accelerated excretion of paracetamol from the body and may reduce its analgesic action.
With the simultaneous use with urological means reduced their effectiveness.
With the simultaneous use of activated charcoal reduced bioavailability of paracetamol.
When Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen (Acetaminophen) applied simultaneously with diazepam may decrease excretion of diazepam.
There have been reports about the possibility of enhancing mielodepression effect of zidovudine while applying with paracetamol. A case of severe toxic liver injury.
Described cases of toxic effects of paracetamol, while the use of isoniazid.
When applied simultaneously with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidonom decreases the effectiveness of paracetamol, which is caused by an increase in its metabolism and excretion from the body. Cases of hepatotoxicity, while the use of paracetamol and phenobarbital.
In applying cholestyramine a period of less than 1 h after administration of paracetamol may decrease of its absorption.
At simultaneous application with lamotrigine moderately increased excretion of lamotrigine from the body.
With the simultaneous use of metoclopramide may increase absorption of paracetamol and its increased concentration in blood plasma.
When applied simultaneously with probenecid may decrease clearance of paracetamol, with rifampicin, sulfinpyrazone - may increase clearance of paracetamol due to increasing its metabolism in the liver.
At simultaneous application of Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen (Acetaminophen) with ethinylestradiol increases absorption of paracetamol from the gut.
Enhances the effect of indirect anticoagulants (coumarin derivatives and indandione). Antipyretic and analgesic activity of caffeine increases, reduce - rifampicin, phenobarbital and alcohol (accelerated biotransformation, inducing microsomal liver enzymes).
Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen in case of emergency / overdose
At a reception in toxic doses (10-15 g in adults) may develop liver necrosis.
Symptoms of overdose may include: nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, sweating, extreme tiredness, unusual bleeding or bruising, pain in the upper right part of the stomach, yellowing of the skin or eyes, flu-like symptoms
Darvon-N contains Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen (Propoxyphene Napsylate), USP which is an odorless, white crystalline powder with a bitter taste. It is very slightly soluble in water and soluble in methanol, ethanol, chloroform, and acetone. Chemically, it is (αS,1R)-α-[2-(Dimethylamino)-1-methylethyl]-α-phenylphenethyl propionate compound with 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid (1:1) monohydrate, which can be represented by the accompanying structural formula. Its molecular weight is 565.72
Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen (Propoxyphene Napsylate) differs from propoxyphene hydrochloride in that it allows more stable liquid dosage forms and tablet formulations. Because of differences in molecular weight, a dose of 100 mg (176.8 μmol) of Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen (Propoxyphene Napsylate) is required to supply an amount of propoxyphene equivalent to that present in 65 mg (172.9 μmol) of propoxyphene hydrochloride.
Each tablet of Darvon-N contains 100 mg (176.8 μmol) Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen (Propoxyphene Napsylate). The tablet also contains cellulose, cornstarch, iron oxides, lactose, magnesium stearate, silicon dioxide, stearic acid, and titanium dioxide.
STRUCTURE CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY Pharmacology
Propoxyphene is a centrally acting opiate analgesic. In vitro studies demonstrated propoxyphene and the metabolite norpropoxyphene inhibit sodium channels (local anesthetic effect) with norpropoxyphene being approximately 2-fold more potent than propoxyphene and propoxyphene approximately 10-fold more potent than lidocaine. Propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene inhibit the voltage-gated potassium current carried by cardiac rapidly activating delayed rectifier (hERG) channels with approximately equal potency. It is unclear if the effects on ion channels occur within therapeutic dose range.
Peak plasma concentrations of propoxyphene are reached in 2 to 2.5 h. After a 65-mg oral dose of propoxyphene hydrochloride, peak plasma levels of 0.05 to 0.1 μg/mL for propoxyphene and 0.1 to 0.2 μg/mL for norpropoxyphene (major metabolite) are achieved. Repeated doses of propoxyphene at 6 h intervals lead to increasing plasma concentrations, with a plateau after the ninth dose at 48 h. Propoxyphene has a half-life of 6 to 12 h, whereas that of norpropoxyphene is 30 to 36 h.
Propoxyphene is about 80% bound to proteins and has a large volume of distribution, 16 L/kg.
Propoxyphene undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism by intestinal and hepatic enzymes. The major route of metabolism is cytochrome CYP3A4 mediated N-demethylation to norpropoxyphene, which is excreted by the kidneys. Ring hydroxylation and glucuronide formation are minor metabolic pathways.
In 48 h, approximately 20 to 25% of the administered dose of propoxyphene is excreted via the urine, most of which is free or conjugated norpropoxyphene. The renal clearance rate of propoxyphene is 2.6 L/min.
SPECIAL POPULATIONS Geriatric Patients
After oral administration of propoxyphene in elderly patients (70-78 years), much longer half-lives of propoxyphene and norpropoxyphene have been reported (propropoxyphene 13 to 35 h, norpropoxyphene 22 to 41 h). In addition, the AUC was an average of 3-fold higher and the Cmax was an average of 2.5-fold higher in the elderly when compared to a younger (20-28 years) population. Longer dosage intervals may be considered in the elderly because the metabolism of propoxyphene may be reduced in this patient population. After multiple oral doses of propoxyphene in elderly patients (70-78 years), the Cmax of the metabolite (norpropoxyphene) was increased 5-fold.
Propoxyphene has not been studied in pediatric patients.
No formal pharmacokinetic study of propoxyphene has been conducted in patients with mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment.
After oral administration of propoxyphene in patients with cirrhosis, plasma concentrations of propoxyphene were considerably higher and norpropoxyphene concentrations were much lower than in control patients. This is presumably because of a decreased first-pass metabolism of orally administered propoxyphene in these patients. The AUC ratio of norpropoxyphene: propoxyphene was significantly lower in patients with cirrhosis (0.5 to 0.9) than in controls (2.5 to 4).
No formal pharmacokinetic study of propoxyphene has been conducted in patients with mild, moderate or severe renal impairment.
After oral administration of propoxyphene in anephric patients, the AUC and Cmax values were an average of 76% and 88% greater, respectively. Dialysis removes only insignificant amounts (8%) of administered dose of propoxyphene.
The metabolism of propoxyphene may be altered by strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (such as ritonavir, ketoconazole, itraconazole, troleandomycin, clarithromycin, nelfinavir, nefazadone, amiodarone, amprenavir, aprepitant, diltiazem, erythromycin, fluconazole, fosamprenavir, grapefruit juice, and verapamil) leading to enhanced propoxyphene plasma levels. On the other hand, strong CYP3A4 inducers such as rifampin may lead to enhanced metabolite (norpropoxyphene) levels.
Propoxyphene is also thought to possess CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzyme inhibiting properties. Coadministration with a drug that is a substrate of CYP3A4 or CYP2D6, may result in higher plasma concentrations and increased pharmacologic or adverse effects of that drug.
Darvon-N is indicated for the relief of mild to moderate pain.
Darvon-N is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to propoxyphene.
Darvon-N is contraindicated in patients with significant respiratory depression (in unmonitored settings or the absence of resuscitative equipment) and patients with acute or severe asthma or hypercarbia.
Darvon-N is contraindicated in any patient who has or is suspected of having paralytic ileus.
WARNINGS Risk of Overdose
There have been numerous cases of accidental and intentional overdose with propoxyphene products either alone or in combination with other CNS depressants, including alcohol. Fatalities within the first hour of overdosage are not uncommon. Many of the propoxyphene-related deaths have occurred in patients with previous histories of emotional disturbances or suicidal ideation/attempts and/or concomitant administration of sedatives, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, antidepressants, or other CNS-depressant drugs. Do not prescribe propoxyphene for patients who are suicidal or have a history of suicidal ideation.
Respiratory depression is the chief hazard from all opioid agonist preparations. Respiratory depression occurs most frequently in elderly or debilitated patients, usually following large initial doses in non-tolerant patients, or when opioids are given in conjunction with other agents that depress respiration. Darvon-N should be used with extreme caution in patients with significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cor pulmonale, and in patients having substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or pre-existing respiratory depression. In such patients, even usual therapeutic doses of Darvon-N may decrease respiratory drive to the point of apnea. In these patients alternative non-opioid analgesics should be considered, and opioids should be employed only under careful medical supervision at the lowest effective dose.
Darvon-N, like all opioid analgesics, may cause severe hypotension in an individual whose ability to maintain blood pressure has been compromised by a depleted blood volume, or after concurrent administration with drugs such as phenothiazines or other agents which compromise vasomotor tone. Darvon-N may produce orthostatic hypotension in ambulatory patients. Darvon-N, like all opioid analgesics, should be administered with caution to patients in circulatory shock, since vasodilatation produced by the drug may further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure.
Head Injury and Increased Intracranial Pressure
The respiratory depressant effects of narcotics and their capacity to elevate cerebrospinal fluid pressure may be markedly exaggerated in the presence of head injury, other intracranial lesions or a pre-existing increase in intracranial pressure. Furthermore, narcotics produce adverse reactions which may obscure the clinical course of patients with head injuries.
The concomitant use of propoxyphene and CNS depressants, including alcohol, can result in potentially serious adverse events including death. Because of its added depressant effects, propoxyphene should be prescribed with caution for those patients whose medical condition requires the concomitant administration of sedatives, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, antidepressants, or other CNS-depressant drugs.
Usage in Ambulatory Patients
Propoxyphene may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a car or operating machinery. The patient should be cautioned accordingly.
Use with Alcohol
Patients should be cautioned about the concomitant use of propoxyphene products and alcohol because of potentially serious CNS-additive effects of these agents that can lead to death.
There have been numerous cases of accidental and intentional overdose with propoxyphene products either alone or in combination with other CNS depressants, including alcohol. Fatalities within the first hour of overdosage are not uncommon. Many of the propoxyphene-related deaths have occurred in patients with previous histories of emotional disturbance or suicidal ideation/attempts and /or concomitant administration of sedatives, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, antidepressants, or other CNS-depressant drugs. Do not prescribe propoxyphene for patients who are suicidal or have a history of suicidal ideation.
The metabolism of propoxyphene may be altered by strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (such as ritonavir, ketoconazole, itraconazole, troleandomycin, clarithromycin, nelfinavir, nefazadone, amiodarone, amprenavir, aprepitant, diltiazem, erthromycin, fulconazole, fosamprenavir, grapefruit juice, and verapamil) leading to enhanced propoxyphene plasma levels. Patients receiving propoxyphene and any CYP3A4 inhibitor should be carefully monitored for an extended period of time and dosage adjustments should be made if warranted
PRECAUTIONS Tolerance and Physical Dependence
Tolerance is the need for increasing doses of opioids to maintain a defined effect such as analgesia (in the absence of disease progression or other external factors). Physical dependence is manifested by withdrawal symptoms after abrupt discontinuation of a drug or upon administration of an antagonist. Physical dependence and tolerance are not unusual during chronic opioid therapy.
The opioid abstinence or withdrawal syndrome is characterized by some or all of the following: restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, and mydriasis. Other symptoms also may develop, including: irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, or heart rate. In general, opioids should not be abruptly discontinued.
If Darvon-N is abruptly discontinued in a physically dependent patient, an abstinence syndrome may occur. If signs and symptoms of withdrawal occur, patients should be treated by reinstitution of opioid therapy followed by gradual tapered dose reduction of Darvon-N combined with symptomatic support.
Use in Pancreatic/Biliary Tract Disease
Darvon-N may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi and should be used with caution in patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis. Opioids like Darvon-N may cause increases in the serum amylase level.
Hepatic or Renal Impairment
Insufficient information exists to make appropriate dosing recommendations regarding the use of either propoxyphene in patients with hepatic or renal impairment as a function of degree of impairment. Higher plasma concentrations and/or delayed elimination may occur in case of impaired hepatic function and/or impaired renal function. If the drug is used in these patients, it should be used with caution because of the hepatic metabolism and renal excretion of propoxyphene metabolites.
Information for Patients/Caregivers
Propoxyphene is metabolized mainly via the human cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzyme system (CYP3A4), therefore potential interactions may occur when propoxyphene is administered concurrently with agents that affect CYP3A4 activity.
The metabolism of propoxyphene may be altered by strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (such as ritonavir, ketoconazole, itraconazole, troleandomycin, clarithromycin, nelfinavir, nefazadone, amiodarone, amprenavir, aprepitant, diltiazem, erythromycin, fluconazole, fosamprenavir, grapefruit juice, and verapamil) leading to enhanced propoxyphene plasma levels. Coadministration with agents that induce CYP3A4 activity may reduce the efficacy of propoxyphene. Strong CYP3A4 inducers such as rifampin may lead to enhanced metabolite (norpropoxyphene) levels.
Propoxyphene is also thought to possess CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzyme inhibiting properties and coadministration with drugs that rely on either of these enzymes for metabolism may result in increased pharmacologic or adverse effects of that drug. Severe neurologic signs, including coma, have occurred with concurrent use of carbamazepine (metabolized by CYP3A4).
Increased risk of bleeding has been observed with warfarin-like agents when given along with propoxyphene; however, the mechanistic basis of this interaction is unknown.
Patients receiving narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, phenothiazines, other tranquilizers, sedative-hypnotics or other CNS depressants (including alcohol) concomitantly with propoxyphene may exhibit an additive CNS depression. Interactive effects resulting in respiratory depression, hypotension, profound sedation, or coma may result if these drugs are taken in combination with the usual dosage of Darvon-N. When such combined therapy is contemplated, the dose of one or both agents should be reduced.
Mixed Agonist/Antagonist Opioid Analgesics
Agonist/antagonist analgesics (i.e., pentazocine, nalbuphine, butorphanol and buprenorphine) should be administered with caution to patients who have received or are receiving a course of therapy with a pure opioid agonist analgesic such as Darvon-N. In this situation, mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect of Darvon-N and/or may precipitate withdrawal symptoms in these patients.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
MAOIs have been reported to intensify the effects of at least one opioid drug causing anxiety, confusion and significant depression of respiration or coma. The use of Darvon-N is not recommended for patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
The mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of propoxyphene has not been evaluated.
In animal studies there was no effect of propoxyphene on mating behavior, fertility, duration of gestation, or parturition when rats were fed propoxyphene as a component of their daily diet at estimated daily propoxyphene intake up to 8-fold greater than the maximum human equivalent dose (HED) based on body surface area comparison. At this highest dose, fetal weight and survival on postnatal day 4 was reduced.
Pregnancy Risk summary Pregnancy category C.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of propoxyphene in pregnant women. While there are limited data in the published literature, adequate animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with propoxyphene. Therefore, it is not known whether propoxyphene can affect reproduction or cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Propoxyphene should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
Propoxyphene and its major metabolite, norpropoxyphene, cross the human placenta. Neonates whose mothers have taken opiates chronically may exhibit respiratory depression or withdrawal symptoms.
In published animal reproduction studies, no teratogenic effects occurred in offspring born to pregnant rats or rabbits that received propoxyphene during organogenesis. Pregnant animals received propoxyphene doses approximately 10-fold (rats) and 4-fold (rabbits) the maximum recommended human dose (based on mg/m2 body surface area comparison).
Propoxyphene, norpropoxyphene (major metabolite), are excreted in human milk. Published studies of nursing mothers using propoxyphene detected no adverse effects in nursing infants. Based on a study of six mother-infant pairs, an exclusively breastfed infant receives approximately 2% of the maternal weight-adjusted dose. Norpropoxyphene is renally excreted and renal clearance is lower in neonates than in adults. Therefore, it is possible that prolonged maternal propoxyphene use could result in norpropoxyphene accumulation in a breastfed infant. Watch breastfeeding infants for signs of sedation including poor feeding, somnolence, or respiratory depression. Caution should be exercised when Darvon-N is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Clinical studies of Darvon-N did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. However, postmarketing reports suggest that patients over the age of 65 may be more susceptible to CNS-related side effects. Therefore, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Decreased total daily dosage should be considered.
In hospitalized patients, the most frequently reported were dizziness, sedation, nausea, and vomiting. Other adverse reactions include constipation, abdominal pain, skin rashes, lightheadedness, headache, weakness, euphoria, dysphoria, hallucinations, and minor visual disturbances.
The most frequently reported postmarketing adverse events have included completed suicide, accidental and intentional overdose, drug dependence, cardiac arrest, coma, drug ineffective, drug toxicity, nausea, respiratory arrest, cardio-respiratory arrest, death, vomiting, dizziness, convulsion, confusional state, and diarrhea.
Additional adverse experiences reported through postmarketing surveillance include:
Cardiac disorders: arrhythmia, bradycardia, cardiac/respiratory arrest, congestive arrest, congestive heart failure (CHF), tachycardia, myocardial infarction (MI)
Eye disorder: eye swelling, vision blurred
General disorder and administration site conditions: drug ineffective, drug interaction, drug tolerance, influenza type illness, drug withdrawal syndrome
Gastrointestinal disorder: gastrointestinal bleed, acute pancreatitis
Hepatobiliary disorder: hepatic steatosis, hepatomegaly, hepatocellular injury
Immune system disorder: hypersensitivity
Injury poisoning and procedural complications: drug toxicity, hip fracture, multiple drug overdose, narcotic overdose
Investigations: blood pressure decreased, heart rate elevated/abnormal
Metabolism and nutrition disorder: metabolic acidosis
Nervous system disorder: ataxia, coma, dizziness, somnolence, syncope
Psychiatric: abnormal behavior, confusional state, hallucinations, mental status change
Respiratory, thoracic, and mediastinal disorders: respiratory depression, dyspnoea
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorder: rash, itch
Liver dysfunction has been reported in association with Darvon-N. Propoxyphene therapy has been associated with abnormal liver function tests and, more rarely, with instances of reversible jaundice (including cholestatic jaundice).
Subacute painful myopathy has been reported following chronic propoxyphene overdosage.
DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE Controlled Substance
Darvon-N is a Schedule IV narcotic under the U.S. Controlled Substances Act. Darvon-N can produce drug dependence of the morphine type, and therefore, has the potential for being abused. Psychic dependence, physical dependence and tolerance may develop upon repeated administration. Darvon-N should be prescribed and administered with the same degree of caution appropriate to the use of other narcotic-containing medications.
Since Darvon-N is a mu-opioid agonist, it may be subject to misuse, abuse, and addiction. Addiction to opioids prescribed for pain management has not been estimated. However, requests for opioids from opioid-addicted patients occur. As such, physicians should take appropriate care in prescribing Darvon-N.
Opioid analgesics may cause psychological and physical dependence. Physical dependence results in withdrawal symptoms in patients who abruptly discontinue the drug after long term administration. Also, symptoms of withdrawal may be precipitated through the administration of drugs with mu-opioid antagonist activity, e.g., naloxone or mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics (e.g., pentazocine, butorphanol, nalbuphine, dezocine). Physical dependence usually does not occur to a clinically significant degree, until after several weeks of continued opioid usage. Tolerance, in which increasingly larger doses are required to produce the same degree of analgesia, is initially manifested by a shortened duration of an analgesic effect and subsequently, by decreases in the intensity of analgesia.
In chronic pain patients, and in opioid-tolerant cancer patients, the administration of Darvon-N should be guided by the degree of tolerance manifested and the doses needed to adequately relieve pain.
The severity of the Darvon-N abstinence syndrome may depend on the degree of physical dependence. Withdrawal is characterized by rhinitis, myalgia, abdominal cramping, and occasional diarrhea. Most observable symptoms disappear in 5 to 14 days without treatment; however, there may be a phase of secondary or chronic abstinence which may last for 2 to 6 months characterized by insomnia, irritability, and muscular aches. The patient may be detoxified by gradual reduction of the dose. Gastrointestinal disturbances or dehydration should be treated with supportive care.
Overdose of Darvon-N may present with the signs and symptoms of propoxyphene overdose. Fatalities within the first hour of overdosage are not uncommon.
In all cases of suspected overdosage, call your regional Poison Control Center to obtain the most up-to-date information about the treatment of overdose. This recommendation is made because, in general, information regarding the treatment of overdosage may change more rapidly than do package inserts.
Initial consideration should be given to the management of the CNS effects of propoxyphene overdosage. Resuscitative measures should be initiated promptly.
Symptoms of Propoxyphene Overdosage
The manifestations of acute overdosage with propoxyphene are those of narcotic overdosage. The patient is usually somnolent but may be stuporous or comatose and convulsing. Respiratory depression is characteristic. The ventilatory rate and/or tidal volume is decreased, which results in cyanosis and hypoxia. Pupils, initially pinpoint, may become dilated as hypoxia increases. Cheyne-Stokes respiration and apnea may occur. Blood pressure and heart rate are usually normal initially, but blood pressure falls and cardiac performance deteriorates, which ultimately results in pulmonary edema and circulatory collapse, unless the respiratory depression is corrected and adequate ventilation is restored promptly. Cardiac arrhythmias and conduction delay may be present. A combined respiratory-metabolic acidosis occurs owing to retained CO2 (hypercapnia) and to lactic acid formed during anaerobic glycolysis. Acidosis may be severe if large amounts of salicylates have also been ingested. Death may occur.
Treatment of Propoxyphene Overdosage
Attention should be directed first to establishing a patent airway and to restoring ventilation. Mechanically assisted ventilation, with or without oxygen, may be required, and positive pressure respiration may be desirable if pulmonary edema is present. The opioid antagonist naloxone will markedly reduce the degree of respiratory depression, and should be administered promptly, preferably intravenously. The duration of action of the antagonist may be brief. If no response is observed after 10 mg of naloxone have been administered, the diagnosis of propoxyphene toxicity should be questioned.
In addition to the use of an opioid antagonist, the patient may require careful titration with an anticonvulsant to control convulsions. Activated charcoal can adsorb a significant amount of ingested propoxyphene. Dialysis is of little value in poisoning due to propoxyphene. Efforts should be made to determine whether other agents, such as alcohol, barbiturates, tranquilizers, or other CNS depressants, were also ingested, since these increase CNS depression as well as cause specific toxic effects or death.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Darvon-N is intended for the management of mild to moderate pain. The dose should be individually adjusted according to severity of pain, patient response and patient size.
Darvon-N is given orally. The usual dosage is one 100 mg Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen (Propoxyphene Napsylate) tablet every 4 hours as needed for pain. The maximum dose of Darvon-N is 6 tablets per day. Do not exceed the maximum daily dose.
Patients receiving propoxyphene and any CYP3A4 inhibitor should be carefully monitored for an extended period of time and dosage adjustments should be made if warranted.
Consideration should be given to a reduced total daily dosage in elderly patients and in patients with hepatic or renal impairment.
Cessation of Therapy
For patients who used Darvon-N on a regular basis for a period of time, when therapy with Darvon-N is no longer needed for the treatment of their pain, it may be useful to gradually discontinue the Darvon-N over time to prevent the development of an opioid abstinence syndrome (narcotic withdrawal). In general, therapy can be decreased by 25% to 50% per day with careful monitoring for signs and symptoms of withdrawal. If the patient develops these signs or symptoms, the dose should be raised to the previous level and titrated down more slowly, either by increasing the interval between decreases, decreasing the amount of change in dose, or both.
Darvon-N Tablets are available in:
The 100 mg tablets are buff colored, elliptical shaped, film coated, and imprinted with the script “DARVON-N 100” on one side of the tablet, using edible black ink. They are available as follows:
Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions are permitted to 15°- 30°C (59°- 86°F).
Inform patients of the availability of a Medication Guide for Darvon/Darvon-N that accompanies each prescription dispensed. Instruct patients to read the Darvon/Darvon-N Medication Guide prior to using Darvon.
Darvon, Darvon-N, Darvocet, and Darvocet-N are registered trademarks of
Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
© 2009 Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
DARVON-N ® [dar-von-N] (C-IV)
DARVON ® [dar-von](C-IV)
(propoxyphene hydrochloride capsules)
Read this Medication Guide before you start taking Darvon-N or Darvon, and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This information does not take the place of talking to your doctor about your medical condition or your treatment.
What is the most important information I should know about Darvon-N and Darvon?
Darvon-N and Darvon, and other medicines that contain propoxyphene can cause serious side effects, including:
Overdoses by accident or on purpose (intentional overdose). Overdoses with Darvon-N and Darvon may happen when it is taken by itself, or with alcohol or other medicines that can also decrease your breathing and make you very sleepy.
Take Darvon-N and Darvon exactly as prescribed. Do not change your dose or stop taking Darvon-N or Darvon without first talking to your doctor.
What are Darvon-N and Darvon?
It is not known if Darvon-N and Darvon are safe and effective in children younger than age 18.
Who should not take Darvon-N or Darvon?
Do not take Darvon-N or Darvon if you:
What should I tell my doctor before taking Darvon-N or Darvon?
Before you take Darvon-N or Darvon, tell your doctor:
Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take, including prescription, and non-prescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Darvon-N and Darvon interacts with many medicines and may lead to serious side effects. The doses of certain medicines may need to be changed.
Especially tell your doctor if you take:
See “What is the most important information I should know about Darvon-N and Darvon?”
Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure if your medicine is one listed above.
Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them to show to your doctor and pharmacist when you get a new medicine.
How should I take Darvon-N or Darvon?
See “What is the most important information I should know about Darvon-N and Darvon?”
Signs and symptoms of an overdose of Darvon-N or Darvon include:
What are the possible side effects of Darvon-N and Darvon?
Darvon-N and Darvon can cause serious side effects, including:
See “What is the most important information I should know about Darvon-N and Darvon?”
Tell your doctor if you have any of these withdrawal symptoms while you slowly stop taking Darvon-N or Darvon. You may need to stop Darvon-N or Darvon more slowly.
Common side effects of Darvon-N and Darvon include:
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
You may also report side effects to Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at 1-877-773-7793.
How should I store Darvon-N and Darvon?
Keep Darvon-N, Darvon and all medicines out of the reach of children.
General information about Darvon-N and Darvon
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use Darvon-N or Darvon for a purpose for which it was not prescribed. Do not give Darvon-N or Darvon to others even if they have the same symptoms you have. It may harm them and is against the law.
This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about Darvon-N and Darvon. If you would like more information, talk with your doctor. You can ask your pharmacist or doctor for information about Darvon-N and Darvon that is written for health professionals. For more information, go to www. Xanodyne.com or call 1-877-773-7793.
What are the ingredients in Darvon-N and Darvon?
Active ingredient: Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen (Propoxyphene Napsylate)
Inactive ingredients: cellulose, cornstarch, iron oxides, lactose, magnesium stearate, silicon dioxide, stearic acid, and titanium dioxide
Active ingredient: propoxyphene hydrochloride
Inactive ingredients: D and C Red No. 33, FD and C Yellow No. 6, gelatin, magnesium stearate, silicone, starch, titanium dioxide, and other inactive ingredients
Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Newport, KY 41071
This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Darvon, Darvon-N, Darvocet-N and Darvocet are registered trademarks of Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
© 2009 Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Xanodyne Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen?
Depending on the reaction of the Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
ReviewsDrugs.com conducted a study on Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Propoxyphene; Acetaminophen consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology