DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Proglycem® (ORAL Proglycem) is useful in the management of hypoglycemia due to hyperinsulinism associated with the following conditions:
Proglycem® should be used only after a diagnosis of hypoglycemia due to one of the above conditions has been definitely established. When other specific medical therapy or surgical management either has been unsuccessful or is not feasible, treatment with Proglycem® should be considered.
The use of Proglycem® for functional hypoglycemia is contraindicated. The drug should not be used in patients hypersensitive to Proglycem or to other thiazides unless the potential benefits outweigh the possible risks.
The antidiuretic property of Proglycem may lead to significant fluid retention, which in patients with compromised cardiac reserve, may precipitate congestive heart failure. The fluid retention will respond to conventional therapy with diuretics.
It should be noted that concomitantly administered thiazides may potentiate the hyperglycemic and hyperuricemic actions of Proglycem.
Ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma have been reported in patients treated with recommended doses of Proglycem® usually during intercurrent illness. Prompt recognition and treatment are essential, and prolonged surveillance following the acute episode is necessary because of the long drug half-life of approximately 30 hours. The occurrence of these serious events may be reduced by careful education of patients regarding the need for monitoring the urine for sugar and ketones and for prompt reporting of abnormal findings and unusual symptoms to the physician. Transient cataracts occurred in association with hyperosmolar coma in an infant, and subsided on correction of the hyper-osmolarity. Cataracts have been observed in several animals receiving daily doses of intravenous or oral Proglycem.
The development of abnormal facial features in four children treated chronically (>4 years) with Proglycem® for hypoglycemia hyperinsulinism in the same clinic has been reported.
Pulmonary Hypertension in Neonates and Infants
There have been postmarketing reports of pulmonary hypertension occurring in infants and neonates treated with Proglycem. The cases were reversible upon discontinuation of the drug. Monitor patients, especially those with risk factors for pulmonary hypertension, for respiratory distress and discontinue Proglycem if pulmonary hypertension is suspected.
Treatment with Proglycem® should be initiated under close clinical supervision, with careful monitoring of blood glucose and clinical response until the patient's condition has stabilized. This usually requires several days. If not effective in two to three weeks, the drug should be discontinued.
Prolonged treatment requires regular monitoring of the urine for sugar and ketones, especially under stress conditions, with prompt reporting of any abnormalities to the physician. Additionally, blood sugar levels should be monitored periodically by the physician to determine the need for dose adjustment.
The effects of Proglycem on the hematopoietic system and the level of serum uric acid should be kept in mind; the latter should be considered particularly in patients with hyperuricemia or a history of gout.
In some patients, higher blood levels have been observed with the oral suspension than with the capsule formulation of Proglycem®. Dosage should be adjusted as necessary in individual patients if changed from one formulation to the other.
Since the plasma half-life of Proglycem is prolonged in patients with impaired renal function, a reduced dosage should be considered. Serum electrolyte levels should also be evaluated for such patients.
The antihypertensive effect of other drugs may be enhanced by Proglycem®, and this should be kept in mind when administering it concomitantly with antihypertensive agents.
Because of the protein binding, administration of Proglycem® with coumarin or its derivatives may require reduction in the dosage of the anticoagulant, although there has been no reported evidence of excessive anticoagulant effect. In addition, Proglycem® may possibly displace bilirubin from albumin; this should be kept in mind particularly when treating newborns with increased bilirubinemia.
Pulmonary hypertension has been reported in neonates and young infants treated with Proglycem.
Information for Patients:
During treatment with Proglycem® the patient should be advised to consult regularly with the physician and to cooperate in the periodic monitoring of his condition by laboratory tests. In addition, the patient should be advised:
The following procedures may be especially important in patient monitoring ; blood glucose determinations (recommended at periodic intervals in patients taking Proglycem orally for treatment of hypoglycemia, until stabilized); blood urea nitrogen (BUN) determinations and creatinine clearance determinations; hematocrit determinations; platelet count determinations; total and differential leukocyte counts; serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level determinations; serum uric acid level determinations; and urine testing for glucose and ketones (in patients being treated with Proglycem for hypoglycemia, semiquantitative estimation of sugar and ketones in serum performed by the patient and reported to the physician provides frequent and relatively inexpensive monitoring of the condition).
Since Proglycem is highly bound to serum proteins, it may displace other substances which are also bound to protein, such as bilirubin or coumarin and its derivatives, resulting in higher blood levels of these substances. Concomitant administration of oral Proglycem and diphenylhydantoin may result in a loss of seizure control. These potential interactions must be considered when administering Proglycem® Capsules or Suspension.
The concomitant administration of thiazides or other commonly used diuretics may potentiate the hyperglycemic and hyperuricemic effects of Proglycem.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions:
The hyperglycemic and hyperuricemic effects of Proglycem preclude proper assessment of these metabolic states. Increased renin secretion, IgG concentrations and decreased cortisol secretions have also been noted. Proglycem inhibits glucagon-stimulated insulin release and causes a false-negative insulin response to glucagon.
Carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility:
No long-term animal dosing study has been done to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Proglycem. No laboratory study of mutagenic potential or animal study of effects on fertility has been done.
Pregnancy Category C:
Reproduction studies using the oral preparation in rats have revealed increased fetal resorptions and delayed parturition, as well as fetal skeletal anomalies; evidence of skeletal and cardiac teratogenic effects in rabbits has been noted with intravenous administration. The drug has also been demonstrated to cross the placental barrier in animals and to cause degeneration of the fetal pancreatic beta cells. Since there are no adequate data on fetal effects of this drug when given to pregnant women, safety in pregnancy has not been established. When the use of Proglycem® is considered, the indications should be limited to those specified above for adults, and the potential benefits to the mother must be weighed against possible harmful effects to the fetus.
Proglycem crosses the placental barrier and appears in cord blood. When given to the mother prior to delivery of the infant, the drug may produce fetal or neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, thrombocytopenia, altered carbohydrate metabolism, and possibly other side effects that have occurred in adults.
Alopecia and hypertrichosis lanuginosa have occurred in infants whose mothers received oral Proglycem during the last 19 to 60 days of pregnancy.
Labor and delivery:
Since intravenous administration of the drug during labor may cause cessation of uterine contractions, and administration of oxytocic agents may be required to reinstate labor, caution is advised in administering Proglycem® at that time.
Information is not available concerning the passage of Proglycem in breast milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for adverse reactions from Proglycem in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
Frequent and Serious:
Sodium and fluid retention is most common in young infants and in adults and may precipitate congestive heart failure in patients with compromised cardiac reserve. It usually responds to diuretic therapy.
Infrequent but Serious:
Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar nonketotic coma may develop very rapidly. Conventional therapy with insulin and restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance is usually effective if instituted promptly. Prolonged surveillance is essential in view of the long half-life of Proglycem®.
Other frequent adverse reactions:
Hirsutism of the lanugo type, mainly on the forehead, back and limbs, occurs most commonly in children and women and may be cosmetically unacceptable. It subsides on discontinuation of the drug.
Hyperglycemia or glycosuria may require reduction in dosage in order to avoid progression to ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma.
Gastrointestinal intolerance may include anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, ileus, diarrhea, transient loss of taste.
Tachycardia, palpitations, increased levels of serum uric acid are common.
Thrombocytopenia with or without purpura may require discontinuation of the drug. Neutropenia is transient, is not associated with increased susceptibility to infection, and ordinarily does not require discontinuation of the drug. Skin rash, headache, weakness, and malaise may also occur.
Other adverse reactions which have been observed are:
Cardiovascular: hypotension occurs occasionally, which may be augmented by thiazide diuretics given concurrently. A few cases of transient hypertension, for which no explanation is apparent, have been noted. Chest pain has been reported rarely. Pulmonary hypertension has been reported in neonates and young infants.
Hematologic: eosinophilia; decreased hemoglobin / hematocrit; excessive bleeding, decreased IgG.
Hepato-renal: increased AST, alkaline phosphatase; azotemia, decreased creatinine clearance, reversible nephrotic syndrome, decreased urinary output, hematuria, albuminuria. Neurologic: anxiety, dizziness, insomnia, polyneuritis, paresthesia, pruritus, extrapyramidal signs.
Ophthalmologic: transient cataracts, subconjunctival hemorrhage, ring scotoma, blurred vision, diplopia, lacrimation. Skeletal, integumentary; monilial dermatitis, herpes, advance in bone age; loss of scalp hair. Systemic: fever, lymphadenopathy. Other; gout acute pancreatitis/pancreatic necrosis, galactorrhea, enlargement of lump in breast.
An overdosage of Proglycem® causes marked hyperglycemia which may be associated with ketoacidosis. It will respond to prompt insulin administration and restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance. Because of the drug's long half-life (approximately 30 hours), the symptoms of overdosage require prolonged surveillance for periods up to seven days until the blood sugar level stabilizes within the normal range. One investigator reported successful lowering of Proglycem blood levels by peritoneal dialysis in one patient and by hemodialysis in another.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Patients should be under close clinical observation when treatment with Proglycem® is initiated. The clinical response and blood glucose level should be carefully monitored until the patient's condition has stabilized satisfactory; in most instances, this may be accomplished in several days. If administration of Proglycem® is not effective after two or three weeks, the drug should be discontinued.
The dosage of Proglycem® must be individualized based on the severity of the hypoglycemic condition and the blood glucose level and clinical response of the patient. The dosage should be adjusted until the desired clinical and laboratory effects are produced with the least amount of the drug. Special care should be taken to assure accuracy of dosage in infants and young children.
Adults and children:
The usual daily dosage is 3 to 8 mg/kg, divided into two or three equal doses every 8 or 12 hours. In certain instances, patients with refractory hypoglycemia may require higher dosages. Ordinarily, an appropriate starting dosage is 3 mg/kg/day, divided into three equal doses every 8 hours. Thus an average adult would receive a starting dosage of approximately 200 mg daily.
Infants and newborns:
The usual daily dosage is 8 to 15 mg/kg divided into two or three equal doses every 8 to 12 hours. An appropriate starting dosage is 10 mg/kg/day, divided into three equal doses every 8 hours.
ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY AND/OR TOXICOLOGY
Oral Proglycem in the mouse, rat, rabbit, dog, pig, and monkey produces a rapid and transient rise in blood glucose levels. In dogs, increased blood glucose is accompanied by increased free fatty acids, lactate, and pyruvate in the serum. In mice, a marked decrease in liver glycogen and an increase in the blood urea nitrogen level occur.
In acute toxicity studies the LD50 for oral Proglycem suspension is >5000 mg/kg in the rat, >522 mg/kg in the neonatal rat, between 1900 and 2572 mg/kg in the mouse, and 219 mg/kg in the guinea pig. Although the oral LD50 was not determined in the dog, a dosage of up to 500 mg/kg was well tolerated.
In subacute oral toxicity studies, Proglycem at 400 mg/kg in the rat produced growth retardation, edema, increases in liver and kidney weights, and adrenal hypertrophy. Daily dosages up to 1080 mg/kg for three months produced hyperglycemia, an increase in liver weight and an increase in mortality. In dogs given oral Proglycem at approximately 40 mg/kg/day for one month, no biologically significant gross or microscopic abnormalities were observed. Cataracts, attributed to markedly disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, have been observed in a few dogs given repeated daily doses of oral or intravenous Proglycem. The lenticular changes resembled those which occur experimentally in animals with increased blood glucose levels. In chronic toxicity studies, rats given a daily dose of 200 mg/kg Proglycem for 52 weeks had a decrease in weight gain and an increase in heart, liver, adrenal and thyroid weights. Mortality in drug-treated and control groups was not different. Dogs treated with Proglycem at dosages of 50, l00, and 200 mg/kg/day for 82 weeks had higher blood glucose levels than controls. Mild bone marrow stimulation and increased pancreas weights were evident in the drug-treated dogs; several developed inguinal hernias, one had a testicular seminoma, and another had a mass near the penis. Two females had inguinal mammary swellings. The etiology of these changes was not established. There was no difference in mortality between drug-treated and control groups. In a second chronic oral toxicity study, dogs given milled Proglycem at 50, l00, and 200 mg/kg/day had anorexia and sever weight loss, causing death in a few. Hematologic, biochemical, and histologic examination did not indicate any cause of death other than inanition. After one year of treatment, there is no evidence of herniation or tissue swelling in any of the dogs.
When Proglycem was administered at high dosages concomitantly with either chlorothiazide to rats or trichlormethiazide to dogs, increased toxicity was observed. In rats, the combination was nephrotoxic; epithelial hyperplasia was observed in the collecting tubules. In dogs, a diabetic syndrome was produced which resulted in ketosis and death. Neither of the drugs given alone produced these effects.
Although the data are inconclusive, reproduction and teratology studies in several species of animals indicate that Proglycem, when administered during the critical period of embryo formation, may interfere with normal fetal development, possibly through altered glucose metabolism. Parturition was occasionally prolonged in animals treated at term. Intravenous administration of Proglycem to pregnant sheep, goats, and swine produced in the fetus an appreciable increase in blood glucose level and degeneration of the beta cells of the Islets of Langerhans. The reversibility of these effects was not studied.
Proglycem®, 50 mg, half opaque orange and half clear capsules, branded in black with BNP 6000: bottle of 100 (NDC 0575-6000-01).
Proglycem® suspension, 50 mg/mL, a chocolate-mint flavored suspension; bottle of 30 ml (NDC 0575-6200-30), with dropper calibrated to deliver 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg Proglycem.
Shake well before each use. Protect from light. Store in carton until contents are used. Store in light resistant container as defined in the USP. Store Proglycem® Capsules and Suspension at 25°C (77°F) excursions permitted 15°-30°C (59-86°F)..
Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.
North Wales, PA 19454
Proglycem® (diazoxide, USP) Oral Suspension 50 mg/mL, 30 mL Carton Text
Proglycem® (diazoxide, USP) Oral Suspension 50 mg/mL, 30 mL Carton
Proglycem pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Proglycem available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Proglycem destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Proglycem Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Proglycem pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Proglycem?
Depending on the reaction of the Proglycem after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Proglycem not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Proglycem addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
ReviewsDrugs.com conducted a study on Proglycem, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Proglycem consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
One visitor reported price estimatesWhat is your opinion about drug cost? Did you feel the cost is apt, or did you feel it is expensive?
The report given by the sDrugs.com website users shows the following figures about several people who felt the medicine Proglycem is expensive, and the medicine is not expensive. The results are mixed. The perception of the cost of the medicine to be expensive or not depends on the brand name of the medicine, country, and place where it is sold, and the affordability of the patient. You can choose a generic drug in the place of the branded drug to save the cost. The efficiency of the medicine will not vary if it is generic or a branded one.
One visitor reported frequency of useHow often in a day do you take the medicine?
Are you taking the Proglycem drug as prescribed by the doctor?
Few medications can be taken Twice in a day more than prescribed when the doctor's advice mentions the medicine can be taken according to frequency or severity of symptoms. Most times, be very careful and clear about the number of times you are taking the medication. The report of sDrugs.com website users about the frequency of taking the drug Proglycem is mentioned below.
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology