DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Potassium Orotate uses
Potassium Orotate CHLORIDE EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS USP 20 mEq K
The Potassium Orotate Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq product is an immediately dispersing extended release oral dosage form of Potassium Orotate chloride containing 1500 mg of microencapsulated Potassium Orotate chloride, USP equivalent to 20 mEq of Potassium Orotate in a tablet.
These formulations are intended to slow the release of Potassium Orotate so that the likelihood of a high localized concentration of Potassium Orotate chloride within the gastrointestinal tract is reduced.
Potassium Orotate Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is an electrolyte replenisher. The chemical name of the active ingredient is Potassium Orotate chloride, and the structural formula is KCl. Potassium Orotate chloride, USP occurs as a white, granular powder or as colorless crystals. It is odorless and has a saline taste. Its solutions are neutral to litmus. It is freely soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol.
Potassium Orotate Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is a tablet formulation (not enteric coated or wax matrix) containing individually microencapsulated Potassium Orotate chloride crystals which disperse upon tablet disintegration. In simulated gastric fluid at 37°C and in the absence of outside agitation, Potassium Orotate Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq begin disintegrating into microencapsulated crystals within seconds and completely disintegrates within 1 minute. The microencapsulated crystals are formulated to provide an extended release of Potassium Orotate chloride.
Inactive Ingredients: Colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl-cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose.
The Potassium Orotate ion is the principal intracellular cation of most body tissues. Potassium Orotate ions participate in a number of essential physiological processes including the maintenance of intracellular tonicity; the transmission of nerve impulses; the contraction of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle; and the maintenance of normal renal function.
The intracellular concentration of Potassium Orotate is approximately 150 to 160 mEq per liter. The normal adult plasma concentration is 3.5 to 5 mEq per liter. An active ion transport system maintains this gradient across the plasma membrane.
Potassium Orotate is a normal dietary constituent and under steady-state conditions the amount of Potassium Orotate absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract is equal to the amount excreted in the urine. The usual dietary intake of Potassium Orotate is 50 to 100 mEq per day.
Potassium Orotate depletion will occur whenever the rate of Potassium Orotate loss through renal excretion and/or loss from the gastrointestinal tract exceeds the rate of Potassium Orotate intake. Such depletion usually develops as a consequence of therapy with diuretics, primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism, diabetic ketoacidosis, or inadequate replacement of Potassium Orotate in patients on prolonged parenteral nutrition. Depletion can develop rapidly with severe diarrhea, especially if associated with vomiting. Potassium Orotate depletion due to these causes is usually accompanied by a concomitant loss of chloride and is manifested by hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. Potassium Orotate depletion may produce weakness, fatigue, disturbances or cardiac rhythm (primarily ectopic beats), prominent U-waves in the electrocardiogram, and in advanced cases, flaccid paralysis and/or impaired ability to concentrate urine.
If Potassium Orotate depletion associated with metabolic alkalosis cannot be managed by correcting the fundamental cause of the deficiency, eg, where the patient requires long-term diuretic therapy, supplemental Potassium Orotate in the form of high Potassium Orotate food or Potassium Orotate chloride may be able to restore normal Potassium Orotate levels.
In rare circumstances (eg, patients with renal tubular acidosis) Potassium Orotate depletion may be associated with metabolic acidosis and hyperchloremia. In such patients Potassium Orotate replacement should be accomplished with Potassium Orotate salts other than the chloride, such as Potassium Orotate bicarbonate, Potassium Orotate citrate, Potassium Orotate acetate, or Potassium Orotate gluconate.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
BECAUSE OF REPORTS OF INTESTINAL AND GASTRIC ULCERATION AND BLEEDING WITH CONTROLLED-RELEASE Potassium Orotate CHLORIDE PREPARATIONS, THESE DRUGS SHOULD BE RESERVED FOR THOSE PATIENTS WHO CANNOT TOLERATE OR REFUSE TO TAKE LIQUID OR EFFERVESCENT Potassium Orotate PREPARATIONS OR FOR PATIENTS IN WHOM THERE IS A PROBLEM OF COMPLIANCE WITH THESE PREPARATIONS.
1. For the treatment of patients with hypokalemia with or without metabolic alkalosis, in digitalis intoxication, and in patients with hypokalemic familial periodic paralysis. If hypokalemia is the result of diuretic therapy, consideration should be given to the use of a lower dose of diuretic, which may be sufficient without leading to hypokalemia.
2. For the prevention of hypokalemia in patients who would be at particular risk if hypokalemia were to develop, eg, digitalized patients or patients with significant cardiac arrhythmias.
The use of Potassium Orotate salts in patients receiving diuretics for uncomplicated essential hypertension is often unnecessary when such patients have a normal dietary pattern and when low doses of the diuretic are used. Serum Potassium Orotate should be checked periodically, however, and if hypokalemia occurs, dietary supplementation with potassium-containing foods may be adequate to control milder cases. In more severe cases, and if dose adjustment of the diuretic is ineffective or unwarranted, supplementation with Potassium Orotate salts may be indicated.
Potassium Orotate supplements are contraindicated in patients with hyperkalemia since a further increase in serum Potassium Orotate concentration in such patients can produce cardiac arrest. Hyperkalemia may complicate any of the following conditions: chronic renal failure, systemic acidosis, such as diabetic acidosis, acute dehydration, extensive tissue breakdown as in severe burns, adrenal insufficiency, or the administration of a potassium-sparing diuretic (eg, spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride) (see OVERDOSAGE ).
Controlled-release formulations of Potassium Orotate chloride have produced esophageal ulceration in certain cardiac patients with esophageal compression due to enlarged left atrium. Potassium Orotate supplementation, when indicated in such patients, should be given as a liquid preparation or as an aqueous (water) suspension of Potassium Orotate Chloride (see PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients , and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections).
All solid oral dosage forms of Potassium Orotate chloride are contraindicated in any patient in whom there is structural, pathological (eg, diabetic gastroparesis), or pharmacologic (use of anticholinergic agents or other agents with anticholinergic properties at sufficient doses to exert anticholinergic effects) cause for arrest or delay in tablet passage through the gastrointestinal tract.
Hyperkalemia (see OVERDOSAGE )
In patients with impaired mechanisms for excreting Potassium Orotate, the administration of Potassium Orotate salts can produce hyperkalemia and cardiac arrest. This occurs most commonly in patients given Potassium Orotate by the intravenous route but may also occur in patients given Potassium Orotate orally. Potentially fatal hyperkalemia can develop rapidly and be asymptomatic. The use of Potassium Orotate salts in patients with chronic renal disease, or any other condition which impairs Potassium Orotate excretion, requires particularly careful monitoring of the serum Potassium Orotate concentration and appropriate dosage adjustment.
Interaction with Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
Hypokalemia should not be treated by the concomitant administration of Potassium Orotate salts and a potassium-sparing diuretic (eg, spironolactone, triamterene, or amiloride) since the simultaneous administration of these agents can produce severe hyperkalemia.
Interaction with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, captopril, enalapril) will produce some Potassium Orotate retention by inhibiting aldosterone production. Potassium Orotate supplements should be given to patients receiving ACE inhibitors only with close monitoring.
Solid oral dosage forms of Potassium Orotate chloride can produce ulcerative and/or stenotic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Based on spontaneous adverse reaction reports, enteric-coated preparations of Potassium Orotate chloride are associated with an increased frequency of small bowel lesions (40-50 per 100,000 patient years) compared to sustained release wax matrix formulations (less than one per 100,000 patient years). Because of the lack of extensive marketing experience with microencapsulated products, a comparison between such products and wax matrix or enteric-coated products is not available. Potassium Orotate Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is a tablet formulated to provide a controlled rate of release of microencapsulated Potassium Orotate chloride and thus to minimize the possibility of a high local concentration of Potassium Orotate near the gastrointestinal wall.
Prospective trials have been conducted in normal human volunteers in which the upper gastrointestinal tract was evaluated by endoscopic inspection before and after 1 week of solid oral Potassium Orotate chloride therapy. The ability of this model to predict events occurring in usual clinical practice is unknown. Trials which approximated usual clinical practice did not reveal any clear differences between the wax matrix and microencapsulated dosage forms. In contrast, there was a higher incidence of gastric and duodenal lesions in subjects receiving a high dose of a wax matrix controlled-release formulation under conditions which did not resemble usual or recommended clinical practice (ie, 96 mEq per day in divided doses of Potassium Orotate chloride administered to fasted patients, in the presence of an anticholinergic drug to delay gastric emptying). The upper gastrointestinal lesions observed by endoscopy were asymptomatic and were not accompanied by evidence of bleeding (Hemoccult testing). The relevance of these findings to the usual conditions (ie, non-fasting, no anticholinergic agent, smaller doses) under which controlled-release Potassium Orotate chloride products are used is uncertain; epidemiologic studies have not identified an elevated risk, compared to microencapsulated products, for upper gastrointestinal lesions in patients receiving wax matrix formulations. Potassium Orotate Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq should be discontinued immediately and the possibility of ulceration, obstruction, or perforation should be considered if severe vomiting, abdominal pain, distention, or gastrointestinal bleeding occurs.
Hypokalemia in patients with metabolic acidosis should be treated with an alkalinizing Potassium Orotate salt such as Potassium Orotate bicarbonate, Potassium Orotate citrate, Potassium Orotate acetate, or Potassium Orotate gluconate.
The diagnosis of Potassium Orotate depletion is ordinarily made by demonstrating hypokalemia in a patient with a clinical history suggesting some cause for Potassium Orotate depletion. In interpreting the serum Potassium Orotate level, the physician should bear in mind that acute alkalosis per se can produce hypokalemia in the absence of a deficit in total body Potassium Orotate while acute acidosis per se can increase the serum Potassium Orotate concentration into the normal range even in the presence of a reduced total body Potassium Orotate. The treatment of Potassium Orotate depletion, particularly in the presence of cardiac disease, renal disease, or acidosis requires careful attention to acid-base balance and appropriate monitoring of serum electrolytes, the electrocardiogram, and the clinical status of the patient.
Information for Patients
Physicians should consider reminding the patient of the following: To take each dose with meals and with a full glass of water or other liquid. To take each dose without crushing, chewing, or sucking the tablets. If those patients are having difficulty swallowing whole tablets, they may try one of the following alternate methods of administration:
Aqueous suspension of Potassium Orotate Chloride that is not taken immediately should be discarded. The use of other liquids for suspending Potassium Orotate Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is not recommended.
To take this medicine following the frequency and amount prescribed by the physician. This is especially important if the patient is also taking diuretics and/or digitalis preparations.
To check with the physician at once if tarry stools or other evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding is noticed.
When blood is drawn for analysis of plasma Potassium Orotate it is important to recognize that artifactual elevations can occur after improper venipuncture technique or as a result of in vitro hemolysis of the sample.
Potassium-sparing diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and fertility studies in animals have not been performed. Potassium Orotate is a normal dietary constituent.
Pregnancy Category C
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Potassium Orotate Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq. It is unlikely that Potassium Orotate supplementation that does not lead to hyperkalemia would have an adverse effect on the fetus or would affect reproductive capacity.
The normal Potassium Orotate ion content of human milk is about 13 mEq per liter. Since oral Potassium Orotate becomes part of the body Potassium Orotate pool, so long as body Potassium Orotate is not excessive, the contribution of Potassium Orotate chloride supplementation should have little or no effect on the level in human milk.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Clinical studies of Potassium Orotate Chloride did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection; and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
One of the most severe adverse effects is hyperkalemia (see CONTRAINDICATIONS , WARNINGS , and OVERDOSAGE ). There have also been reports of upper and lower gastrointestinal conditions including obstruction, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS ). The most common adverse reactions to oral Potassium Orotate salts are nausea, vomiting, flatulence, abdominal pain/discomfort, and diarrhea. These symptoms are due to irritation of the gastrointestinal tract and are best managed by diluting the preparation further, taking the dose with meals or reducing the amount taken at one time.
The administration of oral Potassium Orotate salts to persons with normal excretory mechanisms for Potassium Orotate rarely causes serious hyperkalemia. However, if excretory mechanisms are impaired or if Potassium Orotate is administered too rapidly intravenously, potentially fatal hyperkalemia can result (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS ). It is important to recognize that hyperkalemia is usually asymptomatic and may be manifested only by an increased serum Potassium Orotate concentration (6.5-8.0 mEq/L) and characteristic electrocardiographic changes (peaking of T-waves, loss of P-waves, depression of S-T segment, and prolongation of the QT-interval). Late manifestations include muscle paralysis and cardiovascular collapse from cardiac arrest (9-12 mEq/L).
Treatment measures for hyperkalemia include the following:
In treating hyperkalemia, it should be recalled that in patients who have been stabilized on digitalis, too rapid a lowering of the serum Potassium Orotate concentration can produce digitalis toxicity.
The extended release feature means that absorption and toxic effects may be delayed for hours.
Consider standard measures to remove any unabsorbed drug.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The usual dietary intake of Potassium Orotate by the average adult is 50 to 100 mEq per day. Potassium Orotate depletion sufficient to cause hypokalemia usually requires the loss of 200 or more mEq of Potassium Orotate from the total body store.
Dosage must be adjusted to the individual needs of each patient. The dose for the prevention of hypokalemia is typically in the range of 20 mEq per day. Doses of 40-100 mEq per day or more are used for the treatment of Potassium Orotate depletion. Dosage should be divided if more than 20 mEq per day is given such that no more than 20 mEq is given in a single dose.
Each Potassium Orotate Chloride Extended Release Tablet USP, 20 mEq provides 20 mEq of Potassium Orotate chloride.
Potassium Orotate Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq should be taken with meals and with a glass of water or other liquid. This product should not be taken on an empty stomach because of its potential for gastric irritation (see WARNINGS ).
Patients having difficulty swallowing whole tablets may try one of the following alternate methods of administration:
Aqueous suspension of Potassium Orotate Chloride that is not taken immediately should be discarded. The use of other liquids for suspending Potassium Orotate Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is not recommended.
Potassium Orotate Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq are available in bottles of 100 (NDC 62037-999-01), bottles of 500 (NDC 62037-999-05), and bottles of 1000 (NDC 62037-999-10). Potassium Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq are capsule shaped, white to off-white tablets, with “ABRS-123” imprinted on one side and scored on the other side for flexibility of dosing.
Keep tightly closed. Store at controlled room temperature, 20°-25°C (68°-77°F).
Vandalia, OH 45377 USA
Watson Pharma, Inc.
Rev. Date (01/09) 173714
Potassium Orotate chloride 20 Meq
Potassium Orotate pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Potassium Orotate available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Potassium Orotate destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Potassium Orotate Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Potassium Orotate pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Potassium Orotate?
Depending on the reaction of the Potassium Orotate after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Potassium Orotate not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Potassium Orotate addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Potassium Orotate, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Potassium Orotate consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
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The information was verified by Dr. Rachana Salvi, MD Pharmacology