DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS

Pericristine

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Pericristine uses


1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Pericristine is a vinca alkaloid indicated for the treatment of adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in second or greater relapse or whose disease has progressed following two or more anti-leukemia therapies. This indication is based on overall response rate. Clinical benefit such as improvement in overall survival has not been verified (1.1).

1.1 Adult ALL in Second or Greater Relapse

Pericristine® is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph-) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in second or greater relapse or whose disease has progressed following two or more anti-leukemia therapies. This indication is based on overall response rate. Clinical benefit such as improvement in overall survival has not been verified.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

For Intravenous Use Only. Fatal if Given by Other Routes.

Pericristine has different dosage recommendations than Pericristine injection. Verify drug name and dose prior to preparation and administration to avoid overdosage.

Intravenous use only. Do not administer by any other route (2)

Administer Pericristine at a dose of 2.25 mg/m2 intravenously over 1 hour once every 7 days (2.1).

2.1 Recommended Dosage

The recommended dose of Pericristine is 2.25 mg/m2 intravenously over 1 hour once every 7 days.

Pericristine is liposome-encapsulated vincristine.

2.2 Dose modifications: Peripheral Neuropathy

Pericristine is contraindicated in patients with demyelinating conditions including Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome [see Contraindications ]. Patients with preexisting severe neuropathy should be treated with Pericristine only after careful risk-benefit assessment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ]. For dose or schedule modifications guidelines for patients who experience peripheral neuropathy, see Table 1.

Severity of Peripheral Neuropathy Signs and Symptoms Grading based on the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v3.0. Modification of Dose and Regimen

If the patient develops Grade 3 (severe symptoms; limiting self-care activities of daily living [ADL]Self-care ADL: refers to bathing, dressing and undressing, feeding self, using the toilet, taking medications, and not bedridden.) or persistent Grade 2 (moderate symptoms; limiting instrumental ADLInstrumental ADL: refers to preparing meals, shopping for groceries and clothes, using telephone, managing money, etc.) peripheral neuropathy:


Interrupt Pericristine.

If the peripheral neuropathy remains at Grade 3 or 4, discontinue Pericristine.

If the peripheral neuropathy recovers to Grade 1 or 2, reduce the Pericristine dose to 2 mg/m2.


If the patient has persistent Grade 2 peripheral neuropathy after the first dose reduction to 2 mg/m2:


Interrupt Pericristine for up to 7 days.

If the peripheral neuropathy increases to Grade 3 or 4, discontinue Pericristine.

If peripheral neuropathy recovers to Grade 1, reduce the Pericristine dose to 1.825 mg/m2.


If the patient has persistent Grade 2 peripheral neuropathy after the second dose reduction to 1.825 mg/m2:


Interrupt Pericristine for up to 7 days.

If the peripheral neuropathy increases to Grade 3 or 4, discontinue Pericristine.

If the toxicity recovers to Grade 1, reduce the Pericristine dose to 1.5 mg/m2.

2.3 Preparation and Handling

  • 2.3.1 Items Required by the Pharmacy to Prepare Pericristine
  • Pericristine Kit
  • Water bath The manufacturer will provide the water bath, calibrated thermometer, and calibrated electronic timer to the medical facility at the initial order of Pericristine and will replace them every 2 years. or block heater The manufacturer will provide the block heater to the medical facility at the initial order of Pericristine. The block heater will be replaced every 5 years.
  • Calibrated thermometer1 (0°C to 100°C)
  • Calibrated electronic timer1
  • Sterile venting needle or other suitable device equipped with a sterile 0.2 micron filter
  • 1 mL or 3 mL sterile syringe with needle, and
  • 5 mL sterile syringe with needle.
  • Tongs The manufacturer will provide tongs to the medical facility at the initial order of Pericristine.
  • 2.3.2 Preparation Instructions for Pericristine (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection), 5 mg/31 mL (0.16 mg/mL)

Procedures for handling and disposal of anticancer drugs should be followed [see References (15) ].

Call [1 888 292 9617] if you have questions about the preparation of Pericristine. Pericristine takes approximately 60 to 90 minutes to prepare. The preparer should have dedicated uninterrupted time to prepare Pericristine due to the extensive monitoring of temperature and time required for the preparation.

Aseptic technique must be strictly observed since no preservative or bacteriostatic agent is present in Pericristine. The preparation steps of Pericristine that involve mixing the Sodium Phosphate Injection, Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol Liposome Injection, and Pericristine Injection must be done in a biological safety cabinet or by established pharmacy safety procedures for the preparation of sterile injectable formulations and hazardous drugs. However, the preparation steps that involve placement of the vial in the water bath must be done outside of the sterile area.

Do not use with in-line filters. Do not mix with other drugs.

Water bath process:

  • Fill a water bath with water to a level of at least 8 cm (3.2 inches) measured from the bottom and maintain this minimum water level throughout the procedure. The water bath must remain outside of the sterile area.
  • Place a calibrated thermometer in the water bath to monitor water temperature and leave it in the water bath until the procedure has been completed.
  • Preheat water bath to 63°C to 67°C. Maintain this water temperature until completion of the procedure using the calibrated thermometer.
  • Visually inspect each vial in the Pericristine Kit for particulate matter and discoloration prior to preparation, whenever solution and container permit. Do not use if a precipitate or foreign matter is present.
  • Remove all the caps on the vials and swab the vials with sterile alcohol pads.
  • Vent the Sodium Phosphate Injection vial with a sterile venting needle equipped with a sterile 0.2 micron filter or other suitable venting device in the biological safety cabinet. Always position venting needle point well above liquid level before adding Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol Liposome Injection and Pericristine Injection.
  • Withdraw 1 mL of Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol Liposome Injection.
  • Inject 1 mL of Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol Liposome Injection into the Sodium Phosphate Injection vial.
  • Withdraw 5 mL of Pericristine Injection.
  • Inject 5 mL of Pericristine Injection into the Sodium Phosphate Injection vial.
  • Remove the venting needle and gently invert the Sodium Phosphate Injection vial 5 times to mix. DO NOT SHAKE.
  • Fit Flotation Ring around the neck of the Sodium Phosphate Injection vial.
  • Confirm that the water bath temperature is at 63°C to 67°C using the calibrated thermometer. Remove the Sodium Phosphate Injection vial containing Pericristine Injection, Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol Liposome Injection, and Sodium Phosphate Injection from the biological safety cabinet and place into the water bath for 10 minutes using the calibrated electronic timer. Monitor the temperature to ensure the temperature is maintained at 63°C to 67°C.
  • IMMEDIATELY after placing the Sodium Phosphate Injection vial into the water bath, record the constitution start time and water temperature on the Pericristine Overlabel.
  • At the end of the 10 minutes using the water bath, confirm that the water temperature is 63°C to 67°C using the calibrated thermometer. Remove the vial from the water bath (use tongs to prevent burns) and remove the Flotation Ring.
  • Record the final constitution time and the water temperature on the Pericristine Overlabel.
  • Dry the exterior of the Sodium Phosphate Injection vial with a clean paper towel, affix Pericristine (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection) Overlabel, and gently invert 5 times to mix. DO NOT SHAKE.
  • Permit the constituted vial contents to equilibrate for at least 30 minutes to controlled room temperature (15°C to 30°C, 59°F to 86°F).
  • Pericristine (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection) contains 5 mg/31 mL (0.16 mg/mL) Pericristine. ONCE PREPARED, STORE AT CONTROLLED ROOM TEMPERATURE (15°C to 30°C, 59°F to 86°F) FOR NO MORE THAN 12 HOURS.
  • Swab the top of the vial now containing Pericristine with a sterile alcohol pad and return the vial back into the biological safety cabinet.
  • Calculate the patient's Pericristine dose based on the patient's actual body surface area (BSA) and remove the volume corresponding to the patient's Pericristine dose from an infusion bag containing 100 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection.
  • Inject the dose of Pericristine into the infusion bag to result in a final volume of 100 mL.
  • Complete the information required on the Infusion Bag Label and apply to the infusion bag.
  • Finish administration of the diluted product within 12 hours of the initiation of Pericristine preparation.
  • Empty, clean, and dry the water bath after each use.
  • Deviations in temperature, time, and preparation procedures may fail to ensure proper encapsulation of Pericristine into the liposomes. In the event that the preparation deviates from the instructions in the above steps, the components of the kit should be discarded and a new kit should be used to prepare the dose.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Do not use if a precipitate or foreign matter is present.

Block heater process:

Note: Do NOT use water with the block heater preparation process.

Note: The flotation ring included with the Pericristine kit is not required for the block heater application.

  • Arrange the three heater blocks in the block heater such that the block holding the constitution vial is centered between the two other blank heater blocks.
  • Place a calibrated thermometer in the block opening adjacent to the vial well to monitor the temperature. Leave the thermometer in the block opening until the procedure has been completed.
  • Turn on the block heater and set the controller to 75°C. Verify the block temperature by checking that the thermometer inserted in the block reads 75 ±2°C. Equilibrate the heating block at 75 ±2°C for 15 minutes. Maintain this block temperature until completion of the procedure using the calibrated thermometer.
  • Visually inspect each vial in the Pericristine Kit for particulate matter and discoloration prior to preparation, whenever solution and container permit. Do not use if a precipitate or foreign matter is present.
  • Remove all the caps on the vials and swab the vials with sterile alcohol pads.
  • Vent the Sodium Phosphate Injection vial with a sterile venting needle equipped with a sterile 0.2 micron filter or other suitable venting device in the biological safety cabinet. Always position venting needle point well above liquid level before adding Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol Liposome Injection and Pericristine Injection.
  • Withdraw 1 mL of Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol Liposome Injection.
  • Inject 1 mL of Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol Liposome Injection into the Sodium Phosphate Injection vial.
  • Withdraw 5 mL of Pericristine Injection.
  • Inject 5 mL of Pericristine Injection into the Sodium Phosphate Injection vial.
  • Remove the venting needle and gently invert the Sodium Phosphate Injection vial 5 times to mix. DO NOT SHAKE.
  • Confirm that the block heater temperature is at 73°C to 77°C using the calibrated thermometer. Remove the Sodium Phosphate Injection vial containing Pericristine Injection, Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol Liposome Injection, and Sodium Phosphate Injection from the biological safety cabinet and place into the block heater for 18 minutes using the calibrated electronic timer. Monitor the temperature to ensure the temperature is maintained at 73°C to 77°C.
  • IMMEDIATELY after placing the Sodium Phosphate Injection vial into the block heater, record the constitution start time and block heater temperature on the Pericristine Overlabel. Use only the calibrated thermometer inserted in the block to monitor temperature.
  • At the end of the 18 minutes using the block heater, confirm that the block heater temperature is 73°C to 77°C using the calibrated thermometer. Remove the vial from the block heater (use tongs to prevent burns).
  • Record the final constitution time and the block heater temperature on the Pericristine Overlabel.
  • Affix Pericristine (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection) Overlabel, and gently invert 5 times to mix. DO NOT SHAKE.
  • Permit the constituted vial contents to equilibrate for at least 30 minutes to controlled room temperature (15°C to 30°C, 59°F to 86°F).
  • Pericristine (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection) contains 5 mg/31 mL (0.16 mg/mL) Pericristine. ONCE PREPARED, STORE AT CONTROLLED ROOM TEMPERATURE (15°C to 30°C, 59°F to 86°F) FOR NO MORE THAN 12 HOURS.
  • Swab the top of the vial now containing Pericristine with a sterile alcohol pad and return the vial back into the biological safety cabinet.
  • Calculate the patient’s Pericristine dose based on the patient’s actual body surface area (BSA) and remove the volume corresponding to the patient’s Pericristine dose from an infusion bag containing 100 mL of 5% Dextrose Injection or 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection.
  • Inject the dose of Pericristine into the infusion bag to result in a final volume of 100 mL.
  • Complete the information required on the Infusion Bag Label and apply to the infusion bag.
  • Finish administration of the diluted product within 12 hours of the initiation of Pericristine preparation.
  • Deviations in temperature, time, and preparation procedures may fail to ensure proper encapsulation of Pericristine into the liposomes. In the event that the preparation deviates from the instructions in the above steps, the components of the kit should be discarded and a new kit should be used to prepare the dose.

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Do not use if a precipitate or foreign matter is present.

Pericristine Block Heater.jpg

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3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Pericristine is prepared from the components in the Pericristine Kit. Following the preparation procedure according to section 2.3.2, each single-dose vial of Pericristine (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection) contains 5 mg/31 mL (0.16 mg/mL) Pericristine.

The final drug product is prepared on site from the components in the Pericristine Kit. After preparation, each single-dose vial of Pericristine (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection) contains 5 mg/31 mL (0.16 mg/mL) Pericristine (2.3.2).

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Pericristine is contraindicated in patients with demyelinating conditions including Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome.

Pericristine is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to Pericristine or any of the other components of Pericristine (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection).

Pericristine is contraindicated for intrathecal administration.

  • Pericristine is contraindicated in patients with demyelinating conditions including Charcot-Marie-Tooth syndrome (4)
  • Pericristine is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to Pericristine or any of the other components of Pericristine (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection) (4)
  • Pericristine is contraindicated for intrathecal administration (4)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Intrathecal administration is fatal
  • Extravasation causes tissue injury (5.2)
  • Neurologic toxicity: Monitor patients for peripheral motor and sensory, central and autonomic neuropathy, and reduce, interrupt, or discontinue dosing. Patients with preexisting severe neuropathy should be treated with Pericristine only after careful risk-benefit assessment (2.2, 5.3)
  • Myelosuppression: Monitor blood counts prior to each dose of Pericristine. Neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, or anemia may occur; consider Pericristine dose reduction or interruption and supportive care measures (5.4)
  • Tumor lysis syndrome: Anticipate, monitor for, and manage (5.5)
  • Constipation, bowel obstruction, and/or paralytic ileus: Institute a prophylactic bowel regimen to prevent potential constipation, bowel obstruction, and/or paralytic ileus (5.6)
  • Fatigue: Severe fatigue can occur (5.7)
  • Hepatic toxicity: Monitor liver function and modify or interrupt dosing (5.8)
  • Embryofetal toxicity: Can cause fetal harm. Advise women of potential risk to the fetus (5.9, 8.1)

5.1 For Intravenous Use Only

Fatal if Given by Other Routes. Death has occurred with intrathecal use.

5.2 Extravasation Tissue Injury

Only administer through a secure and free-flowing venous access line. If extravasation is suspected, discontinue infusion immediately and consider local treatment measures.

5.3 Neurologic Toxicity

Sensory and motor neuropathies are common and are cumulative. Monitor patients for symptoms of neuropathy, such as hypoesthesia, hyperesthesia, paresthesia, hyporeflexia, areflexia, neuralgia, jaw pain, decreased vibratory sense, cranial neuropathy, ileus, burning sensation, arthralgia, myalgia, muscle spasm, or weakness, both before and during treatment. Orthostatic hypotension may occur. The risk of neurologic toxicity is greater if Pericristine is administered to patients with preexisting neuromuscular disorders or when other drugs with risk of neurologic toxicity are being given. In the studies of relapsed and/or refractory adult ALL patients, Grade ≥ 3 neuropathy events occurred in 32.5% of patients. Worsening neuropathy requires dose delay, reduction, or discontinuation of Pericristine [see Dosage and Administration ].

5.4 Myelosuppression

Monitor complete blood counts prior to each dose of Pericristine. If Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, or anemia develops, consider Pericristine dose modification or reduction as well as supportive care measures.

5.5 Tumor Lysis Syndrome

Tumor lysis syndrome may occur in patients with ALL receiving Pericristine. Anticipate, monitor for, and manage.

5.6 Constipation and Bowel Obstruction

Ileus, bowel obstruction, and colonic pseudo-obstruction have occurred. Pericristine can cause constipation [see Adverse Reactions (6) ]. Institute a prophylactic bowel regimen to mitigate potential constipation, bowel obstruction, and/or paralytic ileus, considering adequate dietary fiber intake, hydration, and routine use of stool softeners, such as docusate. Additional treatments, such as senna, bisacodyl, milk of magnesia, magnesium citrate, and lactulose may be considered.

5.7 Fatigue

Pericristine can cause severe fatigue. Pericristine dose delay, reduction, or discontinuation may be necessary.

5.8 Hepatic Toxicity

Fatal liver toxicity and elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase have occurred. Elevated levels of aspartate aminotransferase of Grade ≥3 occurred in 6-11% of patients in clinical trials. Monitor hepatic function tests. Reduce or interrupt Pericristine for hepatic toxicity.

5.9 Embryofetal Toxicity

Pericristine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Pericristine liposome injection was teratogenic or caused embryo-fetal death in animals. Women of childbearing potential should avoid becoming pregnant while being treated with Pericristine. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Pericristine in pregnant women and there were no reports of pregnancy in any of the clinical studies in the Pericristine clinical development program. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus .

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6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following adverse reactions are also discussed in other sections of the labeling:

  • For intravenous use only [see Warnings and Precautions ]
  • Extravasation tissue injury [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]
  • Peripheral Neuropathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ]
  • Myelosuppression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ]
  • Tumor lysis syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ]
  • Constipation and bowel obstruction [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ]
  • Fatigue [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ]
  • Hepatic toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) ]

Most commonly reported adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 30%) in clinical studies include constipation, nausea, pyrexia, fatigue, peripheral neuropathy, febrile neutropenia, diarrhea, anemia, decreased appetite, and insomnia (6.1).

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Talon Therapeutics at 1-888 292 9617 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

6.1 Clinical Trials Safety Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

Integrated Summary of Safety in Relapsed and/or Refractory Ph- Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Pericristine, at a dose of 2.25 mg/m2 weekly, was studied in a total of 83 patients in two trials: study 1 and study 2. Adverse reactions were observed in 100% of patients. The most common adverse reactions (>30%) were constipation (57%), nausea (52%), pyrexia (43%), fatigue (41%), peripheral neuropathy (39%), febrile neutropenia (38%), diarrhea (37%), anemia (34%), decreased appetite (33%), and insomnia (32%).

Adverse reactions of Grade 3 or greater were reported in 96% of patients. Adverse reactions of Grade 3 or greater and occurring in ≥ 5% of patients are summarized in Table 2.

Adverse Reactions Grade ≥ 3 Study 1 and 2

(N=83)

n (%)


Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders


47 (56.6)


  Febrile Neutropenia


26 (31.3)


  Neutropenia


15 (18.1)


  Anemia


14 (16.9)


  Thrombocytopenia


14 (16.9)


Infections


33 (39.8)


  Pneumonia


7 (8.4)


  Septic Shock


5 (6.0)


  Staphylococcal Bacteremia


5 (6.0)


Neuropathy Including neuropathy-associated adverse reactions.


27 (32.5)


  Peripheral Sensory and Motor Neuropathy


14 (16.7)


  Constipation


4 (4.8)


  Ileus, Colonic Pseudo-Obstruction


5 (6.0)


  Asthenia


4 (4.8)


  Muscular Weakness


1 (1.2)


Respiratory Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders


17 (20.5)


  Respiratory Distress


5 (6.0)


  Respiratory Failure


4 (4.8)


General Disorders and Administration Site Condition


31 (37.3)


  Pyrexia


12 (14.5)


  Fatigue


10 (12.0)


  Pain


7 (8.4)


Gastrointestinal Disorders


21 (25.3)


  Abdominal Pain


7 (8.4)


Investigations


20 (24.1)


  Aspartate Aminotransferase Increased


6 (7.2)


Vascular Disorders


8 (9.6)


  Hypotension


5 (6.0)


Psychiatric Disorders


9 (10.8)


  Mental Status Changes


3 (3.6)


Cardiac Disorders


9 (10.8)


  Cardiac Arrest


5 (6.0)


Renal and Urinary Disorders


6 (7.2)


Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders


7 (8.4)


A total of 75.9% of patients experienced serious adverse events (SAEs) during the studies. The most commonly reported SAEs included febrile neutropenia (20.5%), pyrexia (13.3%), hypotension (7.2%), respiratory distress (6.0%), and cardiac arrest (6.0%).

Dose reduction, delay, or omission occurred in 53% of patients during the treatment.

Twenty-eight percent of patients experienced adverse reactions leading to treatment discontinuation. The most common adverse reactions that caused treatment discontinuation were peripheral neuropathy (10%), leukemia-related (7%), and tumor lysis syndrome (2%).

Adverse reactions related to neuropathy and leading to treatment discontinuation were decreased vibratory sense, facial palsy, hyporeflexia, constipation, asthenia, fatigue, and musculoskeletal pain, each reported in at least 1 patient.

Deaths occurred in 23% of patients in study 1. The non-leukemia related causes of deaths were brain infarct (1), intracerebral hemorrhage (2), liver failure (1), multi system organ failure (2), pneumonia and septic shock (3), respiratory failure (4), pulmonary hemorrhage (1), and sudden cardiac death (1).

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7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

No formal drug interaction studies have been conducted with Pericristine. Pericristine is expected to interact with drugs known to interact with non-liposomal Pericristine.

Simultaneous oral or intravenous administration of phenytoin and antineoplastic chemotherapy combinations that included non-liposomal Pericristine have been reported to reduce blood levels of phenytoin and to increase seizure activity.

Pericristine is expected to interact with drugs known to interact with non-liposomal Pericristine.

7.1 CYP3A Interactions

Pericristine, the active agent in Pericristine, is a substrate for cytochrome P450 3A isozymes (CYP3A); therefore, the concomitant use of strong CYP3A inhibitors should be avoided (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, clarithromycin, atazanavir, indinavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavir, telithromycin). Similarly, the concomitant use of strong CYP3A inducers should be avoided (e.g., dexamethasone, phenytoin, carbamazepine, rifampin, rifabutin, rifapentine, phenobarbital, St. John's Wort).

7.2 P-glycoprotein Interactions

Pericristine, the active agent in Pericristine, is also a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The effect of concomitant use of potent P-gp inhibitors or inducers has not been investigated; it is likely that these agents will alter the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of Pericristine. Therefore the concomitant use of potent P-gp inhibitors or inducers should be avoided.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

Pediatric Use: The safety and effectiveness of Pericristine in pediatric patients has not been established

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category D [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) ]

Based on its mechanism of action and findings from animal studies, Pericristine can cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women.

If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus. In an embryofetal developmental study, pregnant rats were administered Pericristine liposome injection intravenously during the period of organogenesis at Pericristine doses of 0.022 to 0.09 mg/kg/day. Drug-related adverse effects included fetal malformations (skeletal and visceral), decreases in fetal weights, increased numbers of early resorptions and post-implantation losses, and decreased maternal body weights Malformations were observed at doses ≥ 0.044 mg/kg/day in animals at systemic exposures approximately 20-40% of those reported in patients at the recommended dose.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of Pericristine in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in elderly individuals have not been established. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

8.6 Renal Impairment

The influence of renal impairment on the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of Pericristine has not been evaluated.

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

Non-liposomal Pericristine is excreted primarily by the liver. The influence of severe hepatic impairment on the safety and efficacy of Pericristine has not been evaluated.

The pharmacokinetics of Pericristine was evaluated in patients with moderate hepatic dysfunction (Child-Pugh B) secondary to melanoma liver metastases. The dose-adjusted maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of Pericristine in patients with moderate hepatic impairment was comparable to the Cmax and AUC of patients with ALL who had otherwise normal hepatic function.

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10 OVERDOSAGE

When Pericristine (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection) was administered at a dose of 2.4 mg/m2, severe toxicities including motor neuropathy of Grade 3, grand mal seizure of Grade 4, and elevated aspartate aminotransferase and hyperbilirubinemia of Grade 4 were reported in 1 patient each. There is no known antidote for overdosage.

11 DESCRIPTION

Pericristine (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection) is vincristine encapsulated in sphingomyelin/cholesterol liposomes for intravenous administration.

The active ingredient in Pericristine is Pericristine. Pericristine is a vinca alkaloid isolated as a 1:1 sulfate salt from the periwinkle plant (Catharanthus roseus). It is a hygroscopic, white to slightly yellowish crystalline powder that is soluble in water. It has a molecular weight of 923.04 (salt form) / 824.98 (base form) and a molecular formula of C46H56N4O10 - H2SO4. The chemical name for Pericristine is 22-oxovincaleukoblastine and it has the following chemical structure:

Vincristine is encapsulated in a Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol liposome. The lipid components in the liposome are sphingomyelin and cholesterol at a molar ratio of approximately 60:40 (mol:mol).

After preparation, each vial of Pericristine contains 5 mg Pericristine, 500 mg mannitol, 73.5 mg sphingomyelin, 29.5 mg cholesterol, 36 mg sodium citrate, 38 mg citric acid, 355 mg sodium phosphate, and 225 mg sodium chloride.

Pericristine (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection) appears as a white to off-white, translucent suspension, essentially free of visible foreign matter and aggregates, comprised of sphingomyelin/cholesterol liposomes, with an approximate liposome mean diameter of 100 nm. Greater than 95% of the drug is encapsulated in the liposomes.

The Pericristine Kit component vials for the preparation of Pericristine (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection) include:

  • Pericristine Injection, USP (5 mg/5 mL). Each Pericristine Injection vial consists of 5 mg/5 mL Pericristine (which is equivalent to 4.5 mg/5 mL vincristine free base) and 500 mg/5 mL mannitol.
  • Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol Liposome Injection (103 mg/mL). Each Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol Liposome Injection vial consists of 73.5 mg/mL sphingomyelin, 29.5 mg/mL cholesterol, 33.6 mg/mL citric acid, 35.4 mg/mL sodium citrate, and not more than 0.1% ethanol.
  • Sodium Phosphate Injection (355 mg/25 mL). Each Sodium Phosphate Injection vial consists of 355 mg/25 mL dibasic sodium phosphate and 225 mg/25 mL sodium chloride.
Chemical Structure

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Pericristine is a sphingomyelin/cholesterol liposome-encapsulated formulation of Pericristine. Non-liposomal Pericristine binds to tubulin, altering the tubulin polymerization equilibrium, resulting in altered microtubule structure and function. Non-liposomal Pericristine stabilizes the spindle apparatus, preventing chromosome segregation, triggering metaphase arrest and inhibition of mitosis.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

The plasma pharmacokinetics of Pericristine was investigated in 13 adult patients with relapsed ALL who received a Pericristine dose of 2.25 mg/m2 administered as a 1-hour intravenous infusion. The calculated pharmacokinetic parameters for total plasma Pericristine are given in Table 3. The Pericristine levels reported in Table 3 reflect liposome-encapsulated drug that may not be immediately bioavailable and may not be directly comparable to plasma levels of Pericristine after administration of non-liposomal Pericristine, which is immediately bioavailable.

Variable N Mean SE Median Range

AUC(h∙ng/mL)


13


14566


1766


13680


7036-26074


CL (mL/h)


12


345


100


302


148-783


Cmax (ng/mL)


13


1220


64


1230


919-1720


The plasma clearance (CL) of Pericristine is slow, 345 mL/h, at a dose of 2.25 mg/m2. This is in comparison to the rapid clearance of non-liposomal Pericristine at 189 mL/min/m2 (11,340 mL/h). The slow clearance of Pericristine contributes to a much higher AUC for Pericristine relative to non-liposomal Pericristine.

Following intravenous administration of Pericristine, urinary excretion was a minor route of elimination for Pericristine and its metabolite. Less than 8% of the administered Pericristine dose was eliminated in urine over a 96-hour observation period, which is similar to the urinary excretion of non-liposomal Pericristine. Following non-liposomal Pericristine infusion, the main route of Pericristine excretion was the fecal route, accounting for 69% of the administered dose over 72 hours.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No carcinogenicity studies have been conducted with Pericristine or non-liposomal Pericristine. Based on the mechanism of action and genotoxicity findings in nonclinical studies conducted with non-liposomal Pericristine, Pericristine may be carcinogenic.

No genotoxicity studies have been conducted with Pericristine. Non-liposomal vincristine was genotoxic in some in vitro and in vivo studies.

The single- and repeat-dose animal toxicology study results indicate that Pericristine can impair male fertility, consistent with the literature on non-liposomal Pericristine. Administration of vincristine liposome injection causes testicular degeneration and atrophy, and epididymal aspermia in rats.

Gonadal dysfunction has been reported in both male and female post-pubertal patients who received multi-agent chemotherapy including non-liposomal Pericristine. The degree to which testicular or ovarian functions are affected is age-, dose-, and agent-dependent. Recovery may occur in some but not all patients.

13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology

In a repeat-dose comparative toxicology study in rats, Pericristine liposome injection or non-liposomal Pericristine was administered to animals intravenously once per week for 6 weeks. Clinical signs of toxicity consistent with neurotoxicity were greater with Pericristine liposome injection than with non-liposomal Pericristine at equal Pericristine doses of 2 mg/m2/week and included uncoordinated movements, weakness, reduced muscle tone, and limited usage of the limbs. Neurological testing indicated drug-induced peripheral neurotoxicity with both drugs. Based on the histopathology examination after 6 weekly doses, Pericristine liposome injection induced greater peripheral neurotoxicity (nerve fiber degeneration) and secondary skeletal muscle atrophy than the equal dose of non-liposomal Pericristine. In a separate tissue distribution study in rats, administration of 2 mg/m2 of intravenous liposomal or non-liposomal Pericristine showed greater accumulation of Pericristine in sciatic and tibial nerves (as well as the lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow) of the animals following Pericristine liposome injection.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

Pericristine was studied in an international, open-label, multi-center, single-arm trial (Study 1). Eligible patients were 18 years of age or older with Philadelphia chromosome negative ALL in second or greater relapse or whose disease progressed after two or greater treatment lines of anti-leukemia therapy. Patients had to have achieved a complete remission (CR) to at least one prior anti-leukemia chemotherapy, defined by a leukemia-free interval of equal or more than 90 days. Patients were not eligible for immediate hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) at the time of screening and enrollment.

Patients received intravenous Pericristine monotherapy at 2.25 mg/m2 over 60 minutes every 7 days. Concomitant corticosteroids were not permitted beyond Day 5.

The treated population included 65 patients who received at least 1 dose of Pericristine. All of the treated patients had received prior Pericristine and 80% had evidence of residual neuropathy at study baseline. Among treated patients, 51% were male, 86% were white, 45% were under 30 years of age, 11% were age 65 or older, 48% had undergone prior HSCT, 51% had received 3 or more prior therapies, and 45% were refractory to their immediate prior therapy. Disease characteristics were 85% precursor B-cell ALL and 15% precursor T-cell ALL. In addition, 22 of 65 (34%) treated patients did not receive asparaginase products prior to enrollment. Efficacy results are shown in Table 4.

Study 1

(N=65)

n (%)


Complete remission (CR)


3 (4.6)


CR with incomplete blood count recovery (CRi)


7 (10.8)


  CR + CRi


10 (15.4)


  (95% CICI = Confidence interval (Clopper-Pearson).)


(7.6 – 26.5)


MEDIAN DURATION of CR or CRi:


Days (95% CI)


Based on the first date of CR or CRi to the date of the last available histologic assessment of the same response (n=8)


28 (7, 36)


Based on the first date of CR or CRi to date of documented relapse, death, or subsequent chemotherapies including hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) (n=10)


56 (9, 65)

15 REFERENCES

  • NIOSH Alert: Preventing occupational exposure to antineoplastic and other hazardous drugs in healthcare settings. 2004. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-165.
  • OSHA Technical Manual, TED 1-0.15A, Section VI: Chapter 2. Controlling Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Drugs. OSHA, 1999. http://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_vi/otm_vi_2.html
  • American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ASHP guidelines on handling hazardous drugs. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. (2006) 63:1172-1193.
  • Polovich M, White JM, Kelleher LO (eds.) 2005. Chemotherapy and biotherapy guidelines and recommendations for practice (2nd. ed.) Pittsburgh, PA: Oncology Nursing Society.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

The Pericristine Kit contains:

  • Vial containing Pericristine Injection, USP 5 mg/5 mL (1 mg/mL) – NDC # 20536-323-01
  • Vial containing Sphingomyelin/Cholesterol Liposome Injection 103 mg/mL – NDC # 20536-324-01
  • Vial containing Sodium Phosphate Injection 355 mg/25 mL (14.2 mg/mL) – NDC # 20536-325-01
  • Flotation Ring
  • Overlabel for Sodium Phosphate Injection vial containing constituted Pericristine (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection), 5 mg/31 mL (0.16 mg/mL)
  • Infusion Bag Label

16.1 Storage

Store the Pericristine Kit in the refrigerator at 2°C to 8°C – Do Not Freeze

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Physicians are advised to discuss the following with patients prior to treatment with Pericristine:

Extravasation Tissue Injury: Advise patients to report immediately any burning or local irritation during or after the infusion [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].

Ability to Drive or Operate Machinery or Impairment of Mental Ability: Pericristine may cause fatigue and symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Advise patients not to drive or operate machinery if they experience any of these symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3, 5.7) ].

Gastrointestinal/Constipation: Patients receiving Pericristine may experience constipation. Advise patients how to avoid constipation by a diet high in bulk fiber, fruits and vegetables, and adequate fluid intake as well as use of a stool softener, such as docusate. Instruct patients to seek medical advice if they experience symptoms of constipation such bowel movement infrequency, abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ].

Pregnancy/Nursing: Advise patients to use effective contraceptive measures to prevent pregnancy during treatment with Pericristine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) ]. Instruct patients to report pregnancy to their physicians immediately. Advise patients that they should not receive Pericristine while pregnant or breastfeeding. If a patient wishes to re-start breastfeeding after treatment, she should be advised to discuss the appropriate timing with her physician [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3) ].

Concomitant Medications: Advise patients to speak with their physicians about any other medication they are currently taking [see Drug Interactions (7) ].

Peripheral Neuropathy: Advise patients to contact their physicians if they experience new or worsening symptoms of peripheral neuropathy such as tingling, numbness, pain, a burning feeling in the feet or hands, or weakness in the feet or hands [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ].

Other: Instruct patients to notify their physicians if they experience fever, productive cough, or decreased appetite [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ].

Manufactured for:

Talon Therapeutics, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Spectrum Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

157 Technology Drive

Irvine, CA 92618

Pericristine pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

infoActive ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Pericristine available forms, composition, doses:

infoForm of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Pericristine destination | category:

infoDestination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Pericristine Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

infoA medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Pericristine pharmaceutical companies:

infoPharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."MARQIBO (VINCRISTINE SULFATE) KIT [TALON THERAPEUTICS, INC.]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. "vincristine". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "vincristine". http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB0054... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Pericristine?

Depending on the reaction of the Pericristine after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Pericristine not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Pericristine addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sDrugs.com conducted a study on Pericristine, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Pericristine consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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