DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
What is the dose of the medication you are taking?
Otosamthong (Fludrocortisone Acetate) West-Ward Pharmaceuticals belongs to the type of drugs called steroids. The body naturally creates steroids that are similar to this medicine.
Sometimes the body experiences conditions in which they cannot or does not produce a sufficient amount of steroids, like Addison's disease, and salt-losing adrenogenital syndrome. Otosamthong (Fludrocortisone Acetate) West-Ward Pharmaceuticals functions in the body by treating the said conditions. This drug could also be used in other purposes not mentioned here.
Otosamthong (Fludrocortisone Acetate) West-Ward Pharmaceuticals lessens the body's ability to fight infection so avoid taking this medication if you have serious bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. Talk to your doctor first before taking this medication if you have kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, myasthenia gravis, ulcerative colitis, hypothyroidism, high blood pressure or heart disease, liver disease, tuberculosis, psychiatric conditions, stomach ulcers, osteoporosis, or any other medical conditions. Your doctor might not allow you to take the medication, adjust your dose or require you a specials monitoring during the treatment. This medication belongs to the FDA pregnancy category C. It is unknown whether this medication could cause harm to an unborn baby. Talk to your doctor first before taking Otosamthong (Fludrocortisone Acetate) West-Ward Pharmaceuticals if you are pregnant. Talk to your doctor first before taking this medication if you are breast-feeding an infant because this passes in breast milk.
Follow the exact direction given to you by your doctor in taking Otosamthong (Fludrocortisone Acetate) West-Ward Pharmaceuticals. In case you did not understand the instructions, do not hesitate to ask your doctor, pharmacist or nurse to explain them to you. It is advisable to take every dose of this medication with a full glass of water. To reduce stomach upset, you may take this medication with milk or food. If possible, take this medication at the same time every day. If you are taking this medication for several weeks, talk to your doctor first before you stop taking this medication.
You may obtain the dose of Otosamthong (Fludrocortisone Acetate) West-Ward Pharmaceuticals from your doctor. Follow the exact dose given to you by your doctor.
Some of the signs of overdose with Otosamthong (Fludrocortisone Acetate) West-Ward Pharmaceuticals are weight gain, swelling or water retention, high blood pressure and low levels of potassium in the blood. Look for emergency medical attention if you suspect an overdose or experience any of the said signs of overdose. Taking a large dose of this medication, even once is unlikely to cause symptoms or death.
In case you miss a dose of this medication, take the missed dose as soon as you recall but if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and take the next dose that was regularly scheduled. Avoid taking a double dose of this medication.
Some of the serious side effects of Otosamthong (Fludrocortisone Acetate) West-Ward Pharmaceuticals are allergic reactions such as closing of your throat, difficulty in breathing, swelling of the lips and hives; severe or continuing headache; sudden weight gain; dizziness or fainting; swelling of the feet or ankles; increased blood pressure; and difficulty in breathing. If you experience any of the said serious side effects, stop taking Otosamthong (Fludrocortisone Acetate) West-Ward Pharmaceuticals and look for emergency medical attention.
Some other side effects of this medication are muscle weakness or joint pain, glaucoma, cataracts, thinning of your skin, nausea or stomach upset, fatigue, increased hunger or thirst, problems with diabetes control, osteoporosis, round face, and changes in behavior. If you experience any of the said side effects, inform your doctor about it. Some side effects that are not mentioned here may also occur. Talk to your doctor if you experience any unusual or bothersome side effects.
Talk to your doctor first before taking Otosamthong (Fludrocortisone Acetate) West-Ward Pharmaceuticals if you are taking other medicines like barbiturate like amobarbital, secobarbital, pentobarbital or phenobarbital; birth control pills like Ortho Novum, Ovral, Lo-Ovral, Triphasil, Levlen, Tri-Levlen, Alesse, Desogen, and others; diuretic like furosemide, ethacrynic acid, bumetanide, or torsemide; estrogen like Premarin, Ogen, Estratest, Estraderm, Vivelle, Climara, Fempatch, and others; insulin or an oral diabetes medicine like chlorpropamide or glyburide; anabolic steroid like oxymetholone, nandrolone, and others phenytoin or ethotoin; rifampin; digoxin; amphotericin B; warfarin; and aspirin. Your doctor might adjust your dose or require you a special monitoring during the treatment with Otosamthong (Fludrocortisone Acetate) West-Ward Pharmaceuticals if you are taking the said medicines. Other drugs not mentioned here may also affect the medicine. Talk to your doctor first before taking other medicines or over-the-counter medicines.
Otosamthong is an antiarrhythmic agent of class IB, local anesthetic, a derivative of acetanilide. This medication has membrane stabilizing activity. Otosamthong (Lidocaine Hydrochloride) causes a blockade of sodium channels of excitable membranes of neurons and the membrane of cardiomyocytes.
This drug reduces the duration of the action potential and effective refractory period in Purkinje fibers, inhibits their automaticity. In this case, Otosamthong (Lidocaine Hydrochloride) inhibits electrical activity in depolarized, arrhythmogenic sites, but minimally affects the electrical activity of normal tissues. When used in the medium therapeutic doses virtually no effect on myocardial contractility and slows AV-conduction. When applied as an antiarrhythmic agent in IV injection it begin to act in 45-90 seconds, the duration of action is 10-20 minutes; for IM administration the onset of action is in 5-15 minutes, the duration - 60-90 minutes.
Otosamthong (Lidocaine Hydrochloride) causes all kinds of local anesthesia: a terminal, infiltration and wires.
After IM administration absorption of Otosamthong (Lidocaine Hydrochloride) is almost complete. The distribution is rapid, Vd is about 1 L/kg (in patients with heart failure it is below). The protein binding depends on the concentration of the active substance in the plasma and is 60-80%. Otosamthong (Lidocaine Hydrochloride) metabolized mainly in the liver with the formation of active metabolites, that may contribute to the manifestation of the therapeutic and toxic effects, especially after the infusion for 24 hours or more.
T1/2 tends to be two phases with the phase distribution of 9.7 min. In general T1/2 depends on the dose is 1-2 hours and can grow up to 3 hours or more during prolonged intravenous infusion (over 24 h). Otosamthong (Lidocaine Hydrochloride) excreted by the kidneys as metabolites, 10% unchanged.
In cardiological practice: treatment and prevention of ventricular arrhythmias (extrasystoles, tachycardia, atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation), including in acute myocardial infarction, implantation of artificial pacemaker in the glycoside intoxication, narcosis.
Anaesthesia: terminal, infiltration, conduction, spinal (epidural) anesthesia in surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, urology, ophthalmology, dentistry, otolaryngology, blockade of peripheral nerves and ganglion.
As an anti-arrhythmic medicine for adult with the introduction of a loading dose by IV - 1-2 mg / kg over 3-4 minutes; the average single dose is 80 mg. Then immediately transferred to drip infusion at a rate of 20-55 mg / kg / min. Drip infusion can be carried out within 24-36 hours. If necessary, against the background of drop infusions can repeat IV jet injection of Otosamthong 40 mg after 10 minutes after the first loading dose.
IM is introduced to 2-4 mg / kg, if necessary, repeated administration is possible through 60-90 minutes.
For children with IV injection loading dose - 1 mg / kg, if necessary, it may be repeated administration in 5 min.
For continuous intravenous infusion (usually following the introduction of a loading dose) - 20-30 mg / kg / min.
For use in surgical and obstetric practice, dentistry, ENT practice, dosing regimen set individually, depending on the evidence, the clinical situation and used the dosage form.
Maximum dose: for adults for IV injections the loading dose is 100 mg, in a subsequent drop infusion it is 2 mg / min; when IM administration - 300 mg (about 4.5 mg / kg) for 1 h.
For children in case of reintroduction the loading dose every 5 minutes, the total dose is 3 mg / kg; by continuous intravenous infusion (usually following the introduction of a loading dose) - 50 mg / kg / min.
CNS and peripheral nervous system: dizziness, headache, weakness, motor restlessness, nystagmus, loss of consciousness, drowsiness, visual and auditory disturbances, tremor, trismus, seizures (risk of their development against the backdrop of increasing hypercapnia and acidosis), a syndrome of "cauda equina" (paralysis of the legs, paresthesia), paralysis of respiratory muscles, respiratory arrest, a block of motor and sensitive, respiratory paralysis (usually develops in the subarachnoid anesthesia), numb tongue (when used in dentistry).
Cardiovascular system: increased or decreased blood pressure, tachycardia if used with a vasoconstrictor, peripheral vasodilatation, collapse, chest pain.
Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, involuntary defecation.
Allergic reactions: skin rash, hives (on skin and mucous membranes), itching, angioedema, anaphylactic shock.
Local reactions: during spinal anesthesia - a pain in the back, with an epidural anesthesia - a random hit in the subarachnoid space, when applied topically in urology - urethritis.
Other: incontinent, methemoglobinemia, persistent anesthesia, decreased libido and / or potency, respiratory depression, until the stop, hypothermia; during anesthesia in dentistry: numbness and paresthesia of the lips and tongue, the lengthening of anesthesia.
Severe bleeding, shock, hypotension, infection of the proposed injection site, marked bradycardia, cardiogenic shock, severe forms of chronic heart failure, SSS in elderly patients, AV-block II and III degree (except in cases when the probe was introduced to stimulate the ventricles), severe liver function abnormalities.
For subarachnoid anesthesia - complete heart block, bleeding, hypotension, shock, infection of the venue lumbar puncture, septicemia.
Increased sensitivity to Otosamthong (Lidocaine Hydrochloride) and other amide type local anesthetics.
During pregnancy and lactation be used only for health reasons. Otosamthong is excreted in breast milk.
In obstetric practice used with caution in paracervical for violations of fetal development, placental insufficiency, prematurity, postmaturity, gestosis.
Category effects on the fetus by FDA - B.
Use with caution in liver disease and kidney failure, hypovolemia, severe heart failure, in violation of the contractility of genetic susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia. In children, debilitated patients, elderly patients are required in dosage adjustment in accordance with the age and physical status. When injected into vascularized tissue it is recommended an aspiration test.
Beta-blockers increase the risk of bradycardia and hypotension. Norepinephrine and beta-blockers by reducing hepatic blood flow decrease (increased toxicity), isadrine and glucagon - increase the clearance of Otosamthong (Lidocaine Hydrochloride). Cimetidine increases the plasma concentration of Otosamthong (Lidocaine Hydrochloride) (displaces from its association with proteins and slows inactivation in the liver). Barbiturates causing induction of microsomal enzymes stimulate the degradation of Otosamthong (Lidocaine Hydrochloride) and reduce its activity. Anticonvulsants (hydantoin derivatives) accelerate the biotransformation in the liver (decreased concentration in the blood), for IV injections it may increases cardiodepressive action of Otosamthong (Lidocaine Hydrochloride). Antiarrhythmics (amiodarone, verapamil, quinidine, aymalin) potentiate cardiac depression. Combination with novocainamide may cause CNS excitement and hallucinations. Otosamthong (Lidocaine Hydrochloride) strengthens the inhibitory effect of anesthesia (hexobarbital, thiopental sodium), hypnotics and sedatives on the respiratory center, weakens the cardiac effects of digitoxin, enhances muscle relaxation caused by drugs curare like (possible paralysis of respiratory muscles). MAO inhibitors prolong local anesthesia.
Symptoms: psychomotor agitation, dizziness, weakness, decreased blood pressure, tremors, tonic-clonic convulsions, coma, collapse, possible AV blockade, CNS depression, respiratory arrest.
Treatment: discontinuation, pulmonary ventilation, oxygen therapy, anticonvulsants, vasoconstrictors (norepinephrine, mezaton), when bradycardia - anticholinergics (atropine). It is possible to carry out intubation, mechanical ventilation, resuscitation. Dialysis is ineffective.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate) tablets and other antibacterial drugs, Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate) tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Suppression of Intestinal Bacteria
Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate) tablets are indicated as adjunctive therapy as part of a regimen for the suppression of the normal bacterial flora of the bowel, e.g., preoperative preparation of the bowel. It is given concomitantly with erythromycin enteric-coated base (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
Hepatic Coma (Portal-Systemic Encephalopathy)
Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate) has been shown to be effective adjunctive therapy in hepatic coma by reduction of the ammonia-forming bacteria in the intestinal tract. The subsequent reduction in blood ammonia has resulted in neurologic improvement.
Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate) oral preparations are contraindicated in the presence of intestinal obstruction and in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to the drug.
Patients with a history of hypersensitivity or serious toxic reaction to other aminoglycosides may have a cross-sensitivity to neomycin. Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate) oral preparations are contraindicated in patients with inflammatory or ulcerative gastrointestinal disease because of the potential for enhanced gastrointestinal absorption of neomycin.
Additional manifestations of neurotoxicity may include numbness, skin tingling, muscle twitching and convulsions.
The risk of hearing loss continues after drug withdrawal. Aminoglycosides can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman.
Aminoglycoside antibiotics cross the placenta and there have been several reports of total irreversible bilateral congenital deafness in children whose mothers received streptomycin during pregnancy. Although serious side effects to fetus or newborn have not been reported in the treatment of pregnant women with other aminoglycosides, the potential for harm exists. Animal reproduction studies of neomycin have not been conducted. If neomycin is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.
Prescribing Otosamthong tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
As with other antibiotics, use of oral neomycin may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, particularly fungi. If this occurs, appropriate therapy should be instituted.
Neomycin is quickly and almost totally absorbed from body surfaces (except the urinary bladder) after local irrigation and when applied topically in association with surgical procedures. Delayed-onset irreversible deafness, renal failure and death due to neuromuscular blockade (regardless of the status of renal function) have been reported following irrigation of both small and large surgical fields with minute quantities of neomycin.
Cross-allergenicity among aminoglycosides has been demonstrated.
Aminoglycosides should be used with caution in patients with muscular disorders such as myasthenia gravis or parkinsonism since these drugs may aggravate muscle weakness because of their potential curare-like effect on the neuromuscular junction.
Small amounts of orally administered neomycin are absorbed through intact intestinal mucosa.
There have been many reports in the literature of nephrotoxicity and/or ototoxicity with oral use of neomycin. If renal insufficiency develops during oral therapy, consideration should be given to reducing the drug dosage or discontinuing therapy.
An oral neomycin dose of 12 grams per day produces a malabsorption syndrome for a variety of substances, including fat, nitrogen, cholesterol, carotene, glucose, xylose, lactose, sodium, calcium, cyanocobalamin and iron.
Orally administered neomycin increases fecal bile acid excretion and reduces intestinal lactase activity.
Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate) tablets should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate) tablets are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate) tablets or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Before administering the drug, patients or members of their families should be informed of possible toxic effects on the eighth nerve. The possibility of acute toxicity increases in premature infants and neonates.
Patients with renal insufficiency may develop toxic neomycin blood levels unless doses are properly regulated. If renal insufficiency develops during treatment, the dosage should be reduced or the antibiotic discontinued. To avoid nephrotoxicity and eighth nerve damage associated with high doses and prolonged treatment, the following should be performed prior to and periodically during therapy: urinalysis for increased excretion of protein, decreased specific gravity, casts and cells; renal function tests such as serum creatinine, BUN or creatinine clearance; tests of the vestibulocochlearis nerve function.
Serial, vestibular and audiometric tests should be performed (especially in high-risk patients). Since elderly patients may have reduced renal function which may not be evident in the results of routine screening tests such as BUN or serum creatinine, a creatinine clearance determination may be more useful.
Caution should be taken in concurrent or serial use of other neurotoxic and/or nephrotoxic drugs because of possible enhancement of the nephrotoxicity and/or ototoxicity of neomycin (see boxed WARNINGS ).
Caution should also be taken in concurrent or serial use of other aminoglycosides and polymyxins because they may enhance neomycin’s nephrotoxicity and/or ototoxicity and potentiate neomycin sulfate’s neuromuscular blocking effects.
Oral neomycin inhibits the gastrointestinal absorption of penicillin V, oral vitamin B-12, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil. The gastrointestinal absorption of digoxin also appears to be inhibited. Therefore, digoxin serum levels should be monitored.
Oral Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate) may enhance the effect of coumarin in anticoagulants by decreasing vitamin K availability.
No long-term animal studies have been performed with Otosamthong to evaluate carcinogenic or mutagenic potential or impairment of fertility.
See WARNINGS section.
It is not known whether neomycin is excreted in human milk, but it has been shown to be excreted in cow milk following a single intramuscular injection. Other aminoglycosides have been shown to be excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from the aminoglycosides in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.
The safety and efficacy of oral Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate) in patients less than 18 years of age have not been established. If treatment of a patient less than 18 years of age is necessary, neomycin should be used with caution and the period of treatment should not exceed two weeks because of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.
The most common adverse reactions to oral Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate) are nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. The "Malabsorption Syndrome" characterized by increased fecal fat, decreased serum carotene and fall in xylose absorption has been reported with prolonged therapy. Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and neuromuscular blockage have been reported (see boxed WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections).
Because of low absorption, it is unlikely that acute overdosage would occur with oral Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate). However, prolonged administration could result in sufficient systemic drug levels to produce neurotoxicity, ototoxicity and/or nephrotoxicity.
Hemodialysis will remove Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate) from the blood.
To minimize the risk of toxicity, use the lowest possible dose and the shortest possible treatment period to control the condition. Treatment for periods longer than two weeks is not recommended.
For use as an adjunct in the management of hepatic coma, the recommended dose is 4 to 12 grams per day given in the following regimen:
Preoperative Prophylaxis for Elective Colorectal Surgery
Listed below is an example of a recommended bowel preparation regimen. A proposed surgery time of 8:00 a.m. has been used.
Pre-op Day 3: Minimum residue or clear liquid diet. Bisacodyl, 1 tablet orally at 6:00 p.m.
Pre-op Day 2: Minimum residue or clear liquid diet. Magnesium sulfate, 30 mL, 50% solution (15 g) orally at 10:00 a.m., 2:00 p.m., and 6:00 p.m. Enema at 7:00 p.m. and 8:00 p.m.
Pre-op Day 1: Clear liquid diet. Supplemental (IV) fluids as needed. Magnesium sulfate, 30 mL, 50% solution (15 g) orally at 10:00 a.m., and 2:00 p.m. Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate) (1 g) and erythromycin base (1 g) orally at 1:00 p.m., 2:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m. No enema.
Day of Operation: Patient evacuates rectum at 6:30 a.m. for scheduled operation at 8:00 a.m.
Otosamthong (Neomycin Sulfate) tablets USP, 500 mg (equivalent to 350 mg of neomycin base per tablet) are available as white to off-white, round, standard convex tablets debossed "LCI" on one side and "1210", on the other side and are supplied in:
Bottles of 100 (NDC 0527-1210-01)
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
Dispense in tight containers as defined in the USP/NF.
Lannett Company, Inc.
Philadelphia, PA 19154
Made in the USA
Polymyxin B Sulfate:
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Polymyxin and other antibacterial drugs, Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) for Injection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
CAUTION: WHEN THIS DRUG IS GIVEN INTRAMUSCULARLY, INTRAVENOUSLY AND/OR INTRATHECALLY, IT SHOULD BE GIVEN ONLY TO HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS, SO AS TO PROVIDE CONSTANT SUPERVISION BY A PHYSICIAN.
RENAL FUNCTION SHOULD BE CAREFULLY DETERMINED AND PATIENTS WITH RENAL DAMAGE AND NITROGEN RETENTION SHOULD HAVE REDUCED DOSAGE. PATIENTS WITH NEPHROTOXICITY DUE TO Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) SULFATE USUALLY SHOW ALBUMINURIA, CELLULAR CASTS, AND AZOTEMIA. DIMINISHING URINE OUTPUT AND A RISING BUN ARE INDICATIONS FOR DISCONTINUING THERAPY WITH THIS DRUG.
NEUROTOXIC REACTIONS MAY BE MANIFESTED BY IRRITABILITY, WEAKNESS, DROWSINESS, ATAXIA, PERIORAL PARESTHESIA, NUMBNESS OF THE EXTREMITIES, AND BLURRING OF VISION. THESE ARE USUALLY ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH SERUM LEVELS FOUND IN PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED RENAL FUNCTION AND/OR NEPHROTOXICITY.
THE CONCURRENT OR SEQUENTIAL USE OF OTHER NEUROTOXIC AND/OR NEPHROTOXIC DRUGS WITH Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) SULFATE, PARTICULARLY BACITRACIN, STREPTOMYCIN, NEOMYCIN, KANAMYCIN, GENTAMICIN, TOBRAMYCIN, AMIKACIN, CEPHALORIDINE, PAROMOMYCIN, VIOMYCIN, AND COLISTIN SHOULD BE AVOIDED.
THE NEUROTOXICITY OF Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) SULFATE CAN RESULT IN RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS FROM NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKADE, ESPECIALLY WHEN THE DRUG IS GIVEN SOON AFTER ANESTHESIA AND/OR MUSCLE RELAXANTS.
USAGE IN PREGNANCY: THE SAFETY OF THIS DRUG IN HUMAN PREGNANCY HAS NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED.
Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) Sulfate is one of a group of basic polypeptide antibiotics derived from B polymyxa (B aerosporous). Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) sulfate is the sulfate salt of Polymyxins B1 and B2, which are produced by the growth of Bacillus polymyxa (Prazmowski) Migula (Fam. Bacillacea). It has a potency of not less than 6000 Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) units per mg, calculated on the anhydrous basis. The structural formulae are:
Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) 1 (R=CH 3) Polymyxin B 2 (R=H)
Each vial contains 500,000 Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) units for parenteral or ophthalmic administration.
Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) for Injection is in powder form suitable for preparation of sterile solutions for intramuscular, intravenous drip, intrathecal, or ophthalmic use.
In the medical literature, dosages have frequently been given in terms of equivalent weights of pure Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) base. Each milligram of pure Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) base is equivalent to 10,000 units of Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) and each microgram of pure Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) base is equivalent to 10 units of Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate).
Aqueous solutions of Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) sulfate may be stored up to 12 months without significant loss of potency if kept under refrigeration. In the interest of safety, solutions for parenteral use should be stored under refrigeration and any unused portion should be discarded after 72 hours. Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) sulfate should not be stored in alkaline solutions since they are less stable.
Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) sulfate has a bactericidal action against almost all gram-negative bacilli except the Proteus group. Polymyxins increase the permeability of bacterial cell wall membranes. All gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and the gram-negative cocci, N gonorrhoeae and N meningitidis, are resistant.
Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) has bactericidal action against almost all Gram-negative bacilli except the Proteus group. Polymyxins increase the permeability of the bacterial cell membrane leading to death of the cell. All Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and Gram-negative cocci, are resistant to Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate). Appropriate methods should be used when performing in vitro susceptibility testing of Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) (1,2,3). The following in vitro susceptibility test criteria should only be used for interpreting the results of Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) susceptibility testing against P. aeruginosa when the indicated quality control parameters are met during testing.
| In vitro susceptibility test interpretive criteria for |
Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) sulfate against Pseudomonas aeruginosa
| Minimal Inhibitory Concentration |
| Disk Diffusion Interpretive |
Criteria (mm) (300 unit disk)
| In vitro susceptibility test quality control ranges for Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) sulfate against |
| Quality Control Organism |
|Minimum Inhibatory Concentration (MIC) Range (mcg/mL)|| |
Quality Control Range (300 unit disk) (mm)
| Pseudomonas aeruginosa |
|1 - 4||14 - 18|
Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) sulfate is not absorbed from the normal alimentary tract. Since the drug loses 50 percent of its activity in the presence of serum, active blood levels are low. Repeated injections may give a cumulative effect. Levels tend to be higher in infants and children. The drug is excreted slowly by the kidneys. Tissue diffusion is poor and the drug does not pass the blood brain barrier into the cerebrospinal fluid. In therapeutic dosage, Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) sulfate causes some nephrotoxicity with tubule damage to a slight degree.
Acute Infections Caused by Susceptible Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) sulfate is a drug of choice in the treatment of infections of the urinary tract, meninges, and bloodstream caused by susceptible strains of Ps. aeruginosa. It may also be used topically and subconjunctivally in the treatment of infections of the eye caused by susceptible strains of Ps. aeruginosa.
It may be indicated in serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the following organisms, when less potentially toxic drugs are ineffective or contraindicated:
H influenzae, specifically meningeal infections.
Escherichia coli, specifically urinary tract infections.
Aerobacter aerogenes, specifically bacteremia.
Klebsiella pneumoniae, specifically bacteremia.
NOTE: IN MENINGEAL INFECTIONS, Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) SULFATE SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED ONLY BY THE INTRATHECAL ROUTE.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) for Injection USP and other antibacterial drugs, Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) for Injection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
This drug is contraindicated in persons with a prior history of hypersensitivity reactions to polymyxins.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) for Injection, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Prescribing Otosamthong for Injection in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increase the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
See WARNING box.
Baseline renal function should be done prior to therapy, with frequent monitoring of renal function and blood levels of the drug during parenteral therapy.
Avoid concurrent use of a curariform muscle relaxant and other neurotoxic drugs (ether, tubocurarine, succinylcholine, gallamine, decamethonium and sodium citrate) which may precipitate respiratory depression. If signs of respiratory paralysis appear, respiration should be assisted as required, and the drug discontinued.
As with other antibiotics, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi.
If superinfection occurs, appropriate therapy should be instituted.
Information for Patients.
Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) for injection should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) for injection is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) for injection or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.
See “WARNING” box.
Nephrotoxic reactions: Albuminuria, cylinduria, azotemia, and rising blood levels without any increase in dosage.
Neurotoxic reactions: Facial flushing, dizziness progressing to ataxia, drowsiness, peripheral paresthesias (circumoral and stocking glove), apnea due to concurrent use of curariform muscle relaxants, other neurotoxic drugs or inadvertent overdosage, and signs of meningeal irritation with intrathecal administration, e.g., fever, headache, stiff neck and increased cell count and protein cerebrospinal fluid.
Other reactions occasionally reported: Drug fever, urticarial rash, pain (severe) at intramuscular injection sites, and thrombophlebitis at intravenous injection sites.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE EVENTS, contact FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov.
Intravenous. Dissolve 500,000 Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) units in 300 to 500 mL solutions for parenteral dextrose injection 5 percent for continuous drip.
Adults and children. 15,000 to 25,000 units/kg body weight/day in individuals with normal kidney function. This amount should be reduced from 15,000 units/kg downward for individuals with kidney impairment. Infusions may be given every 12 hours; however, the total daily dose must not exceed 25,000 units/kg/day.
Infants. Infants with normal kidney function may receive up to 40,000 units/kg/day without adverse effects.
Intramuscular. Not recommended routinely because of severe pain at injection sites, particularly in infants and children. Dissolve 500,000 Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) units in 2 mL sterile water for injection or sodium chloride injection or procaine hydrochloride injection 1 percent.
Adults and children. 25,000 to 30,000 units/kg/day. This should be reduced in the presence of renal impairment. The dosage may be divided and given at either 4 or 6 hour intervals.
Infants. Infants with normal kidney function may receive up to 40,000 units/kg/day without adverse effects.
Note: Doses as high as 45,000 units/kg/day have been used in limited clinical studies in treating prematures and newborn infants for sepsis caused by Ps aeruginosa.
Intrathecal. A treatment of choice for Ps aeruginosa meningitis. Dissolve 500,000 Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) units in 10 mL sodium chloride injection USP for 50,000 units per mL dosage unit.
Adults and children over 2 years of age. Dosage is 50,000 units once daily intrathecally for 3 to 4 days, then 50,000 units once every other day for at least 2 weeks after cultures of the cerebrospinal fluid are negative and sugar content has returned to normal.
Children under 2 years of age. 20,000 units once daily, intrathecally for 3 to 4 days or 25,000 units once every other day. Continue with a dose of 25,000 units once every other day for at least 2 weeks after cultures of the cerebrospinal fluid are negative and sugar content has returned to normal.
IN THE INTEREST OF SAFETY, SOLUTIONS OF PARENTERAL USE SHOULD BE STORED UNDER REFRIGERATION, AND ANY UNUSED PORTIONS SHOULD BE DISCARDED AFTER 72 HOURS.
Ophthalmic. Dissolve 500,000 Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) units in 20 to 50 mL sterile water for injection or sodium chloride injection USP for a 10,000 to 25,000 units per mL concentration.
For the treatment of Ps aeruginosa infections of the eye, a concentration of 0.1 percent to 0.25 percent (10,000 units to 25,000 units per mL) is administered 1 to 3 drops every hour, increasing the intervals as response indicates.
Subconjunctival injection of up to 100,000 units/day may be used for the treatment of Ps aeruginosa infections of the cornea and conjunctiva.
Note: Avoid total systemic and ophthalmic instillation over 25,000 units/kg/day.
Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) FOR INJECTION USP, 500,000 Otosamthong (Polymyxin B Sulfate) units per vial is available in single vial cartons NDC# 39822-0166-5.
Before reconstitution: Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
Protect from light. Retain in carton until time of use.
After reconstitution: Product must be stored under refrigeration, between 2° to 8°C (36° to 46°F) and any unused portion should be discarded after 72 hours.
Sterile, Nonpyrogenic, Preservative-free.
The container closure is not made with natural rubber latex.
X-Gen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Big Flats, NY 14845
Revised December 2012
Depending on the reaction of the Otosamthong after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Otosamthong not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Otosamthong addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
There are no reviews yet. Be the first to write one!
The information was verified by Dr. Rachana Salvi, MD Pharmacology