DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS

Otilin

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Otilin uses

Otilin consists of Lidocaine, Neomycin.

Lidocaine:


Pharmacological action

Otilin is an antiarrhythmic agent of class IB, local anesthetic, a derivative of acetanilide. This medication has membrane stabilizing activity. Otilin (Lidocaine) causes a blockade of sodium channels of excitable membranes of neurons and the membrane of cardiomyocytes.

This drug reduces the duration of the action potential and effective refractory period in Purkinje fibers, inhibits their automaticity. In this case, Otilin (Lidocaine) inhibits electrical activity in depolarized, arrhythmogenic sites, but minimally affects the electrical activity of normal tissues. When used in the medium therapeutic doses virtually no effect on myocardial contractility and slows AV-conduction. When applied as an antiarrhythmic agent in IV injection it begin to act in 45-90 seconds, the duration of action is 10-20 minutes; for IM administration the onset of action is in 5-15 minutes, the duration - 60-90 minutes.

Otilin (Lidocaine) causes all kinds of local anesthesia: a terminal, infiltration and wires.

Pharmacokinetics

After IM administration absorption of Otilin (Lidocaine) is almost complete. The distribution is rapid, Vd is about 1 L/kg (in patients with heart failure it is below). The protein binding depends on the concentration of the active substance in the plasma and is 60-80%. Otilin (Lidocaine) metabolized mainly in the liver with the formation of active metabolites, that may contribute to the manifestation of the therapeutic and toxic effects, especially after the infusion for 24 hours or more.

T1/2 tends to be two phases with the phase distribution of 9.7 min. In general T1/2 depends on the dose is 1-2 hours and can grow up to 3 hours or more during prolonged intravenous infusion (over 24 h). Otilin (Lidocaine) excreted by the kidneys as metabolites, 10% unchanged.

Why is Otilin prescribed?

In cardiological practice: treatment and prevention of ventricular arrhythmias (extrasystoles, tachycardia, atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation), including in acute myocardial infarction, implantation of artificial pacemaker in the glycoside intoxication, narcosis.

Anaesthesia: terminal, infiltration, conduction, spinal (epidural) anesthesia in surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, urology, ophthalmology, dentistry, otolaryngology, blockade of peripheral nerves and ganglion.

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Dosage and administration

As an anti-arrhythmic medicine for adult with the introduction of a loading dose by IV - 1-2 mg / kg over 3-4 minutes; the average single dose is 80 mg. Then immediately transferred to drip infusion at a rate of 20-55 mg / kg / min. Drip infusion can be carried out within 24-36 hours. If necessary, against the background of drop infusions can repeat IV jet injection of Otilin 40 mg after 10 minutes after the first loading dose.

IM is introduced to 2-4 mg / kg, if necessary, repeated administration is possible through 60-90 minutes.

For children with IV injection loading dose - 1 mg / kg, if necessary, it may be repeated administration in 5 min.

For continuous intravenous infusion (usually following the introduction of a loading dose) - 20-30 mg / kg / min.

For use in surgical and obstetric practice, dentistry, ENT practice, dosing regimen set individually, depending on the evidence, the clinical situation and used the dosage form.

Maximum dose: for adults for IV injections the loading dose is 100 mg, in a subsequent drop infusion it is 2 mg / min; when IM administration - 300 mg (about 4.5 mg / kg) for 1 h.

For children in case of reintroduction the loading dose every 5 minutes, the total dose is 3 mg / kg; by continuous intravenous infusion (usually following the introduction of a loading dose) - 50 mg / kg / min.

Otilin (Lidocaine) side effects, adverse reactions

CNS and peripheral nervous system: dizziness, headache, weakness, motor restlessness, nystagmus, loss of consciousness, drowsiness, visual and auditory disturbances, tremor, trismus, seizures (risk of their development against the backdrop of increasing hypercapnia and acidosis), a syndrome of "cauda equina" (paralysis of the legs, paresthesia), paralysis of respiratory muscles, respiratory arrest, a block of motor and sensitive, respiratory paralysis (usually develops in the subarachnoid anesthesia), numb tongue (when used in dentistry).

Cardiovascular system: increased or decreased blood pressure, tachycardia if used with a vasoconstrictor, peripheral vasodilatation, collapse, chest pain.

Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, involuntary defecation.

Allergic reactions: skin rash, hives (on skin and mucous membranes), itching, angioedema, anaphylactic shock.

Local reactions: during spinal anesthesia - a pain in the back, with an epidural anesthesia - a random hit in the subarachnoid space, when applied topically in urology - urethritis.

Other: incontinent, methemoglobinemia, persistent anesthesia, decreased libido and / or potency, respiratory depression, until the stop, hypothermia; during anesthesia in dentistry: numbness and paresthesia of the lips and tongue, the lengthening of anesthesia.

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Otilin contraindications

Severe bleeding, shock, hypotension, infection of the proposed injection site, marked bradycardia, cardiogenic shock, severe forms of chronic heart failure, SSS in elderly patients, AV-block II and III degree (except in cases when the probe was introduced to stimulate the ventricles), severe liver function abnormalities.

For subarachnoid anesthesia - complete heart block, bleeding, hypotension, shock, infection of the venue lumbar puncture, septicemia.

Increased sensitivity to Otilin (Lidocaine) and other amide type local anesthetics.

Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

During pregnancy and lactation be used only for health reasons. Otilin is excreted in breast milk.

In obstetric practice used with caution in paracervical for violations of fetal development, placental insufficiency, prematurity, postmaturity, gestosis.

Category effects on the fetus by FDA - B.

Special instructions

Use with caution in liver disease and kidney failure, hypovolemia, severe heart failure, in violation of the contractility of genetic susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia. In children, debilitated patients, elderly patients are required in dosage adjustment in accordance with the age and physical status. When injected into vascularized tissue it is recommended an aspiration test.

Otilin drug interactions

Beta-blockers increase the risk of bradycardia and hypotension. Norepinephrine and beta-blockers by reducing hepatic blood flow decrease (increased toxicity), isadrine and glucagon - increase the clearance of Otilin (Lidocaine). Cimetidine increases the plasma concentration of Otilin (Lidocaine) (displaces from its association with proteins and slows inactivation in the liver). Barbiturates causing induction of microsomal enzymes stimulate the degradation of Otilin (Lidocaine) and reduce its activity. Anticonvulsants (hydantoin derivatives) accelerate the biotransformation in the liver (decreased concentration in the blood), for IV injections it may increases cardiodepressive action of Otilin (Lidocaine). Antiarrhythmics (amiodarone, verapamil, quinidine, aymalin) potentiate cardiac depression. Combination with novocainamide may cause CNS excitement and hallucinations. Otilin (Lidocaine) strengthens the inhibitory effect of anesthesia (hexobarbital, thiopental sodium), hypnotics and sedatives on the respiratory center, weakens the cardiac effects of digitoxin, enhances muscle relaxation caused by drugs curare like (possible paralysis of respiratory muscles). MAO inhibitors prolong local anesthesia.

Otilin in case of emergency / overdose

Symptoms: psychomotor agitation, dizziness, weakness, decreased blood pressure, tremors, tonic-clonic convulsions, coma, collapse, possible AV blockade, CNS depression, respiratory arrest.

Treatment: discontinuation, pulmonary ventilation, oxygen therapy, anticonvulsants, vasoconstrictors (norepinephrine, mezaton), when bradycardia - anticholinergics (atropine). It is possible to carry out intubation, mechanical ventilation, resuscitation. Dialysis is ineffective.

Neomycin:


INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate tablets and other antibacterial drugs, Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Suppression of Intestinal Bacteria

Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate tablets are indicated as adjunctive therapy as part of a regimen for the suppression of the normal bacterial flora of the bowel, e.g., preoperative preparation of the bowel. It is given concomitantly with erythromycin enteric-coated base (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).

Hepatic Coma (Portal-Systemic Encephalopathy)

Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate has been shown to be effective adjunctive therapy in hepatic coma by reduction of the ammonia-forming bacteria in the intestinal tract. The subsequent reduction in blood ammonia has resulted in neurologic improvement.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate oral preparations are contraindicated in the presence of intestinal obstruction and in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to the drug.

Patients with a history of hypersensitivity or serious toxic reaction to other aminoglycosides may have a cross-sensitivity to Otilin (Neomycin). Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate oral preparations are contraindicated in patients with inflammatory or ulcerative gastrointestinal disease because of the potential for enhanced gastrointestinal absorption of Otilin (Neomycin).

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WARNINGS


Additional manifestations of neurotoxicity may include numbness, skin tingling, muscle twitching and convulsions.

The risk of hearing loss continues after drug withdrawal. Aminoglycosides can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman.

Aminoglycoside antibiotics cross the placenta and there have been several reports of total irreversible bilateral congenital deafness in children whose mothers received streptomycin during pregnancy. Although serious side effects to fetus or newborn have not been reported in the treatment of pregnant women with other aminoglycosides, the potential for harm exists. Animal reproduction studies of Otilin (Neomycin) have not been conducted. If Otilin (Neomycin) is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Prescribing Otilin sulfate tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

As with other antibiotics, use of oral Otilin (Neomycin) may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, particularly fungi. If this occurs, appropriate therapy should be instituted.

Otilin (Neomycin) is quickly and almost totally absorbed from body surfaces (except the urinary bladder) after local irrigation and when applied topically in association with surgical procedures. Delayed-onset irreversible deafness, renal failure and death due to neuromuscular blockade (regardless of the status of renal function) have been reported following irrigation of both small and large surgical fields with minute quantities of Otilin (Neomycin).

Cross-allergenicity among aminoglycosides has been demonstrated.

Aminoglycosides should be used with caution in patients with muscular disorders such as myasthenia gravis or parkinsonism since these drugs may aggravate muscle weakness because of their potential curare-like effect on the neuromuscular junction.

Small amounts of orally administered Otilin (Neomycin) are absorbed through intact intestinal mucosa.

There have been many reports in the literature of nephrotoxicity and/or ototoxicity with oral use of Otilin (Neomycin). If renal insufficiency develops during oral therapy, consideration should be given to reducing the drug dosage or discontinuing therapy.

An oral Otilin (Neomycin) dose of 12 grams per day produces a malabsorption syndrome for a variety of substances, including fat, nitrogen, cholesterol, carotene, glucose, xylose, lactose, sodium, calcium, cyanocobalamin and iron.

Orally administered Otilin (Neomycin) increases fecal bile acid excretion and reduces intestinal lactase activity.

Information for The Patient

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate tablets should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate tablets are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate tablets or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Before administering the drug, patients or members of their families should be informed of possible toxic effects on the eighth nerve. The possibility of acute toxicity increases in premature infants and neonates.

Laboratory Tests

Patients with renal insufficiency may develop toxic Otilin blood levels unless doses are properly regulated. If renal insufficiency develops during treatment, the dosage should be reduced or the antibiotic discontinued. To avoid nephrotoxicity and eighth nerve damage associated with high doses and prolonged treatment, the following should be performed prior to and periodically during therapy: urinalysis for increased excretion of protein, decreased specific gravity, casts and cells; renal function tests such as serum creatinine, BUN or creatinine clearance; tests of the vestibulocochlearis nerve (eighth cranial nerve) function.

Serial, vestibular and audiometric tests should be performed (especially in high-risk patients). Since elderly patients may have reduced renal function which may not be evident in the results of routine screening tests such as BUN or serum creatinine, a creatinine clearance determination may be more useful.

Drug Interactions

Caution should be taken in concurrent or serial use of other neurotoxic and/or nephrotoxic drugs because of possible enhancement of the nephrotoxicity and/or ototoxicity of Otilin (Neomycin) (see boxed WARNINGS ).

Caution should also be taken in concurrent or serial use of other aminoglycosides and polymyxins because they may enhance neomycin’s nephrotoxicity and/or ototoxicity and potentiate Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate’s neuromuscular blocking effects.

Oral Otilin (Neomycin) inhibits the gastrointestinal absorption of penicillin V, oral vitamin B-12, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil. The gastrointestinal absorption of digoxin also appears to be inhibited. Therefore, digoxin serum levels should be monitored.

Oral Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate may enhance the effect of coumarin in anticoagulants by decreasing vitamin K availability.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No long-term animal studies have been performed with Otilin sulfate to evaluate carcinogenic or mutagenic potential or impairment of fertility.

Pregnancy Category D

See WARNINGS section.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether Otilin is excreted in human milk, but it has been shown to be excreted in cow milk following a single intramuscular injection. Other aminoglycosides have been shown to be excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from the aminoglycosides in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use

The safety and efficacy of oral Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate in patients less than 18 years of age have not been established. If treatment of a patient less than 18 years of age is necessary, Otilin (Neomycin) should be used with caution and the period of treatment should not exceed two weeks because of absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.

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ADVERSE REACTIONS

The most common adverse reactions to oral Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate are nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. The "Malabsorption Syndrome" characterized by increased fecal fat, decreased serum carotene and fall in xylose absorption has been reported with prolonged therapy. Nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity and neuromuscular blockage have been reported (see boxed WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS sections).

OVERDOSAGE

Because of low absorption, it is unlikely that acute overdosage would occur with oral Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate. However, prolonged administration could result in sufficient systemic drug levels to produce neurotoxicity, ototoxicity and/or nephrotoxicity.

Hemodialysis will remove Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate from the blood.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

To minimize the risk of toxicity, use the lowest possible dose and the shortest possible treatment period to control the condition. Treatment for periods longer than two weeks is not recommended.

Hepatic Coma

For use as an adjunct in the management of hepatic coma, the recommended dose is 4 to 12 grams per day given in the following regimen:

  • Withdraw protein from diet. Avoid use of diuretic agents.
  • Give supportive therapy, including blood products, as indicated.
  • Give Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate tablets in doses of 4 to 12 grams of Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate per day (eight to 24 tablets) in divided doses. Treatment should be continued over a period of five to six days, during which time protein should be returned incrementally to the diet.
  • If less potentially toxic drugs cannot be used for chronic hepatic insufficiency, Otilin (Neomycin) in doses of up to four grams daily (eight tablets per day) may be necessary. The risk for the development of neomycin-induced toxicity progressively increases when treatment must be extended to preserve the life of a patient with hepatic encephalopathy who has failed to fully respond. Frequent periodic monitoring of these patients to ascertain the presence of drug toxicity is mandatory (see PRECAUTIONS ). Also, Otilin (Neomycin) serum concentrations should be monitored to avoid potentially toxic levels. The benefits to the patient should be weighed against the risks of nephrotoxicity, permanent ototoxicity and neuromuscular blockade following the accumulation of Otilin (Neomycin) in the tissues.

Preoperative Prophylaxis for Elective Colorectal Surgery

Listed below is an example of a recommended bowel preparation regimen. A proposed surgery time of 8:00 a.m. has been used.

Pre-op Day 3: Minimum residue or clear liquid diet. Bisacodyl, 1 tablet orally at 6:00 p.m.

Pre-op Day 2: Minimum residue or clear liquid diet. Magnesium sulfate, 30 mL, 50% solution (15 g) orally at 10:00 a.m., 2:00 p.m., and 6:00 p.m. Enema at 7:00 p.m. and 8:00 p.m.

Pre-op Day 1: Clear liquid diet. Supplemental (IV) fluids as needed. Magnesium sulfate, 30 mL, 50% solution (15 g) orally at 10:00 a.m., and 2:00 p.m. Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate (1 g) and erythromycin base (1 g) orally at 1:00 p.m., 2:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m. No enema.

Day of Operation: Patient evacuates rectum at 6:30 a.m. for scheduled operation at 8:00 a.m.

HOW SUPPLIED

Otilin (Neomycin) sulfate tablets USP, 500 mg (equivalent to 350 mg of Otilin (Neomycin) base per tablet) are available as white to off-white, round, standard convex tablets debossed "LCI" on one side and "1210", on the other side and are supplied in:

Bottles of 100 (NDC 0527-1210-01)

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).

Dispense in tight containers as defined in the USP/NF.

Distributed By:

Lannett Company, Inc.

Philadelphia, PA 19154

Made in the USA

Rev. 01/17

CIB71710A

Otilin pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

infoActive ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Otilin available forms, composition, doses:

infoForm of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Otilin destination | category:

infoDestination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Otilin Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

infoA medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Otilin pharmaceutical companies:

infoPharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."GIGI ANESTHETIC NUMBING (LIDOCAINE) AEROSOL [220 LABORATORIES INC]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."NEOVET (NEOMYCIN) LIQUID [ASPEN VETERINARY RESOURCES, LTD.]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. Dailymed."LIDOCAINE; TETRACAINE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Otilin?

Depending on the reaction of the Otilin after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Otilin not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Otilin addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sDrugs.com conducted a study on Otilin, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Otilin consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

Visitor reports

Five visitors reported doses

What is the dose of Otilin drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sDrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 11-50mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
Visitors%
11-50mg3
60.0%
6-10mg1
20.0%
51-100mg1
20.0%

Five visitors reported age

Visitors%
6-152
40.0%
46-601
20.0%
1-51
20.0%
16-291
20.0%

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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