DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals

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Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals uses

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals consists of Nitrofurantoin, Nitrofurantoin macrocrystalline.

Nitrofurantoin:


INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals is specifically indicated for the treatment of urinary tract infections when due to susceptible strains of Escherichia coli, enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus, and certain susceptible strains of Klebsiella and Enterobacter species.

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) is not indicated for the treatment of pyelonephritis or perinephric abscesses.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals and other antibacterial drugs, Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Nitrofurantoins lack the broader tissue distribution of other therapeutic agents approved for urinary tract infections. Consequently, many patients who are treated with Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals are predisposed to persistence or reappearance of bacteriuria. Urine specimens for culture and susceptibility testing should be obtained before and after completion of therapy. If persistence or reappearance of bacteriuria occurs after treatment with Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals, other therapeutic agents with broader tissue distribution should be selected. In considering the use of Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals, lower eradication rates should be balanced against the increased potential for systemic toxicity and for the development of antimicrobial resistance when agents with broader tissue distribution are utilized.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications. Treatment of this type of patient carries an increased risk of toxicity because of impaired excretion of the drug.

Because of the possibility of hemolytic anemia due to immature erythrocyte enzyme systems (glutathione instability), the drug is contraindicated in pregnant patients at term (38 to 42 weeks’ gestation), during labor and delivery, or when the onset of labor is imminent. For the same reason, the drug is contraindicated in neonates under one month of age.

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals is contraindicated in patients with a previous history of cholestatic jaundice/hepatic dysfunction associated with Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin).

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals is also contraindicated in those patients with known hypersensitivity to Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin).

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WARNINGS

Pulmonary Reactions

ACUTE, SUBACUTE, OR CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS HAVE BEEN OBSERVED IN PATIENTS TREATED WITH Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals. IF THESE REACTIONS OCCUR, Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) MACROCRYSTALS SHOULD BE DISCONTINUED AND APPROPRIATE MEASURES TAKEN. REPORTS HAVE CITED PULMONARY REACTIONS AS A CONTRIBUTING CAUSE OF DEATH.

CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS (DIFFUSE INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONITIS OR PULMONARY FIBROSIS, OR BOTH) CAN DEVELOP INSIDIOUSLY. THESE REACTIONS OCCUR RARELY AND GENERALLY IN PATIENTS RECEIVING THERAPY FOR SIX MONTHS OR LONGER. CLOSE MONITORING OF THE PULMONARY CONDITION OF PATIENTS RECEIVING LONG-TERM THERAPY IS WARRANTED AND REQUIRES THAT THE BENEFITS OF THERAPY BE WEIGHED AGAINST POTENTIAL RISKS.

Hepatotoxicity

Hepatic reactions, including hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, chronic active hepatitis, and hepatic necrosis, occur rarely. Fatalities have been reported. The onset of chronic active hepatitis may be insidious, and patients should be monitored periodically for changes in biochemical tests that would indicate liver injury. If hepatitis occurs, the drug should be withdrawn immediately and appropriate measures should be taken.

Neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy, which may become severe or irreversible, has occurred. Fatalities have been reported. Conditions such as renal impairment, anemia, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, vitamin B deficiency, and debilitating disease may enhance the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy. Patients receiving long-term therapy should be monitored periodically for changes in renal function.

Optic neuritis has been reported rarely in postmarketing experience with Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) formulations.

Hemolytic Anemia

Cases of hemolytic anemia of the primaquine-sensitivity type have been induced by Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin). Hemolysis appears to be linked to a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the red blood cells of the affected patients. This deficiency is found in 10 percent of Blacks and a small percentage of ethnic groups of Mediterranean and Near-Eastern origin. Hemolysis is an indication for discontinuing Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals; hemolysis ceases when the drug is withdrawn.

Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin), and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

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PRECAUTIONS

Information for Patients

Patients should be advised to take Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals macrocrystals with food to further enhance tolerance and improve drug absorption. Patients should be instructed to complete the full course of therapy; however, they should be advised to contact their physician if any unusual symptoms occur during therapy.

Many patients who cannot tolerate microcrystalline Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) are able to take Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals without nausea.

Patients should be advised not to use antacid preparations containing magnesium trisilicate while taking Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals.

Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals or other antibacterial drugs in the future.

Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.

General

Prescribing Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Drug Interactions

Antacids containing magnesium trisilicate, when administered concomitantly with Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals, reduce both the rate and extent of absorption. The mechanism for this interaction probably is adsorption of Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) onto the surface of magnesium trisilicate.

Uricosuric drugs, such as probenecid and sulfinpyrazone, can inhibit renal tubular secretion of Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin). The resulting increase in Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) serum levels may increase toxicity, and the decreased urinary levels could lessen its efficacy as a urinary tract antibacterial.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

As a result of the presence of Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin), a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur. This has been observed with Benedict's and Fehling's solutions but not with the glucose enzymatic test.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals was not carcinogenic when fed to female Holtzman rats for 44.5 weeks or to female Sprague-Dawley rats for 75 weeks. Two chronic rodent bioassays utilizing male and female Sprague-Dawley rats and two chronic bioassays in Swiss mice and in BDF1 mice revealed no evidence of carcinogenicity.

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) presented evidence of carcinogenic activity in female B6C3F1 mice as shown by increased incidences of tubular adenomas, benign mixed tumors, and granulosa cell tumors of the ovary. In male F344/N rats, there were increased incidences of uncommon kidney tubular cell neoplasms, osteosarcomas of the bone, and neoplasms of the subcutaneous tissue. In one study involving subcutaneous administration of 75 mg/kg Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) to pregnant female mice, lung papillary adenomas of unknown significance were observed in the F1 generation.

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) has been shown to induce point mutations in certain strains of Salmonella typhimurium and forward mutations in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) induced increased numbers of sister chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells but not in human cells in culture. Results of the sex-linked recessive lethal assay in Drosophila were negative after administration of Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) by feeding or by injection. Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) did not induce heritable mutation in the rodent models examined.

The significance of the carcinogenicity and mutagenicity findings relative to the therapeutic use of Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) in humans is unknown.

The administration of high doses of Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) to rats causes temporary spermatogenic arrest; this is reversible on discontinuing the drug. Doses of 10 mg/kg/day or greater in healthy human males may, in certain unpredictable instances, produce a slight to moderate spermatogenic arrest with a decrease in sperm count.

Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category B

Several reproduction studies have been performed in rabbits and rats at doses up to six times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals. In a single published study conducted in mice at 68 times the human dose (based on mg/kg administered to the dam), growth retardation and a low incidence of minor and common malformations were observed. However, at 25 times the human dose, fetal malformations were not observed; the relevance of these findings to humans is uncertain. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Non-Teratogenic Effects

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) has been shown in one published transplacental carcinogenicity study to induce lung papillary adenomas in the F1 generation mice at doses 19 times the human dose on a mg/kg basis. The relationship of this finding to potential human carcinogenesis is presently unknown. Because of the uncertainty regarding the human implications of these animal data, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Labor and Delivery

See CONTRAINDICATIONS.

Nursing Mothers

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals has been detected in human breast milk in trace amounts. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) in nursing infants under one month of age, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Pediatric Use

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals is contraindicated in infants below the age of one month (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. Spontaneous reports suggest a higher proportion of pulmonary reactions, including fatalities, in elderly patients; these differences appear to be related to the higher proportion of elderly patients receiving long-term Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) therapy. As in younger patients, chronic pulmonary reactions generally are observed in patients receiving therapy for six months or longer (see WARNINGS). Spontaneous reports also suggest an increased proportion of severe hepatic reactions, including fatalities, in elderly patients (see WARNINGS).

In general, the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy should be considered when prescribing Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Anuria, oliguria, or significant impairment of renal function (creatinine clearance under 60 mL per minute or clinically significant elevated serum creatinine) are contraindications (see C ONTRAINDICATIONS). Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

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ADVERSE REACTIONS

Respiratory

CHRONIC, SUBACUTE, OR ACUTE PULMONARY HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY OCCUR.

CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS OCCUR GENERALLY IN PATIENTS WHO HAVE RECEIVED CONTINUOUS TREATMENT FOR SIX MONTHS OR LONGER. MALAISE, DYSPNEA ON EXERTION, COUGH, AND ALTERED PULMONARY FUNCTION ARE COMMON MANIFESTATIONS WHICH CAN OCCUR INSIDIOUSLY. RADIOLOGIC AND HISTOLOGIC FINDINGS OF DIFFUSE INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONITIS OR FIBROSIS, OR BOTH, ARE ALSO COMMON MANIFESTATIONS OF THE CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTION. FEVER IS RARELY PROMINENT.

THE SEVERITY OF CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS AND THEIR DEGREE OF RESOLUTION APPEAR TO BE RELATED TO THE DURATION OF THERAPY AFTER THE FIRST CLINICAL SIGNS APPEAR. PULMONARY FUNCTION MAY BE IMPAIRED PERMANENTLY, EVEN AFTER CESSATION OF THERAPY. THE RISK IS GREATER WHEN CHRONIC PULMONARY REACTIONS ARE NOT RECOGNIZED EARLY.

In subacute pulmonary reactions, fever and eosinophilia occur less often than in the acute form. Upon cessation of therapy, recovery may require several months. If the symptoms are not recognized as being drug-related and Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals therapy is not stopped, the symptoms may become more severe.

Acute pulmonary reactions are commonly manifested by fever, chills, cough, chest pain, dyspnea, pulmonary infiltration with consolidation or pleural effusion on x-ray, and eosinophilia. Acute reactions usually occur within the first week of treatment and are reversible with cessation of therapy. Resolution often is dramatic (see WARNINGS).

Changes in EKG (e.g., non-specific ST/T wave changes, bundle branch block) have been reported in association with pulmonary reactions.

Cyanosis has been reported rarely.

Hepatic

Hepatic reactions, including hepatitis, cholestatic jaundice, chronic active hepatitis, and hepatic necrosis, occur rarely (see WARNINGS).

Neurologic

Peripheral neuropathy, which may become severe or irreversible, has occurred. Fatalities have been reported. Conditions such as renal impairment, anemia, diabetes mellitus, electrolyte imbalance, Vitamin B deficiency, and debilitating diseases may increase the possibility of peripheral neuropathy (see WARNINGS).

Asthenia, vertigo, nystagmus, dizziness, headache, and drowsiness also have been reported with the use of Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin).

Benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri), confusion, depression, optic neuritis, and psychotic reactions have been reported rarely. Bulging fontanels, as a sign of benign intracranial hypertension in infants, have been reported rarely.

Dermatologic

Exfoliative dermatitis and erythema multiforme (including Stevens-Johnson syndrome) have been reported rarely. Transient alopecia also has been reported.

Allergic

A lupus-like syndrome associated with pulmonary reactions to Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals has been reported. Also, angioedema; maculopapular, erythematous, or eczematous eruptions; pruritus; urticaria; anaphylaxis; arthralgia; myalgia; drug fever; and chills have been reported. Hypersensitivity reactions represent the most frequent spontaneously-reported adverse events in worldwide postmarketing experience with Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) formulations.

Gastrointestinal

Nausea, emesis, and anorexia occur most often. Abdominal pain and diarrhea are less common gastrointestinal reactions. These dose-related reactions can be minimized by reduction of dosage. Sialadenitis and pancreatitis have been reported. There have been sporadic reports of pseudomembranous colitis with the use of Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin). The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antimicrobial treatment (see WARNINGS).

Hematologic

Cyanosis secondary to methemoglobinemia has been reported rarely.

Miscellaneous

As with other antimicrobial agents, superinfections caused by resistant organisms, e.g., Pseudomonas species or Candida species, can occur.

Laboratory Adverse Events

The following laboratory adverse events have been reported with the use of Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin): increased AST (SGOT), increased ALT (SGPT), decreased hemoglobin, increased serum phosphorus, eosinophilia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency anemia (see WARNINGS), agranulocytosis, leukopenia, granulocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, megaloblastic anemia. In most cases, these hematologic abnormalities resolved following cessation of therapy. Aplastic anemia has been reported rarely.

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OVERDOSAGE

Occasional incidents of acute overdosage of Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals have not resulted in any specific symptoms other than vomiting. Induction of emesis is recommended. There is no specific antidote, but a high fluid intake should be maintained to promote urinary excretion of the drug. It is dialyzable.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals macrocrystals should be given with food to improve drug absorption and, in some patients, tolerance.

Adults

50 to 100 mg four times a day - the lower dosage level is recommended for uncomplicated urinary tract infections.

Pediatric Patients

5 to 7 mg/kg of body weight per 24 hours, given in four divided doses (contraindicated under one month of age).

Therapy should be continued for one week or for at least 3 days after sterility of the urine is obtained. Continued infection indicates the need for reevaluation.

For long-term suppressive therapy in adults, a reduction of dosage to 50 to 100 mg at bedtime may be adequate. For long-term suppressive therapy in pediatric patients, doses as low as 1 mg/kg per 24 hours, given in a single dose or in two divided doses, may be adequate. SEE WARNINGS SECTION REGARDING RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH LONG-TERM THERAPY.

HOW SUPPLIED

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) Macrocrystals Capsules USP are available as pink opaque/white opaque capsules, imprinted with

, “Zenith 50 mg” on the cap and “2130”, underlined with a double bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 50 mg Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 and 1000 capsules and unit-dose boxes of 100 capsules.

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) Macrocrystals Capsules USP are available as pink opaque capsules, imprinted with

, “Zenith 100 mg” on the cap and “2131”, underlined with a triple bar, on the body, in black ink, containing 100 mg Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) macrocrystals, packaged in bottles of 100 and 1000 capsules and unit-dose boxes of 100 capsules.

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).

STORAGE

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).

REFERENCES

1.) Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically; Approved Standard-Eighth Edition. CLSI document M07-A8 [ISBN 1-56238-689-1]. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 2009.

2.) Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard-Tenth Edition. CLSI document M02-A 10 [ISBN 1-56238-688-3]. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 2009.

3.) Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Nineteenth Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100-S19 [ISBN 1-56238-716-2]. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania 19087-1898 USA, 2010.

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact TEVA USA, PHARMACOVIGILANCE at tel: 1-888-838-2872, x6351 or drug.safetyNitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin)tevausa.com; or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch

Manufactured In Israel By:

TEVA PHARMACEUTICAL IND. LTD.

Jerusalem, 91010, Israel

Manufactured For:

TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA

Sellersville, PA 18960

Rev. E 6/2011

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) Macro. 50mg Cap

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals (Nitrofurantoin) Structural Formula Imprinted logo Imprinted logo

Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

infoActive ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals available forms, composition, doses:

infoForm of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals destination | category:

infoDestination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

infoA medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals pharmaceutical companies:

infoPharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."NITROFURANTOIN (MONOHYDRATE/MACROCRYSTALS) CAPSULE [EON LABS, INC.]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."NITROFURANTOIN; NITROFURANTOIN, MACROCRYSTALLINE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "nitrofurantoin". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals?

Depending on the reaction of the Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sDrugs.com conducted a study on Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Nitrofurantoin Monohydrate / Macrocrystals consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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