DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Nirvaxal usesNirvaxal consists of Chlordiazepoxide, Clidinium Bromide.
WARNING: RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH OPIOIDS
Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death.
Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) combines in a single capsule formulation the antianxiety action of Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride and the anticholinergic/spasmolytic effects of clidinium bromide.
Each Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) capsule contains the active ingredients 5 mg Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride and 2.5 mg clidinium bromide. Each capsule also contains the inactive ingredients corn starch, lactose monohydrate, talc, methylparaben, propylparaben, potassium sorbate, D&C Yellow No. 10, FD&C Green No. 3, titanium dioxide, and gelatin.
Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride is a versatile, therapeutic agent of proven value for the relief of anxiety and tension. It is indicated when anxiety, tension or apprehension are significant components of the clinical profile. It is among the safer of the effective psychopharmacologic compounds.
Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride is 7-chloro-2-methylamino-5-phenyl-3H-1,4-benzodiazepine 4-oxide hydrochloride. A colorless, crystalline substance, it is soluble in water. It is unstable in solution and the powder must be protected from light. The molecular weight is 336.22. The structural formula of Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride is as follows:
Clidinium bromide is a synthetic anticholinergic agent which has been shown in experimental and clinical studies to have a pronounced antispasmodic and antisecretory effect on the gastrointestinal tract. Structurally clidinium bromide is:
Nirvaxal hydrochloride has been studied extensively in many species of animals and these studies are suggestive of action on the limbic system of the brain, which recent evidence indicates is involved in emotional responses. Hostile monkeys were made tame by oral drug doses, which did not cause sedation. Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride revealed a "taming-action with the elimination of fear and aggression”. The taming effect of Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride was further demonstrated in rats made vicious by lesions in the septal area of the brain. The drug dosage which effectively blocked the vicious reaction was well below the dose which caused sedation in these animals.
The oral LD50 of single doses of Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride, calculated according to the method of Miller and Tainter, is 720 ± 51 mg/kg as determined in mice observed over a period of 5 days following dosage.
Clidinium bromide is an effective anticholinergic agent with activity approximating that of atropine sulfate against acetylcholine-induced spasms in isolated intestinal strips. On oral administration in mice, it proved an effective antisialagogue in preventing pilocarpine-induced salivation. Spontaneous intestinal motility in both rats and dogs is reduced following oral dosing with 0.1 to 0.25 mg/kg. Potent cholinergic ganglionic blocking effects (vagal) were produced with intravenous usage in anesthetized dogs.
Oral doses of 2.5 mg/kg to dogs produced signs of nasal dryness and slight pupillary dilation. In two other species, monkeys and rabbits, doses of 5 mg/kg, po, given three times daily for 5 days did not produce apparent secretory or visual changes.
The oral LD50 of single doses of clidinium bromide is 860 ± 57 mg/kg as determined in mice observed over a period of 5 days following dosage; the calculations were made according to the method of Miller and Tainter.
Effects on Reproduction
Reproduction studies in rats fed Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride, 10, 20 and 80 mg/kg daily, and bred through one or two matings showed no congenital anomalies, nor were there adverse effects on lactation of the dams or growth of the newborn. However, in another study at 100 mg/kg daily there was noted a significant decrease in the fertilization rate and a marked decrease in the viability and body weight of offspring which may be attributable to sedative activity, thus resulting in lack of interest in mating and lessened maternal nursing and care of the young. One neonate in each of the first and second matings in the rat reproduction study at the 100 mg/kg dose exhibited major skeletal defects. Further studies are in progress to determine the significance of these findings.
Two series of reproduction experiments with clidinium bromide were carried out in rats, employing dosages of 2.5 and 10 mg/kg daily in each experiment. In the first experiment, clidinium bromide was administered for a 9-week interval prior to mating; no untoward effect on fertilization or gestation was noted. The offspring were taken by caesarean section and did not show a significant incidence of congenital anomalies when compared to control animals. In the second experiment, adult animals were given clidinium bromide for 10 days prior to and through two mating cycles. No significant effects were observed on fertility, gestation, viability of offspring or lactation, as compared to control animals, nor was there a significant incidence of congenital anomalies in the offspring derived from these experiments.
A reproduction study of Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) was carried out in rats through two successive matings. Oral daily doses were administered in two concentrations: 2.5 mg/kg Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride with 1.25 mg/kg clidinium bromide or 25 mg/kg Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride with 12.5 mg/kg clidinium bromide. In the first mating, no significant differences were noted between the control or the treated groups, with the exception of a slight decrease in the number of animals surviving during lactation among those receiving the highest dosage. As with all anticholinergic drugs, an inhibiting effect on lactation may occur. In the second mating, similar results were obtained except for a slight decrease in the number of pregnant females and in the percentage of offspring surviving until weaning. No congenital anomalies were observed in both matings in either the control or treated groups. Additional animal reproduction studies are in progress.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) is indicated to control emotional and somatic factors in gastrointestinal disorders. Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) may also be used as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of peptic ulcer and in the treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome (irritable colon, spastic colon, mucous colitis) and acute enterocolitis.
Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) is contraindicated in the presence of glaucoma (since the anticholinergic component may produce some degree of mydriasis) and in patients with prostatic hypertrophy and benign bladder neck obstruction. It is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride and/or clidinium bromide.
Concomitant use of benzodiazepines, including Nirvaxal, and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioids alone. If a decision is made to prescribe Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) concomitantly with opioids, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use, and follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) is used with opioids (see PRECAUTIONS ).
As in the case of other preparations containing CNS-acting drugs, patients receiving Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) should be cautioned about possible combined effects with opioids, alcohol and other CNS depressants. For the same reason, they should be cautioned against hazardous occupations requiring complete mental alertness, such as operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle.
Usage In Pregnancy
An increased risk of congenital malformations associated with the use of minor tranquilizers (chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and meprobamate) during the first trimester of pregnancy has been suggested in several studies. Because use of these drugs is rarely a matter of urgency, their use during this period should almost always be avoided. The possibility that a woman of childbearing potential may be pregnant at the time of institution of therapy should be considered. Patients should be advised that if they become pregnant during therapy or intend to become pregnant they should communicate with their physicians about the desirability of discontinuing the drug.
As with all anticholinergic drugs, an inhibiting effect on lactation may occur.
Manifestations of Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride overdosage include somnolence, confusion, coma and diminished reflexes. Respiration, pulse and blood pressure should be monitored, as in all cases of drug overdosage, although, in general, these effects have been minimal following Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride overdosage.
While the signs and symptoms of Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) overdosage may be produced by either of its components, usually such symptoms will be overshadowed by the anticholinergic actions of clidinium bromide. The symptoms of overdosage of clidinium bromide are excessive dryness of mouth, blurring of vision, urinary hesitancy and constipation.
General supportive measures should be employed, along with immediate gastric lavage. Administer physostigmine 0.5 to 2 mg at a rate of no more than 1 mg per minute. This may be repeated in 1 to 4 mg doses if arrhythmias, convulsions or deep coma recur. Intravenous fluids should be administered and an adequate airway maintained. Hypotension may be combated by the use of levarterenol or metaraminol. Methylphenidate or caffeine and sodium benzoate may be given to combat CNS-depressive effects. Dialysis is of limited value. Should excitation occur, barbiturates should not be used. As with the management of intentional overdosage with any drug, it should be borne in mind that multiple agents may have been ingested.
Withdrawal symptoms of the barbiturate type have occurred after the discontinuation of benzodiazepines.
In debilitated patients, it is recommended that the dosage be limited to the smallest effective amount to preclude the development of ataxia, oversedation or confusion capsules per day initially, to be increased gradually as needed and tolerated). In general, the concomitant administration of Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) and other psychotropic agents is not recommended. If such combination therapy seems indicated, careful consideration should be given to the pharmacology of the agents to be employed - particularly when the known potentiating compounds such as the MAO inhibitors and phenothiazines are to be used. The usual precautions in treating patients with impaired renal or hepatic function should be observed.
Paradoxical reactions to Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride, e.g., excitement, stimulation and acute rage, have been reported in psychiatric patients and should be watched for during Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) therapy. The usual precautions are indicated when Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride is used in the treatment of anxiety states where there is any evidence of impending depression; it should be borne in mind that suicidal tendencies may be present and protective measures may be necessary. Although clinical studies have not established a cause and effect relationship, physicians should be aware that variable effects on blood coagulation have been reported very rarely in patients receiving oral anticoagulants and Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride.
Information for Patients
Inform patients and caregivers that potentially fatal additive effects may occur if Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) is used with opioids or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, and not to use these concomitantly unless supervised by a health care provider (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS ).
To assure the safe and effective use of benzodiazepines, patients should be informed that, since benzodiazepines may produce psychological and physical dependence, it is advisable that they consult with their physician before either increasing the dose or abruptly discontinuing this drug.
The concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids increases the risk of respiratory depression because of actions at different receptor sites in the CNS that control respiration. Benzodiazepines interact at GABAA sites and opioids interact primarily at mu receptors. When benzodiazepines and opioids are combined, the potential for benzodiazepines to significantly worsen opioid-related respiratory depression exists. Limit dosage and duration of concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids, and follow patients closely for respiratory depression and sedation.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Geriatric subjects may be particularly prone to experiencing drowsiness, ataxia and confusion while receiving Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide). These effects can usually be avoided with proper dosage adjustment, although they have occasionally been observed even at the lower dosage ranges. Dosing in geriatric subjects should be initiated cautiously (no more than 2 capsules per day) and increased gradually if needed and tolerated. Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) is contraindicated in the presence of glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy and benign bladder neck obstruction.
No side effects or manifestations not seen with either compound alone have been reported with the administration of Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide). However, since Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) contains Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride and clidinium bromide, the possibility of untoward effects which may be seen with either of these two compounds cannot be excluded.
When Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride has been used alone the necessity of discontinuing therapy because of undesirable effects has been rare. Drowsiness, ataxia and confusion have been reported in some patients - particularly the elderly and debilitated. While these effects can be avoided in almost all instances by proper dosage adjustment, they have occasionally been observed at the lower dosage ranges. In a few instances syncope has been reported.
Other adverse reactions reported during therapy with Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride include isolated instances of skin eruptions, edema, minor menstrual irregularities, nausea and constipation, extrapyramidal symptoms, as well as increased and decreased libido. Such side effects have been infrequent and are generally controlled with reduction of dosage. Changes in EEG patterns (low-voltage fast activity) have been observed in patients during and after Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride treatment.
Blood dyscrasias, including agranulocytosis, jaundice and hepatic dysfunction have occasionally been reported during therapy with Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride. When Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride treatment is protracted, periodic blood counts and liver function tests are advisable.
Adverse effects reported with use of Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) are those typical of anticholinergic agents, i.e., dryness of the mouth, blurring of vision, urinary hesitancy and constipation. Constipation has occurred most often when Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) therapy has been combined with other spasmolytic agents and/or a low residue diet.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC at 1-800-321-4576 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
Withdrawal symptoms, similar in character to those noted with barbiturates and alcohol (convulsions, tremor, abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting and sweating), have occurred following abrupt discontinuance of Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide). The more severe withdrawal symptoms have usually been limited to those patients who had received excessive doses over an extended period of time. Generally milder withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and insomnia) have been reported following abrupt discontinuance of benzodiazepines taken continuously at therapeutic levels for several months. Consequently, after extended therapy, abrupt discontinuation should generally be avoided and a gradual dosage tapering schedule followed. Addiction-prone individuals (such as drug addicts or alcoholics) should be under careful surveillance when receiving Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) or other psychotropic agents because of the predisposition of such patients to habituation and dependence.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Because of the varied individual responses to tranquilizers and anticholinergics, the optimum dosage of Nirvaxal varies with the diagnosis and response of the individual patient. The dosage, therefore, should be individualized for maximum beneficial effects. The usual maintenance dose is 1 or 2 capsules, 3 or 4 times a day administered before meals and at bedtime.
Dosage should be limited to the smallest effective amount to preclude the development of ataxia, oversedation or confusion. The initial dose should not exceed 2 Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) capsules per day, to be increased gradually as needed and tolerated.
Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) is available in light green opaque capsules, each containing 5 mg Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride and 2.5 mg clidinium bromide - bottles of 100 (NDC 0187-4100-10), with Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) imprinted on the body of the capsule.
Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15°C - 30°C (59°F - 86°F).
Keep out of reach of children. Dispense in tight, light-resistant container as defined in USP/NF.
Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc.
Steinbach, MB R5G 1Z7 Canada
Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC
Bridgewater, NJ 08807 USA
Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) is a trademark of Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. or its affiliates.
©Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC
Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) (lee braks)
(chlordiazepoxide HCl and clidinium bromide) capsules
What is the most important information I should know about Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide)?
What is Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide)?
Do not take Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) if you:
Before you take Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide), tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:
Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements.
Taking Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) with certain other medicines can cause side effects or affect how well Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) or the other medicines work.
Do not start or stop other medicines without talking to your healthcare provider.
Especially tell your healthcare provider if you:
How should I take Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide)?
What are the possible side effects of Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide)?
Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) may cause serious side effects, including: See “What is the most important information I should know about Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide)?”
The most common side effects of Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) include:
These are not all the possible side effects of Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide).
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
How should I store Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide)?
General information about the safe and effective use of Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide).
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) that is written for health professionals.
What are the ingredients in Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide)?
Active ingredient: Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) hydrochloride and clidinium bromide
Inactive ingredients: corn starch, lactose and talc. Gelatin capsule shells may contain methyl and propyl parabens and potassium sorbate, with the following dye systems: D&C Yellow No. 10 and either FD&C Blue No.1 or FD&C Green No. 3.
Manufactured in Canada by: Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. Steinbach, MB R5G 1Z7 Canada
Manufactured for: Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC Bridgewater, NJ 08807 USA
Nirvaxal (Chlordiazepoxide) is a trademark of Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc. or its affiliates.
©Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC
For more information, go to www.valeant.com or contact Valeant Pharmaceuticals North America LLC at 1-800-321-4576
This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
contains 5 mg
HCl and 2.5 mg
Nirvaxal (Clidinium Bromide) is a synthetic anticholinergic agent which has been shown in experimental and clinical studies to have a pronounced antispasmodic and antisecretory effect on the gastrointestinal tract. It inhibits muscarinic actions of acetylcholine at postganglionic parasympathetic neuroeffector sites. It is used for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease and also to help relieve abdominal or stomach spasms or cramps due to colicky abdominal pain, diverticulitis, and irritable bowel syndrome.
Indication: For the treatment of peptic ulcer disease and also to help relieve abdominal or stomach spasms or cramps due to colicky abdominal pain, diverticulitis, and irritable bowel syndrome.
Nirvaxal pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Nirvaxal available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Nirvaxal destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Nirvaxal Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Nirvaxal pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Nirvaxal?
Depending on the reaction of the Nirvaxal after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Nirvaxal not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Nirvaxal addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
ReviewsDrugs.com conducted a study on Nirvaxal, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Nirvaxal consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology