Nasalub

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Nasalub uses

Nasalub consists of Glycerol, Sodium Chloride.

Glycerol:


Indications and Usage (1) 04/2017
Dosage and Administration (2.1) 04/2017
Dosage and Administration (2.2) 04/2017

Nasalub (Glycerol) is indicated for use as a nitrogen-binding agent for chronic management of patients 2 months of age and older with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) who cannot be managed by dietary protein restriction and/or amino acid supplementation alone. Nasalub (Glycerol) must be used with dietary protein restriction and, in some cases, dietary supplements (e.g., essential amino acids, arginine, citrulline, protein-free calorie supplements).

Limitations of Use:

  • Nasalub (Glycerol) is not indicated for the treatment of acute hyperammonemia in patients with UCDs because more rapidly acting interventions are essential to reduce plasma ammonia levels.
  • The safety and efficacy of Nasalub (Glycerol) for the treatment of N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) deficiency has not been established.

Nasalub (Glycerol) is a nitrogen-binding agent indicated for chronic management of patients 2 months of age and older with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) who cannot be managed by dietary protein restriction and/or amino acid supplementation alone. Nasalub (Glycerol) must be used with dietary protein restriction and, in some cases, dietary supplements. (1)

Limitations of Use:

  • Nasalub (Glycerol) is not indicated for treatment of acute hyperammonemia in patients with UCDs. (1)
  • Safety and efficacy for treatment of N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) deficiency has not been established. (1)
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2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

  • Nasalub should be prescribed by a physician experienced in management of UCDs. For administration and preparation, see full prescribing information. (2.1, 2.6)

Switching From Sodium Phenylbutyrate Tablets or Powder to Nasalub (Glycerol):

  • Patients should receive the dosage of Nasalub (Glycerol) that contains the same amount of phenylbutyric acid, see full prescribing information for conversion. (2.2)

Initial Dosage in Phenylbutyrate-Naïve Patients (2.3):

  • Recommended dosage range is 4.5 to 11.2 mL/m2/day (5 to 12.4 g/m2/day).
  • For patients with some residual enzyme activity not adequately controlled with dietary restriction, the recommended starting dose is 4.5 mL/m2/day.
  • Take into account patient's estimated urea synthetic capacity, dietary protein intake, and diet adherence.

Dosage Adjustment and Monitoring:

  • Follow plasma ammonia levels to determine the need for dosage titration. (2.4)

Dosage Modifications in Patients with Hepatic Impairment:

  • Start dosage at lower end of range. (2.5, 8.6)

2.1 Important Administration Instructions

Nasalub (Glycerol) should be prescribed by a physician experienced in the management of UCDs.

  • Instruct patients to take Nasalub (Glycerol) with food or formula and to administer directly into the mouth via oral syringe or dosing cup.
  • For patients who cannot swallow, see the instructions on administration of Nasalub (Glycerol) by nasogastric tube or gastrostomy tube .
  • For patients who require a volume of less than 1 mL per dose via nasogastric or gastrostomy tube, the delivered dose may be less than anticipated. Closely monitor these patients using ammonia levels .
  • The recommended dosages for patients switching from sodium phenylbutyrate to Nasalub (Glycerol) and patients naïve to phenylbutyric acid are different . For both subpopulations:
    • Patients 2 years of age and older: Give Nasalub (Glycerol) in 3 equally divided dosages, each rounded up to the nearest 0.5 mL
    • Patients 2 months of age to less than 2 years: Give Nasalub (Glycerol) in 3 or more equally divided dosages, each rounded up to the nearest 0.1 mL.
    • The maximum total daily dosage is 17.5 mL (19 g).
    • Nasalub (Glycerol) must be used with dietary protein restriction and, in some cases, dietary supplements (e.g., essential amino acids, arginine, citrulline, protein-free calorie supplements).

2.2 Switching From Sodium Phenylbutyrate to Nasalub

Patients switching from sodium phenylbutyrate to Nasalub (Glycerol) should receive the dosage of Nasalub (Glycerol) that contains the same amount of phenylbutyric acid. The conversion is as follows:

Total daily dosage of Nasalub (Glycerol) (mL) = total daily dosage of sodium phenylbutyrate tablets (g) × 0.86

Total daily dosage of Nasalub (Glycerol) (mL) = total daily dosage of sodium phenylbutyrate powder (g) × 0.81

2.3 Initial Dosage in Phenylbutyrate-Naïve Patients

The recommended dosage range, based upon body surface area, in patients naïve to phenylbutyrate is 4.5 to 11.2 mL/m2/day (5 to 12.4 g/m2/day). For patients with some residual enzyme activity who are not adequately controlled with protein restriction, the recommended starting dosage is 4.5 mL/m2/day.

In determining the starting dosage of Nasalub (Glycerol) in treatment-naïve patients, consider the patient's residual urea synthetic capacity, dietary protein requirements, and diet adherence. Dietary protein is approximately 16% nitrogen by weight. Given that approximately 47% of dietary nitrogen is excreted as waste and approximately 70% of an administered PBA dose will be converted to urinary phenylacetylglutamine (U-PAGN), an initial estimated Nasalub (Glycerol) dose for a 24-hour period is 0.6 mL Nasalub (Glycerol) per gram of dietary protein ingested per 24-hour period. The total daily dosage should not exceed 17.5 mL.

2.4 Dosage Adjustment and Monitoring

During treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol), patients should be followed clinically and with plasma ammonia levels to determine the need for dosage titration. Closely monitor ammonia levels after changing the dosage of Nasalub (Glycerol).

Normal Ammonia Levels

If patients experience symptoms of vomiting, nausea, headache, somnolence or confusion in the absence of high ammonia levels or other intercurrent illnesses, reduce the Nasalub (Glycerol) dosage and monitor patients clinically. If available, obtain measurements of plasma phenylacetate (PAA) concentrations and the ratio of plasma PAA to PAGN to guide dosing. A high PAA to PAGN ratio may indicate the saturation of the conjugation reaction to form PAGN. The PAA to PAGN ratio has been observed to be generally less than 1 in patients with UCDs without significant PAA accumulation .

Elevated Ammonia Levels

When plasma ammonia is elevated, increase the Nasalub (Glycerol) dosage to reduce the fasting ammonia level to less than half the upper limit of normal (ULN) in patients 6 years and older. In infants and pediatric patients (generally below 6 years of age), where obtaining fasting ammonia is problematic due to frequent feedings, adjust the dosage to keep the first ammonia of the morning below the ULN.

Urinary Phenylacetylglutamine: If available, U-PAGN measurements may be used to help guide Nasalub (Glycerol) dosage adjustment. Each gram of U-PAGN excreted over 24 hours covers waste nitrogen generated from 1.4 grams of dietary protein. If U-PAGN excretion is insufficient to cover daily dietary protein intake and the fasting ammonia is greater than half the ULN, the Nasalub (Glycerol) dosage should be adjusted upward. The amount of dosage adjustment should factor in the amount of dietary protein that has not been covered, as indicated by the 24-hour U-PAGN level and the estimated Nasalub (Glycerol) dose needed per gram of dietary protein ingested and the maximum total daily dosage (i.e., 17.5 mL).

Consider a patient's use of concomitant medications, such as probenecid, when making dosage adjustment decisions based on U-PAGN. Probenecid may result in a decrease of the urinary excretion of PAGN .

Plasma Phenylacetate and Phenylacetylglutamine: If available, the ratio of PAA to PAGN in plasma may provide additional information to assist in dosage adjustment decisions. In patients with a high PAA to PAGN ratio, a further increase in Nasalub (Glycerol) dosage may not increase PAGN formation, even if plasma PAA concentrations are increased, due to saturation of the conjugation reaction .

2.5 Dosage Modifications in Patients with Hepatic Impairment

For patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment, the recommended starting dosage is at the lower end of the recommended dosing range and kept at the lowest dose necessary to control the patient's ammonia levels .

2.6 Preparation for Nasogastric Tube or Gastrostomy Tube Administration

It is recommended that all patients who can swallow take Nasalub (Glycerol) orally, even those with nasogastric and/or gastrostomy tubes. However, for patients who cannot swallow, a nasogastric tube or gastrostomy tube may be used to administer Nasalub (Glycerol) as follows:

  • Utilize an oral syringe to withdraw the prescribed dosage of Nasalub (Glycerol) from the bottle.
  • Place the tip of the syringe into the nasogastric/gastrostomy tube.
  • Utilizing the plunger of the syringe, administer Nasalub (Glycerol) into the tube.
  • Flush once with 10 mL of water or formula and allow the flush to drain.
  • If needed, flush a second time with an additional 10 mL of water or formula to clear the tube.

For patients who require a volume of less than 1 mL per dose via nasogastric or gastrostomy tube, the delivered dosage may be less than anticipated due to adherence of Nasalub (Glycerol) to the plastic tubing. Therefore, these patients should be closely monitored using ammonia levels following initiation of Nasalub (Glycerol) dosing or dosage adjustments.

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3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Oral liquid: colorless to pale yellow, 1.1 g/mL of Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate (delivers 1.02 g/mL of phenylbutyrate).

Oral liquid: 1.1 g/mL. (3)

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Nasalub (Glycerol) is contraindicated in patients

  • Less than 2 months of age. Pediatric patients less than 2 months of age may have immature pancreatic exocrine function, which could impair hydrolysis of Nasalub (Glycerol), leading to impaired absorption of phenylbutyrate and hyperammonemia .
  • With known hypersensitivity to phenylbutyrate. Signs of hypersensitivity include wheezing, dyspnea, coughing, hypotension, flushing, nausea, and rash.
  • Patients less than 2 months of age. (4)
  • Known hypersensitivity to phenylbutyrate. (4)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Neurotoxicity: Phenylacetate, the active moiety of Nasalub (Glycerol), may be toxic; reduce dosage for symptoms of neurotoxicity. (5.1)
  • Reduced Phenylbutyrate Absorption in Pancreatic Insufficiency or Intestinal Malabsorption: Monitor ammonia levels closely. (5.2)

5.1 Neurotoxicity

The major metabolite of Nasalub (Glycerol), PAA, is associated with neurotoxicity. Signs and symptoms of PAA neurotoxicity, including somnolence, fatigue, lightheadedness, headache, dysgeusia, hypoacusis, disorientation, impaired memory, and exacerbation of preexisting neuropathy, were observed at plasma PAA concentrations of 500 micrograms/mL in a study of adult cancer patients who were administered PAA intravenously. In this study, adverse reactions were reversible.

In healthy subjects, after administration of 4 mL and 6 mL Nasalub (Glycerol) 3 times daily for 3 days, a dose-dependent increase in all-grade nervous system adverse reactions was observed, even at exposure levels of PAA less than 100 micrograms/mL.

In clinical trials in patients with UCDs who had been on sodium phenylbutyrate prior to administration of Nasalub (Glycerol), peak PAA concentrations after dosing with Nasalub (Glycerol) ranged from 1.6 to 178 micrograms/mL (mean: 39 micrograms/mL) in adult patients, from 1 to 410 micrograms/mL (mean: 70 micrograms/mL; median: 50 micrograms/mL) in pediatric patients ages 2 years and older, and from 1 to 1215 micrograms/mL (mean: 142 micrograms/mL; median: 35 micrograms/mL) in pediatric patients ages 2 months to less than 2 years. Some patients with UCDs experienced headache, fatigue, symptoms of peripheral neuropathy, seizures, tremor and/or dizziness. No correlation between PAA levels and neurotoxicity symptoms was identified but PAA levels were generally not measured at the time of neurotoxicity symptoms.

If symptoms of vomiting, nausea, headache, somnolence or confusion, are present in the absence of high ammonia or other intercurrent illnesses, reduce the Nasalub (Glycerol) dosage .

5.2 Reduced Phenylbutyrate Absorption in Pancreatic Insufficiency or Intestinal Malabsorption

Exocrine pancreatic enzymes hydrolyze Nasalub (Glycerol) in the small intestine, separating the active moiety, phenylbutyrate, from Nasalub (Glycerol). This process allows phenylbutyrate to be absorbed into the circulation. Low or absent pancreatic enzymes or intestinal disease resulting in fat malabsorption may result in reduced or absent digestion of Nasalub (Glycerol) and/or absorption of phenylbutyrate and reduced control of plasma ammonia. Monitor ammonia levels closely in patients with pancreatic insufficiency or intestinal malabsorption.

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6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

Most common adverse reactions in adults are: diarrhea, flatulence, and headache. (6.1)

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Horizon Therapeutics at 1-855-823-7878 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.

Assessment of adverse reactions was based on exposure of 45 adult patients (31 female and 14 male) with UCD subtype deficiencies of ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC, n=40), carbamyl phosphate synthetase (CPS, n=2), and argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS, n=1) in a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled (RAVICTI vs sodium phenylbutyrate), crossover, 4-week study (Study 1) that enrolled patients 18 years of age and older . One of the 45 patients received only sodium phenylbutyrate prior to withdrawing on day 1 of the study due to an adverse reaction.

The most common adverse reactions (occurring in at least 10% of patients) reported during short-term treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol) were diarrhea, flatulence, and headache. Table 1 summarizes adverse reactions occurring in 2 or more patients treated with Nasalub (Glycerol) or sodium phenylbutyrate (incidence of at least 4% in either treatment arm).

Number (%) of Patients in Study 1
Sodium Phenylbutyrate

(N = 45)

Nasalub (Glycerol)

(N = 44)

Diarrhea 3 (7) 7 (16)
Headache 4 (9) 6 (14)
Flatulence 1 (2) 6 (14)
Abdominal pain 2 (4) 3 (7)
Vomiting 2 (4) 3 (7)
Decreased appetite 2 (4) 3 (7)
Fatigue 1 (2) 3 (7)
Dyspepsia 3 (7) 2 (5)
Nausea 3 (7) 1 (2)
Dizziness 4 (9) 0
Abdominal discomfort 3 (7) 0

Other Adverse Reactions

Nasalub (Glycerol) has been evaluated in 77 patients with UCDs (51 adult and 26 pediatric patients ages 2 years to 17 years) in 2 open-label long-term studies, in which 69 patients completed 12 months of treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol) (median exposure = 51 weeks). During these studies there were no deaths.

Adverse reactions occurring in at least 10% of adult patients were nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, decreased appetite, dizziness, headache, and fatigue.

Adverse reactions occurring in at least 10% of pediatric patients ages 2 years to 17 years were upper abdominal pain, rash, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, decreased appetite, and headache.

Nasalub (Glycerol) has also been evaluated in 17 patients with UCDs ages 2 months to less than 2 years in 3 open-label studies. The median exposure was 6 months (range 0.2 to 18 months). Adverse reactions occurring in at least 10% of pediatric patients aged 2 months to less than 2 years were neutropenia, vomiting, diarrhea, pyrexia, hypophagia, cough, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, rash and papule.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of Nasalub (Glycerol). Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure:

  • Abnormal body odor, including from skin, hair and urine
  • Retching and gagging
  • Dysgeusia or burning sensation in mouth
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7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

  • Corticosteroids, valproic acid, or haloperidol: May increase plasma ammonia level; monitor ammonia levels closely.
  • Probenecid: May affect renal excretion of metabolites of Nasalub (Glycerol), including phenylacetylglutamine (PAGN) and PAA. (7.2)
  • CYP3A4 Substrates with narrow therapeutic index (e.g., alfentanil, quinidine, cyclosporine): Nasalub (Glycerol) may decrease exposure; monitor for decreased efficacy of the narrow therapeutic index drug. (7.3)
  • Midazolam: Decreased exposure; monitor for suboptimal effect of midazolam. (7.3)

7.1 Potential for Other Drugs to Affect Ammonia

Corticosteroids

Use of corticosteroids may cause the breakdown of body protein and increase plasma ammonia levels. Monitor ammonia levels closely when corticosteroids and Nasalub (Glycerol) are used concomitantly.

Valproic Acid and Haloperidol

Hyperammonemia may be induced by haloperidol and by valproic acid. Monitor ammonia levels closely when use of valproic acid or haloperidol is necessary in patients with UCDs.

7.2 Potential for Other Drugs to Affect Nasalub

Probenecid

Probenecid may inhibit the renal excretion of metabolites of Nasalub (Glycerol) including PAGN and PAA.

7.3 Potential for Nasalub to Affect Other Drugs

Drugs with narrow therapeutic index that are substrates of CYP3A4

Nasalub (Glycerol) is a weak inducer of CYP3A4 in humans. Concomitant use of Nasalub (Glycerol) may decrease the systemic exposure to drugs that are substrates of CYP3A4. Monitor for decreased efficacy of drugs with narrow therapeutic index (e.g., alfentanil, quinidine, cyclosporine) .

Midazolam

Concomitant use of Nasalub (Glycerol) decreased the systemic exposure of midazolam. Monitor for suboptimal effect of midazolam in patients who are being treated with Nasalub (Glycerol).

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

Lactation: Breastfeeding is not recommended.

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Exposure Registry

There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to Nasalub (Glycerol) during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to report any prenatal exposure to Nasalub (Glycerol) by calling the Pregnancy Registry at 1-855-823-2595 or visiting www.ucdregistry.com.

Risk Summary

Limited available data with Nasalub (Glycerol) use in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug-associated risk of major birth defects and miscarriage. In an animal reproduction study, administration of oral Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis at doses up to 2.7–times the dose of 6.87 mL/m2/day in adult patients resulted in maternal toxicity, but had no effects on embryo-fetal development. In addition, there were no adverse developmental effects with administration of oral Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate to pregnant rats during organogenesis at 1.9 times the dose of 6.87 mL/m2/day in adult patients; however, maternal toxicity, reduced fetal weights, and variations in skeletal development were observed in pregnant rats administered oral Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate during organogenesis at doses greater than or equal to 5.7 times the dose of 6.87 mL/m2/day in adult patients [see Data].

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Data

Animal Data

Oral administration of Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate during the period of organogenesis up to 350 mg/kg/day in rabbits produced maternal toxicity, but no effects on embryo-fetal development. The dose of 350 mg/kg/day in rabbits is approximately 2.7 times the dose of 6.87 mL/m2/day in adult patients, based on combined area under the plasma concentration-time curve [AUCs] for PBA and PAA. In rats, at an oral dose of 300 mg/kg/day of Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate (1.9 times the dose of 6.87 mL/m2/day in adult patients, based on combined AUCs for PBA and PAA) during the period of organogenesis, no effects on embryo-fetal development were observed. Doses of 650 mg/kg/day or greater produced maternal toxicity and adverse effects on embryo-fetal development including reduced fetal weights and cervical ribs at the 7th cervical vertebra. The dose of 650 mg/kg/day in rats is approximately 5.7 times the dose of 6.87 mL/m2/day in adult patients, based on combined AUCs for PBA and PAA. No developmental abnormalities, effects on growth, or effects on learning and memory were observed through maturation of offspring following oral administration in pregnant rats with up to 900 mg/kg/day of Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate (8.5 times the dose of 6.87 mL/m2/day in adult patients, based on combined AUCs for PBA and PAA) during organogenesis and lactation.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

There are no data on the presence of Nasalub in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including neurotoxicity and tumorigenicity in a breastfed infant, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol).

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and efficacy of Nasalub (Glycerol) have been established in pediatric patients 2 months of age and older with UCDs.

Nasalub (Glycerol) is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 2 months of age .

Patients 2 Years to Less Than 18 Years of Age

The safety and efficacy of Nasalub (Glycerol) in patients 2 years to less than 18 years of age were established in 2 open-label, sodium phenylbutyrate to Nasalub (Glycerol), fixed-sequence, switchover clinical studies .

Patients 2 Months to Less Than 2 Years of Age

The safety and efficacy of Nasalub (Glycerol) in patients with UCDs, 2 months to less than 2 years of age were established in 3 open-label studies. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (plasma ammonia), and safety were studied in 17 patients between 2 months and less than 2 years of age .

Patients Less Than 2 Months of Age

Nasalub (Glycerol) is contraindicated in patients less than 2 months of age . Pediatric patients less than 2 months of age may have immature pancreatic exocrine function, which could impair hydrolysis of Nasalub (Glycerol). Pancreatic lipases may be necessary for intestinal hydrolysis of Nasalub (Glycerol), allowing release of phenylbutyrate and subsequent formation of PAA, the active moiety. It is not known whether pancreatic and extrapancreatic lipases are sufficient for hydrolysis of Nasalub (Glycerol). If there is inadequate intestinal hydrolysis of Nasalub (Glycerol), impaired absorption of phenylbutyrate and hyperammonemia could occur.

Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data

In a juvenile rat study with daily oral dosing performed on postpartum day 2 through mating and pregnancy after maturation, terminal body weight was dose-dependently reduced by up to 16% in males and 12% in females at 900 mg/kg/day or higher (3 times the dose of 6.87 mL/m2/day in adult patients, based on combined AUCs for PBA and PAA). Learning, memory, and motor activity endpoints were not affected. However, fertility (number of pregnant rats) was decreased by up to 25% at 650 mg/kg/day or higher (2.6 times the dose of 6.87 mL/m2/day in adult patients, based on combined AUCs for PBA and PAA).

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Nasalub did not include sufficient numbers of subjects 65 years of age and older to determine whether they respond differently than younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

8.6 Renal Impairment

The efficacy and safety of Nasalub (Glycerol) in patients with renal impairment are unknown. Monitor ammonia levels closely when starting patients with impaired renal function on Nasalub (Glycerol).

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

No studies were conducted in patients with UCDs and hepatic impairment. Because conversion of PAA to PAGN occurs in the liver, patients with hepatic impairment may have reduced conversion capability and higher plasma PAA and PAA to PAGN ratio . Therefore, dosage for patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment should be started at the lower end of the recommended dosing range and should be kept on the lowest dose necessary to control their ammonia levels .

10 OVERDOSAGE

While there is no experience with overdosage in human clinical trials, PAA, a toxic metabolite of Nasalub (Glycerol), can accumulate in patients who receive an overdose .

If over-exposure occurs, call your Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 for current information on the management of poisoning or overdosage.

11 DESCRIPTION

Nasalub (Glycerol) (glycerol phenylbutyrate) is a clear, colorless to pale yellow oral liquid. It is insoluble in water and most organic solvents, and it is soluble in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and greater than 65% acetonitrile.

Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate is a nitrogen-binding agent. It is a triglyceride containing 3 molecules of PBA linked to a Nasalub (Glycerol) backbone, the chemical name of which is benzenebutanoic acid, 1', 1' ' –(1,2,3-propanetriyl) ester with a molecular weight of 530.67. It has a molecular formula of C33H38O6. The structural formula is:

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

UCDs are inherited deficiencies of enzymes or transporters necessary for the synthesis of urea from ammonia. Absence of these enzymes or transporters results in the accumulation of toxic levels of ammonia in the blood and brain of affected patients. Nasalub (Glycerol) is a triglyceride containing 3 molecules of phenylbutyrate (PBA). PAA, the major metabolite of PBA, is the active moiety of Nasalub (Glycerol). PAA conjugates with glutamine (which contains 2 molecules of nitrogen) via acetylation in the liver and kidneys to form PAGN, which is excreted by the kidneys (Figure 1). On a molar basis, PAGN, like urea, contains 2 moles of nitrogen and provides an alternate vehicle for waste nitrogen excretion.

Figure 1: RAVICTI Mechanism of Action

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Pharmacological Effects

In clinical studies, total 24-hour area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of ammonia concentration was comparable at steady state during the switchover period between Nasalub (Glycerol) and sodium phenylbutyrate .

Cardiac Electrophysiology

The effect of multiple doses of Nasalub (Glycerol) 13.2 g/day and 19.8 g/day (approximately 69% and 104% of the maximum recommended daily dosage) on QTc interval was evaluated in a randomized, placebo- and active-controlled (moxifloxacin 400 mg), four-treatment-arm, crossover study in 57 healthy subjects. The upper bound of the one-sided 95% CI for the largest placebo-adjusted, baseline-corrected QTc, based on individual correction method (QTcI) for Nasalub (Glycerol), was below 10 ms. However, assay sensitivity was not established in this study because the moxifloxacin time-profile was not consistent with expectation. Therefore, an increase in mean QTc interval of 10 ms cannot be ruled out.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Nasalub (Glycerol) is a pro-drug of PBA. Upon oral ingestion, PBA is released from the Nasalub (Glycerol) backbone in the gastrointestinal tract by lipases. PBA derived from Nasalub (Glycerol) is further converted by β-oxidation to PAA.

In healthy, fasting adult subjects receiving a single oral dose of 2.9 mL/m2 of Nasalub (Glycerol), peak plasma levels of PBA, PAA, and PAGN occurred at 2 hours, 4 hours, and 4 hours, respectively. Upon single-dose administration of Nasalub (Glycerol), plasma concentrations of PBA were quantifiable in 15 of 22 participants at the first sample time postdose (0.25 hours). Mean maximum concentration (Cmax) for PBA, PAA, and PAGN was 37.0 micrograms/mL, 14.9 micrograms/mL, and 30.2 micrograms/mL, respectively. In healthy subjects, intact Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate was detected in plasma. While the study was inconclusive, the incomplete hydrolysis of Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate cannot be ruled out.

In healthy subjects, the systemic exposure to PAA, PBA, and PAGN increased in a dose-dependent manner. Following 4 mL of Nasalub (Glycerol) 3 times a day for 3 days, the mean Cmax and AUC were 66 micrograms/mL and 930 micrograms∙h/mL for PBA and 28 micrograms/mL and 942 micrograms∙h/mL for PAA, respectively. In the same study, following 6 mL of Nasalub (Glycerol) three times a day for 3 days, mean Cmax and AUC were 100 micrograms/mL and 1400 micrograms∙h/mL for PBA and 65 µg/mL and 2064 micrograms∙h/mL for PAA, respectively.

In adult patients with UCDs receiving multiple doses of Nasalub (Glycerol), maximum plasma concentrations at steady state (Cmax,ss) of PBA, PAA, and PAGN occurred at 8 hours, 12 hours, and 10 hours, respectively, after the first dose in the day. Intact Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate was not detectable in plasma in patients with UCDs.

Distribution

In vitro, the extent of plasma protein binding for 14C-labeled metabolites was 81% to 98% for PBA (over 1 to 250 micrograms/mL), and 37% to 66% for PAA (over 5 to 500 micrograms/mL). The protein binding for PAGN was 7% to 12% and no concentration effects were noted.

Elimination

Metabolism

Upon oral administration, pancreatic lipases hydrolyze Nasalub (Glycerol) (i.e., Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate), and release PBA. PBA undergoes β-oxidation to PAA, which is conjugated with glutamine in the liver and in the kidney through the enzyme phenylacetyl-CoA: L-glutamine-N-acetyltransferase to form PAGN. PAGN is subsequently eliminated in the urine.

Saturation of conjugation of PAA and glutamine to form PAGN was suggested by increases in the ratio of plasma PAA to PAGN with increasing dose and with increasing severity of hepatic impairment.

In healthy subjects, after administration of 4 mL, 6 mL, and 9 mL 3 times daily for 3 days, the ratio of mean AUC0-23h of PAA to PAGN was 1, 1.25, and 1.6, respectively. In a separate study, in patients with hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B and C), the ratios of mean Cmax values for PAA to PAGN among all patients dosed with 6 mL and 9 mL twice daily were 3 and 3.7.

In in vitro studies, the specific activity of lipases for Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate was in the following decreasing order: pancreatic triglyceride lipase, carboxyl ester lipase, and pancreatic lipase–related protein 2. Further, Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate was hydrolyzed in vitro by esterases in human plasma. In these in vitro studies, a complete disappearance of Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate did not produce molar equivalent PBA, suggesting the formation of mono- or bis-ester metabolites. However, the formation of mono- or bis-esters was not studied in humans.

Excretion

The mean (SD) percentage of administered PBA excreted as PAGN was approximately 69% (17) in adults and 66% (24) in pediatric patients with UCDs at steady state. PAA and PBA represented minor urinary metabolites, each accounting for less than 1% of the administered dose of PBA.

Specific Populations

Age: Pediatric Population

Population pharmacokinetic modeling and dosing simulations suggest body surface area to be the most significant covariate explaining the variability of PAA clearance. PAA clearance was 10.9 L/h, 16.4 L/h, and 24.4 L/h, respectively, for patients ages 3 to 5, 6 to 11, and 12 to 17 years with UCDs.

In pediatric patients with UCDs (n = 14) ages 2 months to less than 2 years, PAA clearance was 6.8 L/h.

Sex

In healthy adult subjects, a gender effect was found for all metabolites, with women generally having higher plasma concentrations of all metabolites than men at a given dose level. In healthy female subjects, mean Cmax for PAA was 51 and 120% higher than in male volunteers after administration of 4 mL and 6 mL 3 times daily for 3 days, respectively. The dose normalized mean AUC0-23h for PAA was 108% higher in females than in males.

Renal Impairment

The pharmacokinetics of Nasalub (Glycerol) in patients with impaired renal function, including those with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or those on hemodialysis, have not been studied .

Hepatic Impairment

The effects of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of Nasalub (Glycerol) were studied in patients with mild, moderate and severe hepatic impairment of (Child-Pugh class A, B, and C, respectively) receiving 100 mg/kg of Nasalub (Glycerol) twice daily for 7 days.

Plasma Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate was not measured in patients with hepatic impairment.

After multiple doses of Nasalub (Glycerol) in patients with hepatic impairment of Child-Pugh A, B, and C, geometric mean AUCt of PBA was 42%, 84%, and 50% higher, respectively, while geometric mean AUCt of PAA was 22%, 53%, and 94% higher, respectively, than in healthy subjects.

In patients with hepatic impairment of Child-Pugh A, B, and C, geometric mean AUCt of PAGN was 42%, 27%, and 22% lower, respectively, than that in healthy subjects.

The proportion of PBA excreted as PAGN in the urine in Child-Pugh A, B, and C was 80%, 58%, and 85%, respectively, and, in healthy volunteers, was 67%.

In another study in patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B and C), mean Cmax of PAA was 144 micrograms/mL (range: 14 to 358 micrograms/mL) after daily dosing of 6 mL of Nasalub (Glycerol) twice daily, while mean Cmax of PAA was 292 micrograms/mL (range: 57 to 655 micrograms/mL) after daily dosing of 9 mL of Nasalub (Glycerol) twice daily. The ratio of mean Cmax values for PAA to PAGN among all patients dosed with 6 mL and 9 mL twice daily were 3 and 3.7, respectively.

After multiple doses, a PAA concentration greater than 200 micrograms/mL was associated with a ratio of plasma PAA to PAGN concentrations higher than 2.5 .

Drug Interaction Studies

In vitro PBA or PAA did not induce CYP1A2, suggesting that in vivo drug interactions via induction of CYP1A2 is unlikely.

In in vitro studies, PBA at a concentration of 800 micrograms/mL caused greater than 60% reversible inhibition of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4/5 (testosterone 6β-hydroxylase activity). The in vitro study suggested that in vivo drug interactions with substrates of CYP2D6 cannot be ruled out. The inhibition of CYP isoenzymes 1A2, 2C8, 2C19, and 2D6 by PAA at the concentration of 2.8 mg/mL was observed in vitro. Clinical implication of these results is unknown.

Effects of Nasalub (Glycerol) on other drugs

Midazolam

In healthy subjects, when oral midazolam was administered after multiple doses of Nasalub (Glycerol) (4 mL three times a day for 3 days) under fed conditions, the mean Cmax and AUC for midazolam were 25% and 32% lower, respectively, compared to administration of midazolam alone. In addition the mean Cmax and AUC for 1-hydroxy midazolam were 28% and 58% higher, respectively, compared to administration of midazolam alone .

Celecoxib

Concomitant administration of Nasalub (Glycerol) did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of celecoxib, a substrate of CYP2C9. When 200 mg of celecoxib was orally administered with Nasalub (Glycerol) after multiple doses of Nasalub (Glycerol) (4 mL three times a day for 6 days) under fed conditions (a standard breakfast was consumed 5 minutes after celecoxib administration), the mean Cmax and AUC for celecoxib were 13% and 8% lower than after administration of celecoxib alone.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenesis

In a 2-year study in Sprague-Dawley rats, Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate caused a statistically significant increase in the incidence of pancreatic acinar cell adenoma, carcinoma, and combined adenoma or carcinoma at a dose of 650 mg/kg/day in males (4.7 times the dose of 6.9 mL/m2/day in adult patients, based on combined AUCs for PBA and PAA) and 900 mg/kg/day in females (8.4 times the dose of 6.9 mL/m2/day in adult patients, based on combined AUCs for PBA and PAA). The incidence of the following tumors was also increased in female rats at a dose of 900 mg/kg/day: thyroid follicular cell adenoma, carcinoma and combined adenoma or carcinoma, adrenal cortical combined adenoma or carcinoma, uterine endometrial stromal polyp, and combined polyp or sarcoma. The dose of 650 mg/kg/day in male rats is 3 times the dose of 7.5 mL/m2/day in pediatric patients, based on combined AUCs for PBA and PAA. The dose of 900 mg/kg/day in female rats is 5.5 times the dose of 7.5 mL/m2/day in pediatric patients, based on combined AUCs for PBA and PAA. In a 26-week study in transgenic (Tg.rasH2) mice, Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate was not tumorigenic at doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day.

Mutagenesis

Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate was not genotoxic in the Ames test, the in vitro chromosomal aberration test in human peripheral blood lymphocytes, or the in vivo rat micronucleus test. The metabolites PBA, PAA, PAGN, and phenylacetylglycine were not genotoxic in the Ames test or in vitro chromosome aberration test in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

Impairment of Fertility

Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate had no effect on fertility or reproductive function in male and female rats at oral doses up to 900 mg/kg/day. At doses of 1200 mg/kg/day (approximately 7 times the dose of 6.9 mL/m2/day in adult patients, based on combined AUCs for PBA and PAA), maternal toxicity was observed and the number of nonviable embryos was increased.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Clinical Studies in Adult Patients with UCDs

Active-Controlled, 4-Week, Noninferiority Study

A randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, crossover, noninferiority study (Study 1) compared Nasalub (Glycerol) to sodium phenylbutyrate by evaluating venous ammonia levels in patients with UCDs who had been on sodium phenylbutyrate prior to enrollment for control of their UCD. Patients were required to have a confirmed diagnosis of UCD involving deficiencies of CPS, OTC, or ASS, confirmed via enzymatic, biochemical, or genetic testing. Patients had to have no clinical evidence of hyperammonemia at enrollment and were not allowed to receive drugs known to increase ammonia levels (e.g., valproate), increase protein catabolism (e.g., corticosteroids), or significantly affect renal clearance (e.g., probenecid).

The primary endpoint was the 24-hour AUC (a measure of exposure to ammonia over 24 hours) for venous ammonia on days 14 and 28 when the drugs were expected to be at steady state. Statistical noninferiority would be established if the upper limit of the 2-sided 95% CI for the ratio of the geometric means (RAVICTI/sodium phenylbutyrate) for the endpoint was 1.25 or less.

Forty-five patients were randomized 1:1 to 1 of 2 treatment arms to receive either

  • Sodium phenylbutyrate for 2 weeks → Nasalub (Glycerol) for 2 weeks; or
  • Nasalub (Glycerol) for 2 weeks → sodium phenylbutyrate for 2 weeks.

Sodium phenylbutyrate or Nasalub (Glycerol) were administered three times daily with meals. The dose of Nasalub (Glycerol) was calculated to deliver the same amount of PBA as the sodium phenylbutyrate dose the patients were taking when they entered the study. Forty-four patients received at least 1 dose of Nasalub (Glycerol) in the study.

Patients adhered to a low-protein diet and received amino acid supplements throughout the study. After 2 weeks of dosing, by which time patients had reached steady state on each treatment, all patients had 24 hours of ammonia measurements.

Demographic characteristics of the 45 patients enrolled in Study 1 were as follows: mean age at enrollment was 33 years (range: 18 to 75 years); 69% were female; 33% had adult-onset disease; 89% had OTC deficiency; 7% had ASS deficiency; 4% had CPS deficiency.

Nasalub (Glycerol) was non-inferior to sodium phenylbutyrate with respect to the 24-hour AUC for ammonia. Forty-four patients were evaluated in this analysis. Mean 24-hour AUCs for venous ammonia during steady-state dosing were 866 micromol∙h/L and 977 micromol∙h/L with Nasalub (Glycerol) and sodium phenylbutyrate, respectively. The ratio of geometric means was 0.91 [95% CI 0.8, 1.04].

The mean venous ammonia levels over 24-hours after 2 weeks of dosing (on day 14 and 28) in the double-blind short-term study (Study 1) are displayed in Figure 2 below. The mean and median maximum venous ammonia concentration (Cmax) over 24 hours and 24-hour AUC for venous ammonia are summarized in Table 2. Ammonia values across different laboratories were normalized to a common normal range of 9 to 35 micromol/L using the following formula after standardization of the units to micromol/L:

Normalized ammonia (micromol/L) = ammonia readout in micromol/L × (35/ULN of a laboratory reference range specified for each assay)

Figure 2: Venous Ammonia Response in Adult Patients with UCDs in Short-Term Treatment Study 1

Timepoint Ammonia (n=44)
Mean (SD) Median (min, max)
Daily Cmax (micromol/L)
RAVICTI 61 (46) 51 (12, 245)
Sodium phenylbutyrate 71 (67) 46 (14, 303)
24-Hour AUC (micromol∙h/L)
RAVICTI 866 (661) 673 (206, 3351)
Sodium phenylbutyrate 977 (865) 653 (302, 4666)

Open-Label, Uncontrolled, Extension Study in Adults

A long-term (12-month), uncontrolled, open-label study (Study 2) was conducted to assess monthly ammonia control and hyperammonemic crisis over a 12-month period. A total of 51 adults were in the study and all but 6 had been converted from sodium phenylbutyrate to Nasalub (Glycerol). Venous ammonia levels were monitored monthly. Mean fasting venous ammonia values in adults in Study 2 were within normal limits during long-term treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol) (range: 6 to 30 micromol/L). Of 51 adult patients participating in the 12-month, open-label treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol), 7 patients (14%) reported a total of 10 hyperammonemic crises. The fasting venous ammonia measured during Study 2 is displayed in Figure 3. Ammonia values across different laboratories were normalized to a common normal range of 9 to 35 micromol/L.

Figure 3: Venous Ammonia Response in Adult Patients with UCDs in Long-Term Treatment Study 2

Open-Label, Long-Term Study in Adults

An open-label long-term, study (Study 5) was conducted to assess ammonia control in adult patients with UCDs. The study enrolled patients with UCDs who had completed the safety extensions of Study 1, Study 3 or Study 4 (Study 2, 3E and 4E, respectively). A total of 43 adult patients between the ages of 19 and 61 years were in the study. The median length of study participation was 1.9 years (range 0 to 4.5 years). Venous ammonia levels were monitored at a minimum of every 6 months. Mean fasting venous ammonia values in adult patients in Study 5 were within normal limits during long-term (24 months) treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol) (range: 24.2 to 31.4 micromol/L). Of the 43 adult patients participating in the open-label treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol), 9 patients (21%) reported a total of 21 hyperammonemic crises. Ammonia values across different laboratories were normalized to a common normal range of 10 to 35 micromol/L.

14.2 Clinical Studies in Pediatric Patients Ages 2 to 17 Years with UCDs

The efficacy of Nasalub (Glycerol) in pediatric patients 2 to 17 years of age with UCDs was evaluated in 2 fixed-sequence, open-label, sodium phenylbutyrate to Nasalub (Glycerol) switchover studies (Studies 3 and 4). Study 3 was 7 days in duration and Study 4 was 10 days in duration.

These studies compared blood ammonia levels of patients on Nasalub (Glycerol) to venous ammonia levels of patients on sodium phenylbutyrate in 26 pediatric patients between 2 months and 17 years of age with UCDs. Four patients less than 2 years of age are excluded for this analysis due to insufficient data. The dose of Nasalub (Glycerol) was calculated to deliver the same amount of PBA as the dose of sodium phenylbutyrate patients were taking when they entered the trial. Sodium phenylbutyrate or Nasalub (Glycerol) were administered in divided doses with meals. Patients adhered to a low-protein diet throughout the study. After a dosing period with each treatment, all patients underwent 24 hours of venous ammonia measurements, as well as blood and urine pharmacokinetic assessments.

UCD subtypes included OTC (n=12), argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) (n=8), and ASS deficiency (n=2), and patients received a mean Nasalub (Glycerol) dose of 8 mL/m2/day (8.8 g/m2/day), with doses ranging from 1.4 to 13.1 mL/m2/day (1.5 to 14.4 g/m2/day). Doses in these patients were based on previous dosing of sodium phenylbutyrate.

The 24-hour AUCs for blood ammonia (AUC0-24h) in 11 pediatric patients 6 to 17 years of age with UCDs (Study 3) and 11 pediatric patients 2 years to 5 years of age with UCDs (Study 4) were similar between treatments. In children 6 to 17 years of age, the ammonia AUC0-24h was 604 micromol∙h/L vs 815 micromol∙h/L on Nasalub (Glycerol) vs sodium phenylbutyrate. In the patients between 2 years and 5 years of age with UCDs, the ammonia AUC0-24h was 632 micromol∙h/L vs 720 micromol∙h/L on Nasalub (Glycerol) versus sodium phenylbutyrate.

The mean venous ammonia levels over 24 hours in open-label, short-term Studies 3 and 4 at common time points are displayed in Figure 4. Ammonia values across different laboratories were normalized to a common normal range of 9 to 35 micromol/L using the following formula after standardization of the units to micromol/L:

Normalized ammonia (micromol/L) = ammonia readout in micromol/L × (35/ULN of a laboratory reference range specified for each assay)

Figure 4: Venous Ammonia Response in Pediatric Patients Ages 2 to 17 Years with UCDs in Short-Term Treatment Studies 3 and 4

Open-Label, Uncontrolled, Extension Studies in Children Ages 2 to 17 Years

Long-term (12-month), uncontrolled, open-label studies were conducted to assess monthly ammonia control and hyperammonemic crisis over a 12-month period. In two studies (Study 2, which also enrolled adults, and an extension of Study 3, referred to here as Study 3E), a total of 26 children ages 6 to 17 were enrolled and all but 1 had been converted from sodium phenylbutyrate to Nasalub (Glycerol). Mean fasting venous ammonia values were within normal limits during long-term treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol) (range: 17 to 23 micromol/L). Of the 26 pediatric patients 6 to 17 years of age participating in these two trials, 5 patients (19%) reported a total of 5 hyperammonemic crises. The fasting venous ammonia measured during these two extension studies in patients 6 to 17 years is displayed in Figure 5. Ammonia values across different laboratories were normalized to a common normal range of 9 to 35 micromol/L.

Figure 5: Venous Ammonia Response in Pediatric Patients Ages 2 to 17 Years with UCDs in Long-Term Treatment Studies 2 and 3E

In an extension of Study 4, after a median time on study of 4.5 months (range: 1 to 5.7 months), 2 of 16 pediatric patients ages 2 to 5 years had experienced three hyperammonemic crises.

Open-Label, Long-Term Study in Children Ages 1 to 17 Years of Age

An open-label, long-term study (Study 5) was conducted to assess ammonia control in pediatric patients with UCD. The study enrolled patients with UCD who had completed the safety extensions of Study 1, Study 3 or Study 4 (Study 2, 3E and 4E, respectively). A total of 45 pediatric patients between the ages of 1 and 17 years were in the study. The median length of study participation was 1.7 years (range 0.2 to 4.6 years). Venous ammonia levels were monitored at a minimum of every 6 months. Mean venous ammonia values in pediatric patients in Study 5 were within normal limits during long-term (24 months) treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol) (range: 15.4 to 25.1 micromol/L). Of the 45 pediatric patients participating in the open-label treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol), 11 patients (24%) reported a total of 22 hyperammonemic crises. Ammonia values across different laboratories were normalized to a common normal range of 10 to 35 micromol/L.

14.3 Clinical Studies in Pediatric Patients Ages 2 Months to Less Than 2 Years with UCDs

Uncontrolled, open-label studies were conducted to assess monthly ammonia control and hyperammonemic crisis of Nasalub (Glycerol) in pediatric patients with UCDs 2 months to less than 2 years of age (Study 4/4E, Study 5, and Study 6). Patients in Study 5 previously participated in Study 4/4E. A total of 17 pediatric patients with UCDs aged 2 months to less than 2 years participated in the studies.

Uncontrolled, Open-Label Study in Children Under 2 Years of Age (Study 6)

A total of 10 pediatric patients with UCDs aged 2 months to less than 2 years participated in Study 6, of which 7 patients converted from sodium phenylbutyrate to Nasalub (Glycerol). The dosage of Nasalub (Glycerol) was calculated to deliver the same amount of PBA as the sodium phenylbutyrate dosage the patients were taking when they entered the trial. Two patients were treatment naïve and received Nasalub (Glycerol) dosage of 7.5 mL/m2/day and 9.4 mL/m2/day, respectively. One additional patient was gradually discontinued from intravenous sodium benzoate and sodium phenylacetate while Nasalub (Glycerol) was initiated. The dosage of Nasalub (Glycerol) after transition was 8.5 mL/m2/day.

In Study 6, there were 9, 7 and 3 pediatric patients who completed 1, 3 and 6 months, respectively (mean and median exposure of 4 and 5 months, respectively).

Patients received a mean Nasalub (Glycerol) dose of 8 mL/m2/day (8.8 g/m2/day), with doses ranging from 4.8 to 11.5 mL/m2/day (5.3 to 12.6 g/m2/day). Patients were dosed three times a day (n=6), four times a day (n = 2), or five or more times a day (n=2).

The primary efficacy endpoint was successful transition to Nasalub (Glycerol) within a period of 4 days followed by 3 days of observation for a total of 7 days, where successful transition was defined as no signs and symptoms of hyperammonemia and a venous ammonia value less than 100 micromol/L. Venous ammonia levels were monitored for up to 4 days during transition and on day 7. Nine patients successfully transitioned as defined by the primary endpoint. One additional patient developed hyperammonemia on day 3 of dosing and experienced surgical complications (bowel perforation and peritonitis) following jejunal tube placement on day 4. This patient developed hyperammonemic crisis on day 6, and subsequently died of sepsis from peritonitis unrelated to drug. Although two patients had day 7 ammonia values of 150 micromol/L and 111 micromol/L respectively, neither had associated signs and symptoms of hyperammonemia.

During the extension phase, venous ammonia levels were monitored monthly. Ammonia values across different laboratories were normalized (transformed) to a common normal pediatric range of 28 to 57 micromol/L for comparability. The mean normalized venous ammonia values in pediatric patients at month 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 were 67, 53, 78, 99, 56 and 61 micromol/L during treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol), respectively. Three patients reported a total of 7 hyperammonemic crises defined as having signs and symptoms consistent with hyperammonemia (such as frequent vomiting, nausea, headache, lethargy, irritability, combativeness, and/or somnolence) associated with high venous ammonia levels and requiring medical intervention. Hyperammonemic crises were precipitated by vomiting, upper respiratory tract infection, gastroenteritis, decreased caloric intake or had no identified precipitating event (3 events). There were three additional patients who had one venous ammonia level that exceeded 100 micromol/L which was not associated with a hyperammonemic crisis.

Uncontrolled, Open-Label Studies in Children Under 2 Years of Age (Studies 4/4E, 5)

A total of 7 patients with UCDs aged 2 months to less than 2 years participated in Studies 4/4E and 5. In these studies, there were 7, 6, 6, 6 and 3 pediatric patients who completed 1, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months, respectively (mean and median exposure of 15 and 17 months, respectively). Patients were converted from sodium phenylbutyrate to Nasalub (Glycerol). The dosage of Nasalub (Glycerol) was calculated to deliver the same amount of PBA as the sodium phenylbutyrate dosage the patients were taking when they entered the study.

Patients received a mean Nasalub (Glycerol) dose of 7.5 mL/m2/day (8.2 g/m2/day), with doses ranging from 3.3 to 12.3 mL/m2/day (3.7 to 13.5 g/m2/day). Patients were dosed three times a day (n=3) or four times a day (n = 4).

Venous ammonia levels were monitored on days 1, 3 and 10 in Study 4 and at week 1 in Study 4E. Two patients had day 1 ammonia values of 122 micromol/L and 111 micromol/L respectively, neither had associated signs and symptoms of hyperammonemia. At day 10/week 1, six of the 7 patients had venous ammonia levels less than 100 micromol/L the remaining patient had a day 10 ammonia value of 168 micromol/L and was asymptomatic.

During the extension period, venous ammonia levels were monitored monthly. Ammonia values across different laboratories were normalized (transformed) to a common normal pediatric range of 28 to 57 micromol/L for comparability. The mean venous ammonia values in pediatric patients at month 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 were 58, 49, 34, 65, and 31 micromol/L during treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol), respectively.

Three patients reported a total of 3 hyperammonemic crises, as defined in Study 6. Hyperammonemic crises were precipitated by gastroenteritis, vomiting, infection or no precipitating event (one patient). There were 4 patients who had one venous ammonia level that exceeded 100 micromol/L which was not associated with a hyperammonemic crisis.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

Nasalub (Glycerol) ® (glycerol phenylbutyrate) oral liquid 1.1 g/mL is supplied in multi-use, 25-mL glass bottles. The bottles are supplied in the following configurations:

  • NDC 75987-050-06: Single 25-mL bottle per carton
  • NDC 75987-050-07: Four 25-mL bottles per carton

Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F) with excursions permitted to 15°-30°C (59°-86°F).

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).

Neurotoxicity .

  • Inform patients/caregivers that adverse reactions of Nasalub (Glycerol) are sometimes the same as symptoms of high blood ammonia. Neurological adverse events may also be associated with the major metabolite of Nasalub (Glycerol), PAA, and may be reversible. Blood tests for PAA may be done to measure the amount of PAA in the blood. Instruct the patient/caregiver to contact the healthcare provider immediately if the patient experiences: nausea, vomiting, headache, fatigue, somnolence, lightheadedness, confusion, exacerbation of preexisting neuropathy, disorientation, impaired memory, dysgeusia, or hypoacusis.

Pregnancy Registry

Advise patients that there is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to Nasalub (Glycerol) during pregnancy .

Lactation

Advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol) .

Administration

  • Instruct patients to take Nasalub (Glycerol) with food or formula and to administer directly into the mouth via oral syringe or dosing cup.
  • Instruct patients to take Nasalub (Glycerol) orally, even if they have a nasogastric and/or gastrostomy tube. For patients who cannot swallow and who have a nasogastric tube or gastrostomy tube in place, instruct patients/caregivers to administer Nasalub (Glycerol) as follows:
    • Utilize an oral syringe to withdraw the prescribed dosage of Nasalub (Glycerol) from the bottle.
    • Place the tip of the syringe into the gastrostomy/nasogastric tube.
    • Utilizing the plunger of the syringe, administer Nasalub (Glycerol) into the tube.
    • Flush once with 10 mL of water or formula and allow the flush to drain.
    • If needed, flush a second time with an additional 10 mL of water or formula to clear the tube.

Distributed by:

Horizon Pharma USA, Inc.

Lake Forest, IL 60045

Horizon Therapeutics, LLC.

All rights reserved.

Nasalub (Glycerol) is a registered trademark of Horizon Therapeutics, LLC.

MEDICATION GUIDE

Nasalub (Glycerol) (rah-VIK- tee)

(glycerol phenylbutyrate)

oral liquid

This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Revised: 04/2017
What is the most important information I should know about Nasalub (Glycerol)?

Nasalub (Glycerol) may cause serious side effects, including:

Nervous system problems (Neurotoxicity). Phenylacetate (PAA), a breakdown product of Nasalub (Glycerol), may cause nervous system side effects. Call your doctor or get medical help right away if you get any of these symptoms while taking Nasalub (Glycerol):

  • sleepiness
  • lightheadedness
  • change in taste
  • problems with hearing
  • confusion
  • problems with memory
  • worsening of numbness, tingling, or burning in your hands or feet
  • headache
  • feeling very tired (fatigue)
  • nausea
  • vomiting

Your doctor may do blood tests to measure the amount of PAA in your blood during your treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol).


What is Nasalub (Glycerol)?

  • Nasalub (Glycerol) is a prescription medicine used in adults and in children 2 months of age and older for long-term management of high blood levels of ammonia (hyperammonemia) caused by a condition called a urea cycle disorder (UCD). Nasalub (Glycerol) should be used if the UCD cannot be managed with a low protein diet and dietary supplements alone. Nasalub (Glycerol) must be used along with a low protein diet and in some cases dietary supplements.
  • Nasalub (Glycerol) is not used for the acute treatment of hyperammonemia in people with UCD.
  • It is not known if Nasalub (Glycerol) is safe and effective for the treatment of N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) deficiency.

Who should not take Nasalub (Glycerol)?

  • Children less than 2 months of age should not take Nasalub (Glycerol) because it may not be digested in children less than 2 months of age.
  • Do not take Nasalub (Glycerol) if you are allergic to phenylbutyrate. Call your doctor or go to the nearest hospital emergency room if you have wheezing, shortness of breath, cough, low blood pressure, flushing, nausea or a rash while taking Nasalub (Glycerol).

Before taking Nasalub (Glycerol), tell your doctor about any medical conditions and if you:

  • Have liver or kidney problems.
  • Have pancreas or bowel (intestine) problems.
  • Are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not known if Nasalub (Glycerol) will harm your unborn baby.
  • Pregnancy Registry: There is a Pregnancy Registry for women who take Nasalub (Glycerol) just before becoming pregnant or who become pregnant during treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol). The purpose of this registry is to collect information about the health of you and your baby. Talk to your doctor about how you can join the Pregnancy Registry. For more information about this registry, call 1-855-823-2595 or visit www.ucdregistry.com.
  • Are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if Nasalub (Glycerol) passes into your breast milk. Breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Nasalub (Glycerol). Talk to your doctor about the best way to feed your baby if you take Nasalub (Glycerol).

Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, dietary and herbal supplements.

Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them to show your doctor and pharmacist when you get a new medicine.


How should I take Nasalub (Glycerol)?

  • Take Nasalub (Glycerol) exactly as your doctor tells you.
  • Your doctor will tell you how much Nasalub (Glycerol) to take and when to take it.
  • Your doctor may change your dose if needed.
  • Take Nasalub (Glycerol) with food or formula.
  • Nasalub (Glycerol) is an oral liquid that is taken by mouth using an oral syringe or dosing cup. Ask your pharmacist for an oral syringe or dosing cup if you do not have one.
  • If you have a nasogastric or gastrostomy tube in place and can swallow, you should take Nasalub (Glycerol) by mouth.
  • Stay on the diet that your doctor gives you.
  • If you take too much Nasalub (Glycerol), call your doctor or your poison control center at 1-800-222-1222 or go to the nearest hospital emergency room right away.

For people who cannot swallow and who have a nasogastric or gastrostomy tube in place, Nasalub (Glycerol) should be given as follows:

  • Use an oral syringe to withdraw the prescribed dose of Nasalub (Glycerol) from the bottle.
  • Place the tip of the syringe into the nasogastric or gastrostomy tube and push the plunger of the syringe to give Nasalub (Glycerol) into the tube.
  • Add 10 mL of water or formula to the syringe and push the plunger of the syringe to flush any remaining medicine from the nasogastric or gastrostomy tube into the stomach.
  • If needed, flush the nasogastric or gastrostomy tube again with 10 mL of water or formula to clear the nasogastric or gastrostomy tube.

What are the possible side effects of Nasalub (Glycerol)?

Nasalub (Glycerol) may cause serious side effects, including:

  • See " What is the most important information I should know about Nasalub (Glycerol)? "

The most common side effects of Nasalub (Glycerol) in adults include:

  • diarrhea
  • gas
  • headache
  • abdomen (stomach) pain
  • vomiting
  • tiredness
  • decreased appetite
  • indigestion or heartburn

The most common side effects of Nasalub (Glycerol) in children 2 years to 17 years of age include:

  • upper abdomen (stomach) pain
  • rash
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • decreased appetite
  • headache

The most common side effects of Nasalub (Glycerol) in children 2 months to less than 2 years of age include:

  • low white blood cell count (neutropenia)
  • vomiting
  • diarrhea
  • fever
  • reduced food intake
  • cough
  • stuffy nose
  • runny nose
  • skin rash
  • small round bumps on the skin

Tell your doctor if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. These are not all of the possible side effects of Nasalub (Glycerol).

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.


How should I store Nasalub (Glycerol)?

  • Store Nasalub (Glycerol) between 68ºF to 77ºF (20°C to 25°C).

Keep Nasalub (Glycerol) and all medicines out of the reach of children.


General information about the safe and effective use of Nasalub (Glycerol).

Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use Nasalub (Glycerol) for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give Nasalub (Glycerol) to other people, even if they have the same symptoms you have. It may harm them.

You can ask your doctor or pharmacist for information about Nasalub (Glycerol) that is written for health professionals.


What are the ingredients in Nasalub (Glycerol)?

Active ingredient: Nasalub (Glycerol) phenylbutyrate

Distributed by: Horizon Pharma USA, Inc., Lake Forest, IL 60045.

© Horizon Therapeutics, LLC. All rights reserved. Nasalub (Glycerol) is a registered trademark of Horizon Therapeutics, LLC.

For more information, go to www. RAVICTI.com or call 1-855-823-7878.

Sodium Chloride:


1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Nasalub nitrite is indicated for sequential use with Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate for treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. (1)

  • Use with caution if the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain. (1)

1.1 Indication

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection is indicated for sequential use with Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. When the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain, the potentially life-threatening risks associated with Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection should be carefully weighed against the potential benefits, especially if the patient is not in extremis.

1.2 Identifying Patients with Cyanide Poisoning

Cyanide poisoning may result from inhalation, ingestion, or dermal exposure to various cyanide-containing compounds, including smoke from closed-space fires. Sources of cyanide poisoning include hydrogen cyanide and its salts, cyanogenic plants, aliphatic nitriles, and prolonged exposure to Nasalub nitroprusside.

The presence and extent of cyanide poisoning are often initially unknown. There is no widely available, rapid, confirmatory cyanide blood test. Treatment decisions must be made on the basis of clinical history and signs and symptoms of cyanide intoxication. If clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning is high, Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection and Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate Injection should be administered without delay.

Symptoms Signs
  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • Dyspnea
  • Chest Tightness
  • Nausea
  • Altered Mental Status

    (e.g., confusion, disorientation)

  • Seizures or Coma
  • Mydriasis
  • Tachypnea/Hyperpnea (early)
  • Bradypnea/Apnea (late)
  • Hypertension (early)/ Hypotension (late)
  • Cardiovascular Collapse
  • Vomiting
  • Plasma Lactate Concentration ≥ 8 mmol/L

In some settings, panic symptoms including tachypnea and vomiting may mimic early cyanide poisoning signs. The presence of altered mental status (e.g., confusion and disorientation) and/or mydriasis is suggestive of true cyanide poisoning although these signs can occur with other toxic exposures as well.

The expert advice of a regional poison control center may be obtained by calling 1-800-222-1222.

Smoke Inhalation

Not all smoke inhalation victims will have cyanide poisoning and may present with burns, trauma, and exposure to other toxic substances making a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning particularly difficult. Prior to administration of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection, smoke-inhalation victims should be assessed for the following:

  • Exposure to fire or smoke in an enclosed area
  • Presence of soot around the mouth, nose, or oropharynx
  • Altered mental status

Although hypotension is highly suggestive of cyanide poisoning, it is only present in a small percentage of cyanide-poisoned smoke inhalation victims. Also indicative of cyanide poisoning is a plasma lactate concentration greater than or equal to 10 mmol/L (a value higher than that typically listed in the table of signs and symptoms of isolated cyanide poisoning because carbon monoxide associated with smoke inhalation also contributes to lactic acidemia). If cyanide poisoning is suspected, treatment should not be delayed to obtain a plasma lactate concentration.

1.3 Use with Other Cyanide Antidotes

Caution should be exercised when administering cyanide antidotes, other than Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, simultaneously with Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection, as the safety of co-administration has not been established. If a decision is made to administer another cyanide antidote, other than Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, with Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection, these drugs should not be administered concurrently in the same IV line. [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) ]

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Age Intravenous Dose of Nasalub Nitrite and Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate
Adults
  • Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite -10 mL of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute
  • Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate - 50 mL of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate immediately following administration of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.
Children
  • Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite - 0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg or 6-8 mL/m2 BSA) of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute not to exceed 10 mL
  • Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate - 1 mL/kg of body weight (250 mg/kg or approximately 30-40 mL/m2 of BSA) not to exceed 50 mL total dose immediately following administration of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.

Redosing: If signs of cyanide poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate.

Monitoring: Blood pressure must be monitored during treatment. (2.2)

2.1 Administration Recommendation

Comprehensive treatment of acute cyanide intoxication requires support of vital functions. Administration of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, followed by Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, should be considered adjunctive to appropriate supportive therapies. Airway, ventilatory and circulatory support, and oxygen administration should not be delayed to administer Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate.

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection and Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate injection are administered by slow intravenous injection. They should be given as early as possible after a diagnosis of acute life-threatening cyanide poisoning has been established. Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be administered first, followed immediately by Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate. Blood pressure must be monitored during infusion in both adults and children. The rate of infusion should be decreased if significant hypotension is noted.

Age Intravenous Dose of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite and Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate
Adults
  • Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite -10 mL of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute
  • Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate - 50 mL of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate immediately following administration of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.
Children
  • Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite -0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg or 6-8 mL/m2 BSA) of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute not to exceed 10 mL
  • Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate - 1 mL/kg of body weight (250 mg/kg or approximately 30-40 mL/m2 of BSA) not to exceed 50 mL total dose immediately following administration of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.

NOTE: If signs of poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate.

In adult and pediatric patients with known anemia, it is recommended that the dosage of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be reduced proportionately to the hemoglobin concentration.

All parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

2.2 Recommended Monitoring

Patients should be monitored for at least 24-48 hours after Nasalub Nitrite Injection administration for adequacy of oxygenation and perfusion and for recurrent signs and symptoms of cyanide toxicity. When possible, hemoglobin/hematocrit should be obtained when treatment is initiated. Measurements of oxygen saturation using standard pulse oximetry and calculated oxygen saturation values based on measured PO2 are unreliable in the presence of methemoglobinemia.

Methemoglobin level: Administrations of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite solely to achieve an arbitrary level of methemoglobinemia may be unnecessary and potentially hazardous. The therapeutic effects of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite do not appear to be mediated by methemoglobin formation alone and clinical responses to Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration have been reported in association with methemoglobin levels of less than 10%. Administration of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite beyond the initial dose should be guided primarily by clinical response to treatment (i.e., a second dose should be considered only if there is inadequate clinical response to the first dose). It is generally recommended that methemoglobin concentrations be closely monitored and kept below 30%. Serum methemoglobin levels should be monitored during treatment using co-oximetry, and administration of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should generally be discontinued when methemoglobin levels exceed 30%. Intravenous methylene blue and exchange transfusion have been reported in the literature as treatments for life-threatening methemoglobinemia.

2.3 Incompatibility Information

Chemical incompatibility has been reported between Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and hydroxocobalamin and these drugs should not be administered simultaneously through the same IV line. No chemical incompatibility has been reported between Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate and Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, when administered sequentially through the same IV line as described in Dosage and Administration.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection consists of:

  • One vial of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection, USP 300 mg/10mL (30 mg/mL)

Administration of the contents of one vial constitutes a single dose.

  • Injection, 300 mg/10 mL (30 mg/mL). (3)

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

None

  • None. (4)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Methemoglobinemia: Nasalub nitrite reacts with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin and should be used with caution in patients known to have anemia. Monitor oxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin levels by pulse oximetry or other measurements. Optimally, the Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite dose should be reduced in proportion to the oxygen carrying capacity. (5.2)
  • Smoke inhalation: Carbon monoxide contained in smoke can result in the formation of carboxyhemoglobin that can reduce the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in patients with smoke inhalation injury because of the potential for worsening hypoxia due to methemoglobin formation. Carboxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin levels should be monitored by pulse oximetry or other measurements in patients that present with evidence of smoke inhalation. Optimally, the Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite dose should be reduced in proportion to the oxygen carrying capacity. (5.4)

5.1 Hypotension

5.2 Methemoglobinemia

Supportive care alone may be sufficient treatment without administration of antidotes for many cases of cyanide intoxication, particularly in conscious patients without signs of severe toxicity. Patients should be closely monitored to ensure adequate perfusion and oxygenation during treatment with Nasalub nitrite.

Methemoglobin levels should be monitored and oxygen administered during treatment with Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite whenever possible. When Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is administered to humans a wide range of methemoglobin concentrations occur. Methemoglobin concentrations as high as 58% have been reported after two 300-mg doses of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administered to an adult. Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of other drugs that may cause methemoglobinemia such as procaine and nitroprusside. Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in patients who may be particularly susceptible to injury from vasodilation and its related hemodynamic sequelae. Hemodynamics should be monitored closely during and after administration of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, and infusion rates should be slowed if hypotension occurs.

5.3 Anemia

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in patients with known anemia. Patients with anemia will form more methemoglobin (as a percentage of total hemoglobin) than persons with normal red blood cell (RBC) volumes. Optimally, these patients should receive a Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite dose that is reduced in proportion to their oxygen carrying capacity.

5.4 Smoke Inhalation Injury

Nasalub nitrite should be used with caution in persons with smoke inhalation injury or carbon monoxide poisoning because of the potential for worsening hypoxia due to methemoglobin formation.

5.5 Neonates and Infants

Neonates and infants may be more susceptible than adults and older pediatric patients to severe methemoglobinemia when Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is administered. Reduced dosing guidelines should be followed in pediatric patients.

5.6 G6PD Deficiency

Because patients with G6PD deficiency are at increased risk of a hemolytic crisis with Nasalub nitrite administration, alternative therapeutic approaches should be considered in these patients. Patients with known or suspected G6PD deficiency should be monitored for an acute drop in hematocrit. Exchange transfusion may be needed for patients with G6PD deficiency who receive Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.

5.7 Use with Other Drugs

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of concomitant antihypertensive medications, diuretics or volume depletion due to diuretics, or drugs known to increase vascular nitric oxide, such as PDE5 inhibitors.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

There have been no controlled clinical trials conducted to systematically assess the adverse events profile of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.

The medical literature has reported the following adverse events in association with Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration. These adverse events were not reported in the context of controlled trials or with consistent monitoring and reporting methodologies for adverse events. Therefore, frequency of occurrence of these adverse events cannot be assessed.

Cardiovascular system: syncope, hypotension, tachycardia, methemoglobinemia, palpitations, dysrhythmia

Hematological: methemoglobinemia

Central nervous system: headache, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, confusion, coma

Gastrointestinal system: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain

Respiratory system: tachypnea, dyspnea

Body as a Whole: anxiety, diaphoresis, lightheadedness, injection site tingling, cyanosis, acidosis, fatigue, weakness, urticaria, generalized numbness and tingling

Severe hypotension, methemoglobinemia, cardiac dysrhythmias, coma and death have been reported in patients without life-threatening cyanide poisoning but who were treated with injection of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at doses less than twice those recommended for the treatment of cyanide poisoning.

Most common adverse reactions are:

  • Syncope, hypotension, tachycardia, palpitations, dysrhythmia, methemoglobinemia, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, confusion, coma (6)

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Hope Pharmaceuticals at 1-800-755-9595 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Formal drug interaction studies have not been conducted with Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

  • Renal impairment: Nasalub nitrite is substantially excreted by the kidney. The risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. (8.6).

8.1 Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has caused fetal death in humans as well as animals. There are no studies in humans that have directly evaluated the potential reproductive toxicity of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. There are two epidemiological studies conducted in Australia that report a statistically significant increase in the risk for congenital malformations, particularly in the CNS, associated with maternal consumption of water containing nitrate levels in excess of 5 ppm. Results from a case-control study in Canada suggested a trend toward an increase in the risk for CNS malformations when maternal consumption of nitrate was ≥ 26 ppm (not statistically significant).

The potential reproductive toxicity of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite exposure restricted to the prenatal period has been reported in guinea pigs, mice, and rats. There was no evidence of teratogenicity in guinea pigs, mice, or rats. However, Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite treatment of pregnant guinea pigs with 60 or 70 mg/kg/day resulted in abortion of the litters within 1-4 days of treatment. All animals treated subcutaneously with 70 mg/kg, Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite died within 60 minutes of treatment. Further studies demonstrated that a dose of 60 mg/kg resulted in measurable blood levels of methemoglobin in the dams and their fetuses for up to 6 hours post treatment. Maternal methemoglobin levels were higher than the levels in the offspring at all times measured. Based on a body surface area comparison, a 60 mg/kg dose in the guinea pig that resulted in death was only 1.7 times higher than the highest clinical dose of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).

Studies testing prenatal and postnatal exposure have been reported in mice and rats. Treatment of pregnant rats via drinking water with Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at concentrations of either 2000 or 3000 mg/L resulted in a dose-related increased mortality postpartum. This exposure regimen in the rat model would result in dosing of approximately 220 and 300 mg/kg/day (43 and 65 times the highest clinical dose of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning, based on a body surface area comparison).

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite produces methemoglobin. Fetal hemoglobin is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin. In addition, the fetus has lower levels of methemoglobin reductase than adults. Collectively, these data suggest that the human fetus would show greater sensitivity to methemoglobin resulting in nitrite-induced prenatal hypoxia leading to retarded development of certain neurotransmitter systems in the brain and long lasting dysfunction.

Nonteratogenic Effects: Behavioral and neurodevelopmental studies in rats suggest persistent effects of prenatal exposure to Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that were detectable postnatally. Specifically, animals that were exposed prenatally to Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite demonstrated impaired discrimination learning behavior (both auditory and visual) and reduced long-term retention of the passive-avoidance response compared to control animals. Additional studies demonstrated a delay in the development of AchE and 5-HT positive fiber ingrowth into the hippocampal dentate gyrus and parietal neocortex during the first week of life of prenatal nitrite treated pups. These changes have been attributed to prenatal hypoxia following nitrite exposure.

8.2 Labor and Delivery

Because fetal hemoglobin is more readily oxidized to methemoglobin and lower levels of methemoglobin appear to be fatal to the fetus compared to the adult, Nasalub nitrite should be used during labor and delivery only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is excreted in human milk. Because Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection may be administered in life-threatening situations, breast-feeding is not a contraindication to its use. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised following Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection administration to a nursing woman. There are no data to determine when breastfeeding may be safely restarted following administration of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. In studies conducted with Long-Evans rats, Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administered in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation resulted in severe anemia, reduced growth and increased mortality in the offspring.

8.4 Pediatric Use

There are case reports in the medical literature of Nasalub nitrite in conjunction with Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate being administered to pediatric patients with cyanide poisoning; however, there have been no clinical studies to evaluate the safety or efficacy of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in the pediatric population. As for adult patients, dosing recommendations for pediatric patients have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite must be used with caution in patients less than 6 months of age because they may be at higher risk of developing severe methemoglobinemia compared to older children and adults. The presence of fetal hemoglobin, which is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin, and lower methemoglobin reductase levels compared to older children and adults may contribute to risk.

Mortality attributed to Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite was reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

8.6 Renal Disease

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Large doses of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite result in severe hypotension and toxic levels of methemoglobin which may lead to cardiovascular collapse.

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration has been reported to cause or significantly contribute to mortality in adults at oral doses as low as 1 g and intravenous doses as low as 600 mg. A death attributed to Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has been reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.

Cyanosis may become apparent at a methemoglobin level of 10-20%. Other clinical signs and symptoms of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite toxicity (anxiety, dyspnea, nausea, and tachycardia) can be apparent at methemoglobin levels as low as 15%. More serious signs and symptoms, including cardiac dysrhythmias, circulatory failure, and central nervous system depression are seen as methemoglobin levels increase, and levels above 70% are usually fatal.

Treatment of overdose involves supplemental oxygen and supportive measures such as exchange transfusion. Treatment of severe methemoglobinemia with intravenous methylene blue has been described in the medical literature; however, this may also cause release of cyanide bound to methemoglobin. Because hypotension appears to be mediated primarily by an increase in venous capacitance, measures to increase venous return may be most appropriate to treat hypotension.

11 DESCRIPTION

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has the chemical name nitrous acid Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) salt. The chemical formula is NaNO2 and the molecular weight is 69.0. The structural formula is:

Structure of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection is a cyanide antidote which contains one 10 mL glass vial of a 3% solution of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection.

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection is a sterile aqueous solution and is intended for intravenous injection. Each vial contains 300 mg of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in 10 mL solution (30 mg/mL). Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection is a clear solution with a pH between 7.0 and 9.0.

Chemical Structure

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Exposure to a high dose of cyanide can result in death within minutes due to the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in arrest of cellular respiration. Specifically, cyanide binds rapidly with cytochrome a3, a component of the cytochrome c oxidase complex in mitochondria. Inhibition of cytochrome a3 prevents the cell from using oxygen and forces anaerobic metabolism, resulting in lactate production, cellular hypoxia and metabolic acidosis. In massive acute cyanide poisoning, the mechanism of toxicity may involve other enzyme systems as well.

The synergy resulting from treatment of cyanide poisoning with the combination of Nasalub nitrite and Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate is the result of differences in their primary mechanisms of action as antidotes for cyanide poisoning.

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is thought to exert its therapeutic effect by reacting with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin, an oxidized form of hemoglobin incapable of oxygen transport but with high affinity for cyanide. Cyanide preferentially binds to methemoglobin over cytochrome a3, forming the nontoxic cyanomethemoglobin. Methemoglobin displaces cyanide from cytochrome oxidase, allowing resumption of aerobic metabolism. The chemical reaction is as follows:

NaNO2 + Hemoglobin → Methemoglobin

HCN + Methemoglobin → Cyanomethemoglobin

Vasodilation has also been cited to account for at least part of the therapeutic effect of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. It has been suggested that Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia may be more efficacious against cyanide poisoning than comparable levels of methemoglobinemia induced by other oxidants. Also, Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite appears to retain some efficacy even when the formation of methemoglobin is inhibited by methylene blue.

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate

The primary route of endogenous cyanide detoxification is by enzymatic transulfuration to thiocyanate (SCN-), which is relatively nontoxic and readily excreted in the urine. Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate is thought to serve as a sulfur donor in the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme rhodanese, thus enhancing the endogenous detoxification of cyanide in the following chemical reaction:

Chemical Structure

12. 2 Pharmacodynamics

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite

When 4 mg/kg Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite was administered intravenously to six healthy human volunteers, the mean peak methemoglobin concentration was 7%, achieved at 30-60 minutes after injection, consistent with reports in cyanide poisoning victims. Supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures dropped approximately 20% within 10 minutes, a drop which was sustained throughout the 40 minutes of testing. This was associated with a 20 beat per minute increase in pulse rate that returned to baseline in 10 minutes. Five of these subjects were unable to withstand orthostatic testing due to fainting. One additional subject, who received a 12 mg/kg dose of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, experienced severe cardiovascular effects and achieved a peak methemoglobin concentration of 30% at 60 minutes following injection.

Oral doses of 120 to 180 mg of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administered to healthy volunteers caused minimal cardiovascular changes when subjects were maintained in the horizontal position. However, minutes after being placed in the upright position subjects exhibited tachycardia and hypotension with syncope.

The half life for conversion of methemoglobin to normal hemoglobin in a cyanide poisoning victim who has been administered Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is estimated to be 55 minutes.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is a strong oxidant, and reacts rapidly with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin. The pharmacokinetics of free Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in humans have not been well studied. It has been reported that approximately 40% of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is excreted unchanged in the urine while the remaining 60% is metabolized to ammonia and related small molecules.

Cyanide

The apparent terminal elimination half life and volume of distribution of cyanide, in a patient treated for an acute cyanide poisoning with Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate administration, have been reported to be 19 hours and 0.41 L/kg, respectively. Additionally, an initial elimination half life of cyanide has been reported to be approximately 1-3 hours.

Thiocyanate

After detoxification, in healthy subjects, thiocyanate is excreted mainly in the urine at a rate inversely proportional to creatinine clearance. In healthy subjects, the elimination half-life and volume of distribution of thiocyanate have been reported to be 2.7 days and 0.25 L/kg, respectively. However, in subjects with renal insufficiency the reported elimination half life is approximately 9 days.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

The potential benefit of an acute exposure to Nasalub nitrite as part of a cyanide antidote outweighs concerns raised by the equivocal findings in chronic rodent studies. Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 35, 70, or 130 mg/kg for males and 0, 40, 80, or 150 mg/kg for females) was orally administered to rats (Fischer 344 strain) for 2 years via drinking water. There were no significant increases in the incidence of tumor in either male or female rats. Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 60, 120, or 220 mg/kg for males and 0, 45, 90, or 165 mg/kg for females) was administered to B6C3F1 mice for 2 years via the drinking water. Equivocal results were obtained in female mice. Specifically, there was a positive trend toward an increase in the incidence of squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma in the forestomach of female mice. Although the incidence of hyperplasia of the glandular stomach epithelium was significantly greater in the high-dose male mice compared to controls, there were no significant increases in tumors in the male mice. Numerous reports in the published literature indicate that Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite may react in vivo with secondary amines to form carcinogenic nitrosamines in the stomach. Concurrent exposure to Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and secondary amines in feed or drinking water resulted in an increase in the incidence of tumors in rodents.

Mutagenesis

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA100, TA1530, TA1535 with and without metabolic activation; however, it was negative in strain TA98, TA102, DJ460 and E. coli strain WP2UVRA/PKM101. Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has been reported to be genotoxic to V79 hamster cells in vitro and in the mouse lymphoma assay, both assays conducted in the absence of metabolic activation. Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite was negative in the in vitro chromosomal aberrations assay using human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Acute administration of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite to male rats or male mice did not produce an increased incidence of micronuclei in bone marrow. Likewise, Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration to mice for 14-weeks did not result in an increase in the incidence of micronuclei in the peripheral blood.

Fertility

Clinical studies to evaluate the potential effects of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite intake on fertility of either males or females have not been reported. In contrast, multigenerational fertility and reproduction studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program did not detect any evidence of an effect of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite (0.0, 0.06, 0.12, and 0.24% weight/volume) on either fertility or any reproductive parameter in Swiss CD-1 mice. This treatment protocol resulted in approximate doses of 125, 260, and 425 mg/kg/day. The highest exposure in this mouse study is 4.6 times greater than the highest clinical dose of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).

13.2 Animal Pharmacology

Due to the extreme toxicity of cyanide, experimental evaluation of treatment efficacy has predominantly been completed in animal models. The efficacy of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate treatment alone to counteract the toxicity of cyanide was initially reported in 1895 by Lang. The efficacy of amyl nitrite treatment in cyanide poisoning of the dog model was first reported in 1888 by Pedigo. Further studies in the dog model, which demonstrated the utility of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite as a therapeutic intervention, were reported in 1929 by Mladoveanu and Gheorghiu. However, Hugs and Chen et al. independently reported upon the superior efficacy of the combination of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate in 1932-1933. Treatment consisted of intravenously administered 22.5 mg/kg (half the lethal dose) Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite or 1 g/kg Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate alone or in sequence immediately after subcutaneous injection of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) cyanide into dogs over a range of doses. Subsequent doses of 10 mg/kg Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and/or 0.5 g/kg Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate were administered when clinical signs or symptoms of poisoning persisted or reappeared. Either therapy administered alone increased the dose of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) cyanide required to cause death, and when administered together, Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate resulted in a synergistic effect in raising the lethal dose of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) cyanide. The combined therapy appeared to have reduced efficacy when therapy was delayed until signs of poisoning (e.g. convulsions) appeared; however, other investigators have reported survival in dogs that were administered antidotal treatment after respiratory arrest had occurred.

Animal studies conducted in other species (e.g., rat, guinea pig, sheep, pigeon and cat) have also supported a synergistic effect of intravenous Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate in the treatment of cyanide poisoning.

While intravenous injection of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate was effective in reversing the effects of lethal doses of cyanide in dogs, intramuscular injection of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, with or without Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, was found not to be effective in the same setting.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

The human data supporting the use of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite for cyanide poisoning consists primarily of published case reports. There are no randomized controlled clinical trials. Nearly all the human data describing the use of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate report its use in conjunction with Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. Dosing recommendations for humans have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.

There have been no human studies to prospectively and systematically evaluate the safety of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in humans. Available human safety information is based largely on anecdotal case reports and case series of limited scope.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

Each Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite carton (NDC 60267-311-10) consists of the following:

  • One 10 mL glass vial of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection 30 mg/mL (containing 300 mg of Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) nitrite);

Storage

Store at controlled room temperature between 20°C and 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted from 15 to 30°C (59 to 86°F). Protect from direct light. Do not freeze.

(Note: Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate must be obtained separately.)

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Nasalub Nitrite Injection is indicated for acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening and in this setting, patients will likely be unresponsive or may have difficulty in comprehending counseling information.

17.1 Hypotension and Methemoglobin Formation

When feasible, patients should be informed of the possibility of life-threatening hypotension and methemoglobin formation.

17.2 Monitoring

Where feasible, patients should be informed of the need for close monitoring of blood pressure and oxygenation.

Manufactured by Cangene BioPharma, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland 21230 for

Hope Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, Arizona 85260

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton

NDC 60267-311-10

Rx Only

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite

Injection, USP

300 mg/10 mL

(30 mg/mL)

FOR INTRAVENOUS USE

SINGLE USE ONLY

Any unused portion of a vial

should be discarded.

Use with

Nasalub (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate

for Treatment of

Cyanide Poisoning

Manufactured by

CANGENE bioPharma, Inc.

Baltimore, MD for

HOPE

PHARMACEUTICALS®

Scottsdale, AZ 85260 U.S.A.

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton

Nasalub pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Nasalub available forms, composition, doses:

Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Nasalub destination | category:

Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Nasalub Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Nasalub pharmaceutical companies:

Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."NASAL SPA NATURAL SEA SALT (SODIUM CHLORIDE) SPRAY [NACUR HEALTHCARE LTD]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."AMINO ACIDS; CALCIUM ACETATE; GLYCERIN; MAGNESIUM ACETATE; PHOSPHORIC ACID; POTASSIUM CHLORIDE; SODIUM ACETATE; SODIUM CHLORIDE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "glycerol". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/su... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Nasalub?

Depending on the reaction of the Nasalub after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Nasalub not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Nasalub addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sdrugs.com conducted a study on Nasalub, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Nasalub consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

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The information was verified by Dr. Rachana Salvi, MD Pharmacology

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