DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Myometril® (methylergonovine maleate) is a semi-synthetic ergot alkaloid used for the prevention and control of postpartum hemorrhage.
Myometril is available in sterile ampuls of 1 mL, containing 0.2 mg Myometril for intramuscular or intravenous injection and in tablets for oral ingestion containing 0.2 mg Myometril.
Active Ingredient: Myometril, USP, 0.2 mg.
Inactive Ingredients: acacia, carnauba wax, D&C Red #7, FD&C Blue #1, gelatin special, lactose, maleic acid, mixed parabens, povidone, sodium benzoate, sodium hydroxide, starch, stearic acid, sucrose, talc, and titanium dioxide.
Ampuls, 1 mL, clear, colorless solution.
Active Ingredient: Myometril, USP, 0.2 mg.
Inactive Ingredients: maleic acid, 0.10 mg; sodium chloride, 7.0 mg; water for injection, qs to 1 mL.
Chemically, Myometril is designated as ergoline-8-carboxamide, 9,10-didehydro-N-[1-(hydroxymethyl)propyl]-6-methyl-, [8β(S)]-, (Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1) (salt).
Its structural formula is
Myometril (methylergonovine maleate) acts directly on the smooth muscle of the uterus and increases the tone, rate, and amplitude of rhythmic contractions. Thus, it induces a rapid and sustained tetanic uterotonic effect which shortens the third stage of labor and reduces blood loss. The onset of action after I.V. administration is immediate; after I.M. administration, 2-5 minutes, and after oral administration, 5-10 minutes.
Pharmacokinetic studies following an I.V. injection have shown that methylergonovine is rapidly distributed from plasma to peripheral tissues within 2-3 minutes or less. The bioavailability after oral administration was reported to be about 60% with no accumulation after repeated doses. During delivery, with intramuscular injection, bioavailability increased to 78%. Ergot alkaloids are mostly eliminated by hepatic metabolism and excretion, and the decrease in bioavailability following oral administration is probably a result of first-pass metabolism in the liver.
Bioavailability studies conducted in fasting healthy female volunteers have shown that oral absorption of a 0.2 mg methylergonovine tablet was fairly rapid with a mean peak plasma concentration of 3243 ± 1308 pg/mL observed at 1.12 ± 0.82 hours. For a 0.2 mg intramuscular injection, a mean peak plasma concentration of 5918 ± 1952 pg/mL was observed at 0.41 ± 0.21 hours. The extent of absorption of the tablet, based upon methylergonovine plasma concentrations, was found to be equivalent to that of the I.M. solution given orally, and the extent of oral absorption of the I.M. solution was proportional to the dose following administration of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg. When given intramuscularly, the extent of absorption of Myometril solution was about 25% greater than the tablet. The volume of distribution (Vdss/F) of methylergonovine was calculated to be 56.1 ± 17.0 liters, and the plasma clearance (CLp/F) was calculated to be 14.4 ± 4.5 liters per hour. The plasma level decline was biphasic with a mean elimination half-life of 3.39 hours (range 1.5 to 12.7 hours). A delayed gastrointestinal absorption (Tmax about 3 hours) of Myometril tablet might be observed in postpartum women during continuous treatment with this oxytocic agent.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Following delivery of the placenta, for routine management of uterine atony, hemorrhage and subinvolution of the uterus. For control of uterine hemorrhage in the second stage of labor following delivery of the anterior shoulder.
Hypertension; toxemia; pregnancy; and hypersensitivity.
This drug should not be administered I.V. routinely because of the possibility of inducing sudden hypertensive and cerebrovascular accidents. If I.V. administration is considered essential as a lifesaving measure, Myometril (methylergonovine maleate) should be given slowly over a period of no less than 60 seconds with careful monitoring of blood pressure. Intra-arterial or periarterial injection should be strictly avoided.
Caution should be exercised in the presence of impaired hepatic or renal function.
Mothers should not breast-feed during treatment with Myometril. Milk secreted during this period should be discarded. Myometril may produce adverse effects in the breast-feeding infant. Myometril may also reduce the yield of breast milk. Mothers should wait at least 12 hours after administration of the last dose of Myometril before initiating or resuming breast feeding.
Coronary artery disease
Patients with coronary artery disease or risk factors for coronary artery disease (e.g., smoking, obesity, diabetes, high cholesterol) may be more susceptible to developing myocardial ischemia and infarction associated with methylergonovine-induced vasospasm.
Inadvertent administration of Myometril to newborn infants has been reported. In these cases of inadvertent neonatal exposure, symptoms such as respiratory depression, convulsions, cyanosis and oliguria have been reported. Usual treatment is symptomatic. However, in severe cases, respiratory and cardiovascular support is required.
Myometril has been administered instead of vitamin K and Hepatitis B vaccine, medications which are routinely administered to the newborn. Due to the potential for accidental neonatal exposure, Myometril injection should be stored separately from medications intended for neonatal administration.
Caution should be exercised in the presence of sepsis, obliterative vascular disease. Also use with caution during the second stage of labor. The necessity for manual removal of a retained placenta should occur only rarely with proper technique and adequate allowance of time for its spontaneous separation.
CYP 3A4 Inhibitors
There have been rare reports of serious adverse events in connection with the coadministration of certain ergot alkaloid drugs (e.g., dihydroergotamine and ergotamine) and potent CYP 3A4 inhibitors, resulting in vasospasm leading to cerebral ischemia and/or ischemia of the extremities. Although there have been no reports of such interactions with methylergonovine alone, potent CYP 3A4 inhibitors should not be coadministered with methylergonovine. Examples of some of the more potent CYP 3A4 inhibitors include macrolide antibiotics (e.g., erythromycin, troleandomycin, clarithromycin), HIV protease or reverse transcriptase inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, delavirdine) or azole antifungals (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole). Less potent CYP 3A4 inhibitors should be administered with caution. Less potent inhibitors include saquinavir, nefazodone, fluconazole, grapefruit juice, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, zileuton, and clotrimazole. These lists are not exhaustive, and the prescriber should consider the effects on CYP 3A4 of other agents being considered for concomitant use with methylergonovine.
Drugs (e.g. nevirapine, rifampicin) that are strong inducers of CYP3A4 are likely to decrease the pharmacological action of Myometril.
Caution should be exercised when Myometril is used concurrently with beta-blockers. Concomitant administration with beta-blockers may enhance the vasoconstrictive action of ergot alkaloids.
Anesthetics like halothan and methoxyfluran may reduce the oxytocic potency of Myometril.
Glyceryl trinitrate and other antianginal drugs
Myometril produces vasoconstriction and can be expected to reduce the effect of glyceryl trinitrate and other antianginal drugs.
No pharmacokinetic interactions involving other cytochrome P450 isoenzymes are known.
Caution should be exercised when Myometril (methylergonovine maleate) is used concurrently with other vasoconstrictors, ergot alkaloids, or prostaglandins.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No long-term studies have been performed in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential. The effect of the drug on mutagenesis or fertility has not been determined.
Category C. Animal reproductive studies have not been conducted with Myometril. It is also not known whether Myometril can cause fetal harm or can affect reproductive capacity. Use of Myometril is contraindicated during pregnancy because of its uterotonic effects.
Labor and Delivery
The uterotonic effect of Methergine is utilized after delivery to assist involution and decrease hemorrhage, shortening the third stage of labor.
Mothers should not breast-feed during treatment with Myometril and at least 12 hours after administration of the last dose. Milk secreted during this period should be discarded.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Clinical studies of Myometril did not include sufficient number of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in response between the elderly and younger patients. In general dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
The most common adverse reaction is hypertension associated in several cases with seizure and/or headache. Hypotension has also been reported. Abdominal pain (caused by uterine contractions), nausea and vomiting have occurred occasionally. Rarely observed reactions have included: acute myocardial infarction, transient chest pains, vasoconstriction, vasospasm, coronary arterial spasm, bradycardia, tachycardia, dyspnea, hematuria, thrombophlebitis, water intoxication, hallucinations, leg cramps, dizziness, tinnitus, nasal congestion, diarrhea, diaphoresis, palpitation, rash, and foul taste.
There have been rare isolated reports of anaphylaxis, without a proven causal relationship to the drug product.
The following adverse drug reactions have been derived from post-marketing experience with Myometril via spontaneous case reports. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not possible to reliably estimate their frequency which is therefore categorized as not known.
Nervous system disorders
Cerebrovascular accident, paraesthesia
Ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, angina pectoris, atrioventricular block
DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE
Myometril (methylergonovine maleate) has not been associated with drug abuse or dependence of either a physical or psychological nature.
Symptoms of acute overdose may include: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, numbness, tingling of the extremities, rise in blood pressure, in severe cases followed by hypotension, respiratory depression, hypothermia, convulsions, and coma.
Because reports of overdosage with Myometril (methylergonovine maleate) are infrequent, the lethal dose in humans has not been established. The oral LD50 (in mg/kg) for the mouse is 187, the rat 93, and the rabbit 4.5. Several cases of accidental Myometril injection in newborn infants have been reported, and in such cases 0.2 mg represents an overdose of great magnitude. However, recovery occurred in all but one case following a period of respiratory depression, hypothermia, hypertonicity with jerking movements, and convulsions.
Also, several children 1-3 years of age have accidentally ingested up to 10 tablets (2 mg) with no apparent ill effects. A postpartum patient took 4 tablets at one time in error and reported paresthesias and clamminess as her only symptoms.
Treatment of acute overdosage is symptomatic and includes the usual procedures of:
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration.
1 mL, 0.2 mg, after delivery of the anterior shoulder, after delivery of the placenta, or during the puerperium. May be repeated as required, at intervals of 2-4 hours.
1 mL, 0.2 mg, administered slowly over a period of no less than 60 seconds
One tablet, 0.2 mg, 3 or 4 times daily in the puerperium for a maximum of 1 week.
0.2 mg round, coated, orchid, branded “78-54” one side, “SANDOZ” other side.
Bottles of 100…………………………………………………………..NDC 0078-0054-05
1 mL size
Boxes of 20…………………………………………………………….NDC 0078-0053-03
Store and Dispense
Tablets: Store below 25°C (77°F); in tight, light-resistant container.
Ampuls: Store in refrigerator, 2ºC-8°C (36°F-46°F). Protect from light. Administer only if solution is clear and colorless.
Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation
East Hanover, New Jersey 07936
Myometril structural formula.
Myometril pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Myometril available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Myometril destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Myometril Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Myometril pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Myometril?
Depending on the reaction of the Myometril after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Myometril not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Myometril addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Myometril, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Myometril consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
Visitor reported usefulNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported side effectsNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported price estimatesNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported frequency of useNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported dosesNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported time for resultsNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported administrationNo survey data has been collected yet
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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology