Metronidazole is an anti protozoal agent. It is believed that the mechanism of action is associated with DNA damage-sensitive microorganisms. Active against Trichomonas vaginalis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, and obligate anaerobic bacteria.
Aerobic bacteria are resistant to Metronidazole.
In combination with amoxicillin Metronidazole is active against Helicobacter pylori. It is believed that amoxicillin inhibits the development of resistance of Helicobacter pylori to Metronidazole.
Metronidazole well absorbed after oral administration. The bioavailability is 80%. Metronidazole is distributed in tissues and body fluids. This medication crosses the placental barrier and the BBB. Binding to plasma proteins is 20%. Metronidazole is metabolized in the liver by oxidation and binding to glucuronic acid. T1/2 is 8 hours. This drug is excreted in the urine (60-80%) and feces (6-15%).
Why is Metronidazole prescribed?
Trichomonazice vaginitis and urethritis in women, trichomonazice urethritis in men, giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, anaerobic infections caused by metronidazole-sensitive organisms, combination therapy of severe mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections. Preventing anaerobic infection in surgery. Chronic alcoholism.
Metronidazole in combination with amoxicillin: chronic gastritis in acute phase, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer in acute phase, associated with Helicobacter pylori.
For external and topical use: treatment of acne vulgaris and pink, bacterial vaginosis, treatment of long-term healing of wounds and trophic ulcers.
Dosage and administration
Metronidazole is administered for oral use for adults and children over 12 years in 7.5 mg / kg every 6 h or 250-750 mg 3-4 times / day. For children up to 12 years the dose is 5-16.7 mg / kg 3 times / day. For IV injections for adults and children over 12 years starting dose is 15 mg / kg, followed by 7.5 mg / kg every 6 hours or depending on the etiology of the disease - by 500-750 mg every 8 hours. The duration of treatment and frequency of tests is determined individually.
Intravaginally - 500 mg 1 time a night.
In combination with amoxicillin (2.25 g / day) daily dose of Metronidazole is 1.5 g; multiplicity of admission - 3 times / day. For patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance less than 30 ml / min) and / or liver daily dose of Metronidazole is 1 g (amoxicillin - 1.5 g / day), the multiplicity of the reception is 2 times / day. This medication takes for external and local use 2 times / day, doses are determined individually.
The maximum daily dose for adults when taken orally and IV is 4 g.
Metronidazole side effects, adverse reactions
Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, anorexia, metallic taste in the mouth.
Other: arthralgia, burning sensation in the urethra.
Organic CNS lesions, blood diseases, liver problems, I trimester of pregnancy, hypersensitivity to Metronidazole.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
Metronidazole is rapidly crosses the placental barrier. In II and III trimester of pregnancy Metronidazole is used only for health reasons.
Metronidazole is excreted in breast milk. If necessary, use during lactation should solve the issue of termination of breastfeeding.
Patients should with careful use of Metronidazole in liver diseases.
In combination with amoxicillin this medication is not recommended for patients younger than 18 years. During the treatment period it is necessary the regular control of pattern of peripheral blood.
During the treatment of Trichomonas vaginitis in women and Trichomonas urethritis in men patients should refrain from sexual activity, simultaneous treatment of both partners is mandatory.
During the taking of Metronidazole there is a more dark staining of urine.
During treatment with Metronidazole should avoid alcohol because to violations of the oxidation of alcohol can accumulate acetaldehyde. As a result may develop reactions similar to those characteristic of disulfiram.
Metronidazole drug interactions
Simultaneous administration of Metronidazole with:
antacids that contain aluminum hydroxide, with kolestiraminom slightly decreases absorption of Metronidazole from the gastrointestinal tract;
Metronidazole potentiates the effect of indirect anticoagulants;
disulfiram may develop acute psychosis and impaired consciousness;
lansoprazole possible glossitis, stomatitis and / or the appearance of dark color language; with lithium carbonate - may increase the concentration of lithium in blood plasma and the development of symptoms of intoxication with prednisone - increased excretion of Metronidazole from the body by accelerating its metabolism in the liver under the influence of prednisone. It is possible a decrease the effectiveness of Metronidazole AA Pharma.
rifampicin increased the clearance of Metronidazole from the body, with phenytoin - it is perhaps a slight increase in the concentration of phenytoin in blood plasma, described the case of toxic action;
phenobarbital significantly increased excretion of Metronidazole from the body, apparently due to acceleration of its metabolism in the liver under the influence of phenobarbital. It is possible a decrease the effectiveness of Metronidazole AA Pharma;
fluorouracil enhanced the toxic effect but not the effectiveness of fluorouracil;
cimetidine may inhibit the metabolism of Metronidazole in the liver that can lead to slow its elimination and increase the concentration in blood plasma. It can not be excluded the increase in the concentration of carbamazepine in plasma and increased risk of toxicity with concomitant use of Metronidazole AA Pharma. There was described a case of acute dystonia after a single dose of chloroquine in patients treated with Metronidazole.
Metronidazole in case of emergency / overdose
Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, ataxia, in severe cases - peripheral neuropathy and seizures.
Treatment: symptomatic, there is no specific antidote.
Metronidazole pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Metronidazole available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results. Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable. Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination. Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Antiseptic skin cleansers
Preparations for vaginal conditions
Topical chemotherapeutics used in the treatment of dermatological diseases
Metronidazole Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug. Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Dailymed."BISMUTH SUBCITRATE POTASSIUM; METRONIDAZOLE; TETRACYCLINE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Metronidazole?
Depending on the reaction of the Metronidazole after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Metronidazole not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.
Is Metronidazole addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
sDrugs.com conducted a study on Metronidazole, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Metronidazole consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
Four visitors reported doses
What is the dose of Metronidazole drug you are taking? According to the survey conducted among sDrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 51-100mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
One visitor reported time for results
What is the time duration Metronidazole drug must be taken for it to be effective or for it to reduce the symptoms? Most chronic conditions need at least some time so the dose and the drug action gets adjusted to the body to get the desired effect. The stastistics say sDrugs.com website users needed 1 month to notice the result from using Metronidazole drug. The time needed to show improvement in health condition after using the medicine Metronidazole need not be same for all the users. It varies based on other factors.
One visitor reported administration
The drugs are administered in various routes, like oral or injection form. They are administered before food or after food. How are you taking Metronidazole drug, before food or after food? Click here to find out how other users of our website are taking it. For any doubts or queries on how and when the medicine is administered, contact your health care provider immediately.
Four visitors reported age
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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology