DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS

Lactated Ringer's

advertisement
What do you feel about the cost of the medicine? Is it expensive?

Lactated Ringer's uses

Lactated Ringer's consists of Calcium Chloride Dihydrate, Potassium Chloride, Sodium Chloride, Sodium Lactate.

Calcium Chloride Dihydrate:


1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate is a phosphate binder indicated to reduce serum phosphorus in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD).

-    Calcium acetate is a phosphate binder indicated for the reduction of serum phosphorus in patients with end stage renal disease. (1)

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The recommended initial dose of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate for the adult dialysis patient is 2 capsules with each meal. Increase the dose gradually to lower serum phosphorus levels to the target range, as long as hypercalcemia does not develop. Most patients require 3 to 4 capsules with each meal.

-    Starting dose is 2 capsules with each meal. (2)

-    Titrate the dose every 2 to 3 weeks until acceptable serum phosphorus level is reached. Most patients require 3 to 4 capsules with each meal. (2)

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Capsule: 667 mg Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate capsule.

-    Capsule: 667 mg Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate capsule. (3)

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Patients with hypercalcemia.

-    Hypercalcemia. (4)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

-    Treat mild hypercalcemia by reducing or interrupting Lactated Ringer's acetate and Vitamin D. Severe hypercalcemia may require hemodialysis and discontinuation of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate. (5.1)

-    Hypercalcemia may aggravate digitalis toxicity. (5.2)

5.1 Hypercalcemia

Patients with end stage renal disease may develop hypercalcemia when treated with Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate), including Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate. Avoid the use of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) supplements, including Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) based nonprescription antacids, concurrently with Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate.

An overdose of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate may lead to progressive hypercalcemia, which may require emergency measures. Therefore, early in the treatment phase during the dosage adjustment period, monitor serum Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) levels twice weekly. Should hypercalcemia develop, reduce the Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate dosage, or discontinue the treatment, depending on the severity of hypercalcemia

More severe hypercalcemia (Ca >12 mg/dL) is associated with confusion, delirium, stupor and coma. Severe hypercalcemia can be treated by acute hemodialysis and discontinuing Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate therapy.

Mild hypercalcemia (10.5 to 11.9 mg/dL) may be asymptomatic or manifest as constipation, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. Mild hypercalcemia is usually controlled by reducing the Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate dose or temporarily discontinuing therapy. Decreasing or discontinuing Vitamin D therapy is recommended as well.

Chronic hypercalcemia may lead to vascular calcification and other soft-tissue calcification. Radiographic evaluation of suspected anatomical regions may be helpful in early detection of soft tissue calcification. The long term effect of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate on the progression of vascular or soft tissue calcification has not been determined.

Hypercalcemia (>11 mg/dL) was reported in 16% of patients in a 3 month study of solid dose formulation of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate; all cases resolved upon lowering the dose or discontinuing treatment.

Maintain the serum calcium-phosphorus (Ca x P) product below 55 mg2/dL2.

5.2 Concomitant Use with Medications

Hypercalcemia may aggravate digitalis toxicity.

advertisement

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

Hypercalcemia is discussed elsewhere [see Warnings and Precautions ].

-    The most common (>10%) adverse reactions are hypercalcemia, nausea and vomiting. (6.1)

-    In clinical studies, patients have occasionally experienced nausea during Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate therapy. (6)

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact West-Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp. at 1-800-962-8364 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch

6.1 Clinical Trial Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In clinical studies, Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate has been generally well tolerated.

Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate was studied in a 3 month, open-label, non-randomized study of 98 enrolled ESRD hemodialysis patients and an alternate liquid formulation of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate was studied in a two week double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with 69 enrolled ESRD hemodialysis patients. Adverse reactions (>2% on treatment) from these trials are presented in Table 1.


Preferred Term


Total adverse reactions reported for Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate

N=167

N (%)


3 month, open label study of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate

N=98

N (%)


Double blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of liquid Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate

N=69


Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate

N (%)


Placebo

N (%)


Nausea


6 (3.6)


6 (6.1)


0 (0)


0 (0)


Vomiting


4 (2.4)


4 (4.1)


0 (0)


0 (0)


Hypercalcemia


21 (12.6)


16 (16.3)


5 (7.2)


0 (0)


Mild hypercalcemia may be asymptomatic or manifest itself as constipation, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. More severe hypercalcemia is associated with confusion, delirium, stupor, and coma. Decreasing dialysate Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) concentration could reduce the incidence and severity of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate-induced hypercalcemia. Isolated cases pruritus have been reported, which may represent allergic reactions.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate: dizziness, edema, and weakness.

advertisement

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

The drug interaction of Lactated Ringer's acetate is characterized by the potential of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) to bind to drugs with anionic functions (e.g., carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups). Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate may decrease the bioavailability of tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones via this mechanism.

There are no empirical data on avoiding drug interactions between Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate and most concomitant drugs. When administering an oral medication with Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate where a reduction in the bioavailability of that medication would have a clinically significant effect on its safety or efficacy, administer the drug one hour before or three hours after Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate. Monitor blood levels of the concomitant drugs that have a narrow therapeutic range. Patients taking anti-arrhythmic medications for the control of arrhythmias and anti-seizure medications for the control of seizure disorders were excluded from the clinical trials with all forms of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate.

-    Calcium acetate may decrease the bioavailability of tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones. (7)

-    When clinically significant drug interactions are expected, administer the drug at least one hour before or at least three hours after Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate or consider monitoring blood levels of the drug. (7)

7.1 Ciprofloxacin

In a study of 15 healthy subjects, a co-administered single dose of 4 Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate tablets, approximately 2.7g, decreased the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin by approximately 50%.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C:

Lactated Ringer's acetate capsules contains Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate, and there are no adequate and well controlled studies of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate use in pregnant women. Patients with end stage renal disease may develop hypercalcemia with Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1 ) ]. Maintenance of normal serum Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) levels is important for maternal and fetal well being. Hypercalcemia during pregnancy may increase the risk for maternal and neonatal complications such as stillbirth, preterm delivery, and neonatal hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism. Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate treatment, as recommended, is not expected to harm a fetus if maternal Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) levels are properly monitored during and following treatment.

8.2 Labor and Delivery

The effects of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate on labor and delivery are unknown.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

Lactated Ringer's Acetate Capsules contains Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate and is excreted in human milk. Human milk feeding by a mother receiving Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate is not expected to harm an infant, provided maternal serum Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) levels are appropriately monitored.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

advertisement

10 OVERDOSAGE

Administration of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate in excess of the appropriate daily dosage may result in hypercalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

11 DESCRIPTION

Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate acts as a phosphate binder. Its chemical name is Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate. Its molecular formula is C4H6CaO4, and its molecular weight is 158.17. Its structural formula is:

 

Each white opaque/blue opaque capsule contains 667 mg of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate USP (anhydrous; Ca(CH3COO)2; MW=158.17 grams) equal to 169 mg (8.45 mEq) Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate), polyethylene glycol 8000 and magnesium stearate. Each capsule shell contains: black monogramming ink, FD&C Blue #1, FD&C Red #3, gelatin and titanium dioxide. The black monogramming ink contains: ammonium hydroxide, iron oxide black, isopropyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, propylene glycol and shellac glaze.

Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) Acetate Capsules are administered orally for the control of hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal failure.

Chemical Structure

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Patients with ESRD retain phosphorus and can develop hyperphosphatemia. High serum phosphorus can precipitate serum Lactated Ringer's resulting in ectopic calcification. Hyperphosphatemia also plays a role in the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with ESRD.

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate, when taken with meals, combines with dietary phosphate to form an insoluble Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) phosphate complex, which is excreted in the feces, resulting in decreased serum phosphorus concentration.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Orally administered Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate from pharmaceutical dosage forms is systemically absorbed up to approximately 40% under fasting conditions and up to approximately 30% under nonfasting conditions. This range represents data from both healthy subjects and renal dialysis patients under various conditions.

advertisement

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

No carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or fertility studies have been conducted with Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

Effectiveness of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate in decreasing serum phosphorus has been demonstrated in two studies of the Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate solid oral dosage form.

Ninety-one patients with end-stage renal disease who were undergoing hemodialysis and were hyperphosphatemic (serum phosphorus >5.5 mg/dL) following a 1 week phosphate binder washout period contributed efficacy data to an open-label, non-randomized study.

The patients received Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate 667 mg tablets at each meal for a period of 12 weeks. The initial starting dose was 2 tablets per meal for 3 meals a day, and the dose was adjusted as necessary to control serum phosphorus levels. The average final dose after 12 weeks of treatment was 3.4 tablets per meal. Although there was a decrease in serum phosphorus, in the absence of a control group the true magnitude of effect is uncertain.

The data presented in Table 2 demonstrate the efficacy of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal disease patients. The effects on serum Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) levels are also presented.


* Ninety-one patients completed at least 6 weeks of the study.

 ANOVA of difference in values at pre-study and study completion. 

 ‡ Values expressed as mean ± SE.


Parameter


Pre-Study


Week 4*


Week 8


Week 12


p-value†


Phosphorus (mg/dL)‡


7.4 ± 0.17


5.9 ± 0.16


5.6 ± 0.17


5.2 ± 0.17


≤0.01


Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) (mg/dL)‡


8.9 ± 0.09


9.5 ± 0.10


9.7 ± 0.10


9.7 ± 0.10


≤0.01


There was a 30% decrease in serum phosphorus levels during the 12 week study period (p<0.01). Two-thirds of the decline occurred in the first month of the study. Serum Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) increased 9% during the study mostly in the first month of the study.

Treatment with the phosphate binder was discontinued for patients from the open-label study, and those patients whose serum phosphorus exceeded 5.5 mg/dL were eligible for entry into a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Patients were randomized to receive Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate or placebo, and each continued to receive the same number of tablets as had been individually established during the previous study. Following 2 weeks of treatment, patients switched to the alternative therapy for an additional 2 weeks.

    The phosphate binding effect of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate is shown in the Table 3.


* ANOVA of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate vs. placebo after 2 weeks of treatment.

 Values expressed as mean ± SEM.


Parameter


Pre-Study


Post-Treatment


p-value*


Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) Acetate


Placebo


Phosphorus (mg/dL)


7.3 ± 0.18


5.9 ± 0.24


7.8 ± 0.22


<0.01


Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) (mg/dL)


8.9 ± 0.11


9.5 ± 0.13


8.8 ± 0.12


<0.01


Overall, 2 weeks of treatment with Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate statistically significantly (p<0.01) decreased serum phosphorus by a mean of 19% and increased serum Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) by a statistically significant (p<0.01) but clinically unimportant mean of 7%.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) Acetate Capsules

667 mg capsule is supplied as a white opaque/blue opaque capsule, imprinted with “54 215” on the cap and body.

NDC 0615-2303-39: Blistercards of 30 Capsules

NDC 0615-2303-30: Unit-dose Boxes of 30 Capsules

STORAGE

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Inform patients to take Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate capsules with meals, adhere to their prescribed diets, and avoid the use of Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) supplements including nonprescription antacids. Inform the patients about the symptoms of hypercalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)  and Adverse Reactions (6.1) ].

Advise patients who are taking an oral medication where reduction in the bioavailability of that medication would have clinically significant effect on its safety or efficacy to take the drug one hour before or three hours after Lactated Ringer's (Calcium Chloride Dihydrate) acetate capsules.

Distr. by: West-Ward

Pharmaceuticals Corp.

Eatontown, NJ 07724 

10003705/05

Revised April 2016

Potassium Chloride:



Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS USP 20 mEq K

Rx Only

DESCRIPTION

The Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq product is an immediately dispersing extended release oral dosage form of Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) containing 1500 mg of microencapsulated Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride), USP equivalent to 20 mEq of potassium in a tablet.

These formulations are intended to slow the release of potassium so that the likelihood of a high localized concentration of Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) within the gastrointestinal tract is reduced.

Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is an electrolyte replenisher. The chemical name of the active ingredient is Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride), and the structural formula is KCl. Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride), USP occurs as a white, granular powder or as colorless crystals. It is odorless and has a saline taste. Its solutions are neutral to litmus. It is freely soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol.

Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is a tablet formulation (not enteric coated or wax matrix) containing individually microencapsulated Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) crystals which disperse upon tablet disintegration. In simulated gastric fluid at 37°C and in the absence of outside agitation, Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq begin disintegrating into microencapsulated crystals within seconds and completely disintegrates within 1 minute. The microencapsulated crystals are formulated to provide an extended release of Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride).

Inactive Ingredients: Colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl-cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

The potassium ion is the principal intracellular cation of most body tissues. Potassium ions participate in a number of essential physiological processes including the maintenance of intracellular tonicity; the transmission of nerve impulses; the contraction of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle; and the maintenance of normal renal function.

The intracellular concentration of potassium is approximately 150 to 160 mEq per liter. The normal adult plasma concentration is 3.5 to 5 mEq per liter. An active ion transport system maintains this gradient across the plasma membrane.

Potassium is a normal dietary constituent and under steady-state conditions the amount of potassium absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract is equal to the amount excreted in the urine. The usual dietary intake of potassium is 50 to 100 mEq per day.

Potassium depletion will occur whenever the rate of potassium loss through renal excretion and/or loss from the gastrointestinal tract exceeds the rate of potassium intake. Such depletion usually develops as a consequence of therapy with diuretics, primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism, diabetic ketoacidosis, or inadequate replacement of potassium in patients on prolonged parenteral nutrition. Depletion can develop rapidly with severe diarrhea, especially if associated with vomiting. Potassium depletion due to these causes is usually accompanied by a concomitant loss of chloride and is manifested by hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. Potassium depletion may produce weakness, fatigue, disturbances or cardiac rhythm (primarily ectopic beats), prominent U-waves in the electrocardiogram, and in advanced cases, flaccid paralysis and/or impaired ability to concentrate urine.

If potassium depletion associated with metabolic alkalosis cannot be managed by correcting the fundamental cause of the deficiency, eg, where the patient requires long-term diuretic therapy, supplemental potassium in the form of high potassium food or Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) may be able to restore normal potassium levels.

In rare circumstances (eg, patients with renal tubular acidosis) potassium depletion may be associated with metabolic acidosis and hyperchloremia. In such patients potassium replacement should be accomplished with potassium salts other than the chloride, such as potassium bicarbonate, potassium citrate, potassium acetate, or potassium gluconate.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

BECAUSE OF REPORTS OF INTESTINAL AND GASTRIC ULCERATION AND BLEEDING WITH CONTROLLED-RELEASE Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) PREPARATIONS, THESE DRUGS SHOULD BE RESERVED FOR THOSE PATIENTS WHO CANNOT TOLERATE OR REFUSE TO TAKE LIQUID OR EFFERVESCENT POTASSIUM PREPARATIONS OR FOR PATIENTS IN WHOM THERE IS A PROBLEM OF COMPLIANCE WITH THESE PREPARATIONS.

1.    For the treatment of patients with hypokalemia with or without metabolic alkalosis, in digitalis intoxication, and in patients with hypokalemic familial periodic paralysis. If hypokalemia is the result of diuretic therapy, consideration should be given to the use of a lower dose of diuretic, which may be sufficient without leading to hypokalemia.

2.    For the prevention of hypokalemia in patients who would be at particular risk if hypokalemia were to develop, eg, digitalized patients or patients with significant cardiac arrhythmias.

The use of potassium salts in patients receiving diuretics for uncomplicated essential hypertension is often unnecessary when such patients have a normal dietary pattern and when low doses of the diuretic are used. Serum potassium should be checked periodically, however, and if hypokalemia occurs, dietary supplementation with potassium-containing foods may be adequate to control milder cases. In more severe cases, and if dose adjustment of the diuretic is ineffective or unwarranted, supplementation with potassium salts may be indicated.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Potassium supplements are contraindicated in patients with hyperkalemia since a further increase in serum potassium concentration in such patients can produce cardiac arrest. Hyperkalemia may complicate any of the following conditions: chronic renal failure, systemic acidosis, such as diabetic acidosis, acute dehydration, extensive tissue breakdown as in severe burns, adrenal insufficiency, or the administration of a potassium-sparing diuretic (eg, spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride) (see OVERDOSAGE ).

Controlled-release formulations of Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) have produced esophageal ulceration in certain cardiac patients with esophageal compression due to enlarged left atrium. Potassium supplementation, when indicated in such patients, should be given as a liquid preparation or as an aqueous (water) suspension of Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) (see PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients , and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections).

All solid oral dosage forms of Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) are contraindicated in any patient in whom there is structural, pathological (eg, diabetic gastroparesis), or pharmacologic (use of anticholinergic agents or other agents with anticholinergic properties at sufficient doses to exert anticholinergic effects) cause for arrest or delay in tablet passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

WARNINGS

Hyperkalemia (see OVERDOSAGE )

In patients with impaired mechanisms for excreting potassium, the administration of potassium salts can produce hyperkalemia and cardiac arrest. This occurs most commonly in patients given potassium by the intravenous route but may also occur in patients given potassium orally. Potentially fatal hyperkalemia can develop rapidly and be asymptomatic. The use of potassium salts in patients with chronic renal disease, or any other condition which impairs potassium excretion, requires particularly careful monitoring of the serum potassium concentration and appropriate dosage adjustment.

Interaction with Potassium-Sparing Diuretics

Hypokalemia should not be treated by the concomitant administration of potassium salts and a potassium-sparing diuretic (eg, spironolactone, triamterene, or amiloride) since the simultaneous administration of these agents can produce severe hyperkalemia.

Interaction with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, captopril, enalapril) will produce some potassium retention by inhibiting aldosterone production. Potassium supplements should be given to patients receiving ACE inhibitors only with close monitoring.

Gastrointestinal Lesions

Solid oral dosage forms of Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) can produce ulcerative and/or stenotic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Based on spontaneous adverse reaction reports, enteric-coated preparations of Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) are associated with an increased frequency of small bowel lesions (40-50 per 100,000 patient years) compared to sustained release wax matrix formulations (less than one per 100,000 patient years). Because of the lack of extensive marketing experience with microencapsulated products, a comparison between such products and wax matrix or enteric-coated products is not available. Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is a tablet formulated to provide a controlled rate of release of microencapsulated Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) and thus to minimize the possibility of a high local concentration of potassium near the gastrointestinal wall.

Prospective trials have been conducted in normal human volunteers in which the upper gastrointestinal tract was evaluated by endoscopic inspection before and after 1 week of solid oral Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) therapy. The ability of this model to predict events occurring in usual clinical practice is unknown. Trials which approximated usual clinical practice did not reveal any clear differences between the wax matrix and microencapsulated dosage forms. In contrast, there was a higher incidence of gastric and duodenal lesions in subjects receiving a high dose of a wax matrix controlled-release formulation under conditions which did not resemble usual or recommended clinical practice (ie, 96 mEq per day in divided doses of Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) administered to fasted patients, in the presence of an anticholinergic drug to delay gastric emptying). The upper gastrointestinal lesions observed by endoscopy were asymptomatic and were not accompanied by evidence of bleeding (Hemoccult testing). The relevance of these findings to the usual conditions (ie, non-fasting, no anticholinergic agent, smaller doses) under which controlled-release Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) products are used is uncertain; epidemiologic studies have not identified an elevated risk, compared to microencapsulated products, for upper gastrointestinal lesions in patients receiving wax matrix formulations. Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq should be discontinued immediately and the possibility of ulceration, obstruction, or perforation should be considered if severe vomiting, abdominal pain, distention, or gastrointestinal bleeding occurs.

Metabolic Acidosis

Hypokalemia in patients with metabolic acidosis should be treated with an alkalinizing potassium salt such as potassium bicarbonate, potassium citrate, potassium acetate, or potassium gluconate.

PRECAUTIONS

General

The diagnosis of potassium depletion is ordinarily made by demonstrating hypokalemia in a patient with a clinical history suggesting some cause for potassium depletion. In interpreting the serum potassium level, the physician should bear in mind that acute alkalosis per se can produce hypokalemia in the absence of a deficit in total body potassium while acute acidosis per se can increase the serum potassium concentration into the normal range even in the presence of a reduced total body potassium. The treatment of potassium depletion, particularly in the presence of cardiac disease, renal disease, or acidosis requires careful attention to acid-base balance and appropriate monitoring of serum electrolytes, the electrocardiogram, and the clinical status of the patient.

Information for Patients

Physicians should consider reminding the patient of the following: To take each dose with meals and with a full glass of water or other liquid. To take each dose without crushing, chewing, or sucking the tablets. If those patients are having difficulty swallowing whole tablets, they may try one of the following alternate methods of administration:

  • Break the tablet in half, and take each half separately with a glass of water.
  • Prepare an aqueous suspension as follows:

    1.  Place the whole tablet(s) in approximately 1/2 glass of water (4 fluid ounces).

    2.  Allow approximately 2 minutes for the tablet(s) to disintegrate.

    3.  Stir for about half a minute after the tablet(s) has disintegrated.

    4.  Swirl the suspension and consume the entire contents of the glass immediately by drinking or by the use of a straw.

    5.  Add another 1 fluid ounce of water, swirl, and consume immediately.

    6.  Then, add an additional 1 fluid ounce of water, swirl, and consume immediately.


Aqueous suspension of Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) that is not taken immediately should be discarded. The use of other liquids for suspending Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is not recommended.

To take this medicine following the frequency and amount prescribed by the physician. This is especially important if the patient is also taking diuretics and/or digitalis preparations.

To check with the physician at once if tarry stools or other evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding is noticed.

Laboratory Tests

When blood is drawn for analysis of plasma potassium it is important to recognize that artifactual elevations can occur after improper venipuncture technique or as a result of in vitro hemolysis of the sample.

Drug Interactions

Potassium-sparing diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and fertility studies in animals have not been performed. Potassium is a normal dietary constituent.

Pregnancy Category C

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Lactated Ringer's Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq. It is unlikely that potassium supplementation that does not lead to hyperkalemia would have an adverse effect on the fetus or would affect reproductive capacity.

Nursing Mothers

The normal potassium ion content of human milk is about 13 mEq per liter. Since oral potassium becomes part of the body potassium pool, so long as body potassium is not excessive, the contribution of Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) supplementation should have little or no effect on the level in human milk.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection; and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

One of the most severe adverse effects is hyperkalemia (see CONTRAINDICATIONS , WARNINGS , and OVERDOSAGE ). There have also been reports of upper and lower gastrointestinal conditions including obstruction, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS ). The most common adverse reactions to oral potassium salts are nausea, vomiting, flatulence, abdominal pain/discomfort, and diarrhea. These symptoms are due to irritation of the gastrointestinal tract and are best managed by diluting the preparation further, taking the dose with meals or reducing the amount taken at one time.

OVERDOSAGE

The administration of oral potassium salts to persons with normal excretory mechanisms for potassium rarely causes serious hyperkalemia. However, if excretory mechanisms are impaired or if potassium is administered too rapidly intravenously, potentially fatal hyperkalemia can result (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS ). It is important to recognize that hyperkalemia is usually asymptomatic and may be manifested only by an increased serum potassium concentration (6.5-8.0 mEq/L) and characteristic electrocardiographic changes (peaking of T-waves, loss of P-waves, depression of S-T segment, and prolongation of the QT-interval). Late manifestations include muscle paralysis and cardiovascular collapse from cardiac arrest (9-12 mEq/L).

Treatment measures for hyperkalemia include the following:

  • Patients should be closely monitored for arrhythmias and electrolyte changes.
  • Elimination of foods and medications containing potassium and of any agents with potassium-sparing properties such as potassium-sparing diuretics, ARBS, ACE inhibitors, NSAIDS, certain nutritional supplements and many others.
  • Intravenous calcium gluconate if the patient is at no risk of developing digitalis toxicity.
  • Intravenous administration of 300 to 500 mL/hr of 10% dextrose solution containing 10-20 units of crystalline insulin per 1,000 mL.
  • Correction of acidosis, if present, with intravenous sodium bicarbonate.
  • Use of exchange resins, hemodialysis, or peritoneal dialysis.

In treating hyperkalemia, it should be recalled that in patients who have been stabilized on digitalis, too rapid a lowering of the serum potassium concentration can produce digitalis toxicity.

The extended release feature means that absorption and toxic effects may be delayed for hours.

Consider standard measures to remove any unabsorbed drug.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The usual dietary intake of potassium by the average adult is 50 to 100 mEq per day. Potassium depletion sufficient to cause hypokalemia usually requires the loss of 200 or more mEq of potassium from the total body store.

Dosage must be adjusted to the individual needs of each patient. The dose for the prevention of hypokalemia is typically in the range of 20 mEq per day. Doses of 40-100 mEq per day or more are used for the treatment of potassium depletion. Dosage should be divided if more than 20 mEq per day is given such that no more than 20 mEq is given in a single dose.

Each Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablet USP, 20 mEq provides 20 mEq of Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride).

Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq should be taken with meals and with a glass of water or other liquid. This product should not be taken on an empty stomach because of its potential for gastric irritation (see WARNINGS ).

Patients having difficulty swallowing whole tablets may try one of the following alternate methods of administration:

  • Break the tablet in half, and take each half separately with a glass of water.
  • Prepare an aqueous (water) suspension as follows:
    • Place the whole tablet(s) in approximately 1/2 glass of water (4 fluid ounces).
    • Allow approximately 2 minutes for the tablet(s) to disintegrate.
    • Stir for about half a minute after the tablet(s) has disintegrated.
    • Swirl the suspension and consume the entire contents of the glass immediately by drinking or by the use of a straw.
    • Add another 1 fluid ounce of water, swirl, and consume immediately.
    • Then, add an additional 1 fluid ounce of water, swirl, and consume immediately.

Aqueous suspension of Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) that is not taken immediately should be discarded. The use of other liquids for suspending Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is not recommended.

HOW SUPPLIED

Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq are available in bottles of 100 (NDC 62037-999-01), bottles of 500 (NDC 62037-999-05), and bottles of 1000 (NDC 62037-999-10).  Potassium Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq are capsule shaped, white to off-white tablets, with “ABRS-123” imprinted on one side and scored on the other side for flexibility of dosing.

Storage Conditions

Keep tightly closed. Store at controlled room temperature, 20°-25°C (68°-77°F).  

Manufactured by:

Eurand, Inc.

Vandalia, OH 45377 USA

Distributed by:

Watson Pharma, Inc.

Rev. Date (01/09)        173714

Lactated Ringer's (Potassium Chloride) 20 Meq

Sodium Chloride:


1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Lactated Ringer's nitrite is indicated for sequential use with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate for treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. (1)

  • Use with caution if the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain. (1)

1.1 Indication

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection is indicated for sequential use with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. When the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain, the potentially life-threatening risks associated with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection should be carefully weighed against the potential benefits, especially if the patient is not in extremis.

1.2 Identifying Patients with Cyanide Poisoning

Cyanide poisoning may result from inhalation, ingestion, or dermal exposure to various cyanide-containing compounds, including smoke from closed-space fires. Sources of cyanide poisoning include hydrogen cyanide and its salts, cyanogenic plants, aliphatic nitriles, and prolonged exposure to Lactated Ringer's nitroprusside.

The presence and extent of cyanide poisoning are often initially unknown. There is no widely available, rapid, confirmatory cyanide blood test. Treatment decisions must be made on the basis of clinical history and signs and symptoms of cyanide intoxication. If clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning is high, Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate Injection should be administered without delay.

Symptoms Signs
  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • Dyspnea
  • Chest Tightness
  • Nausea
  • Altered Mental Status

    (e.g., confusion, disorientation)

  • Seizures or Coma
  • Mydriasis
  • Tachypnea/Hyperpnea (early)
  • Bradypnea/Apnea (late)
  • Hypertension (early)/ Hypotension (late)
  • Cardiovascular Collapse
  • Vomiting
  • Plasma Lactate Concentration ≥ 8 mmol/L

In some settings, panic symptoms including tachypnea and vomiting may mimic early cyanide poisoning signs. The presence of altered mental status (e.g., confusion and disorientation) and/or mydriasis is suggestive of true cyanide poisoning although these signs can occur with other toxic exposures as well.

The expert advice of a regional poison control center may be obtained by calling 1-800-222-1222.

Smoke Inhalation

Not all smoke inhalation victims will have cyanide poisoning and may present with burns, trauma, and exposure to other toxic substances making a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning particularly difficult. Prior to administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection, smoke-inhalation victims should be assessed for the following:

  • Exposure to fire or smoke in an enclosed area
  • Presence of soot around the mouth, nose, or oropharynx
  • Altered mental status

Although hypotension is highly suggestive of cyanide poisoning, it is only present in a small percentage of cyanide-poisoned smoke inhalation victims. Also indicative of cyanide poisoning is a plasma lactate concentration greater than or equal to 10 mmol/L (a value higher than that typically listed in the table of signs and symptoms of isolated cyanide poisoning because carbon monoxide associated with smoke inhalation also contributes to lactic acidemia). If cyanide poisoning is suspected, treatment should not be delayed to obtain a plasma lactate concentration.

1.3 Use with Other Cyanide Antidotes

Caution should be exercised when administering cyanide antidotes, other than Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, simultaneously with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection, as the safety of co-administration has not been established. If a decision is made to administer another cyanide antidote, other than Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection, these drugs should not be administered concurrently in the same IV line. [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) ]

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Age Intravenous Dose of Lactated Ringer's Nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate
Adults
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite -10 mL of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate - 50 mL of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate immediately following administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.
Children
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite - 0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg or 6-8 mL/m2 BSA) of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute not to exceed 10 mL
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate - 1 mL/kg of body weight (250 mg/kg or approximately 30-40 mL/m2 of BSA) not to exceed 50 mL total dose immediately following administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.

Redosing: If signs of cyanide poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate.

Monitoring: Blood pressure must be monitored during treatment. (2.2)

2.1 Administration Recommendation

Comprehensive treatment of acute cyanide intoxication requires support of vital functions. Administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, followed by Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, should be considered adjunctive to appropriate supportive therapies. Airway, ventilatory and circulatory support, and oxygen administration should not be delayed to administer Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate.

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate injection are administered by slow intravenous injection. They should be given as early as possible after a diagnosis of acute life-threatening cyanide poisoning has been established. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be administered first, followed immediately by Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate. Blood pressure must be monitored during infusion in both adults and children. The rate of infusion should be decreased if significant hypotension is noted.

Age Intravenous Dose of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate
Adults
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite -10 mL of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate - 50 mL of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate immediately following administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.
Children
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite -0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg or 6-8 mL/m2 BSA) of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute not to exceed 10 mL
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate - 1 mL/kg of body weight (250 mg/kg or approximately 30-40 mL/m2 of BSA) not to exceed 50 mL total dose immediately following administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.

NOTE: If signs of poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate.

In adult and pediatric patients with known anemia, it is recommended that the dosage of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be reduced proportionately to the hemoglobin concentration.

All parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

2.2 Recommended Monitoring

Patients should be monitored for at least 24-48 hours after Lactated Ringer's Nitrite Injection administration for adequacy of oxygenation and perfusion and for recurrent signs and symptoms of cyanide toxicity. When possible, hemoglobin/hematocrit should be obtained when treatment is initiated. Measurements of oxygen saturation using standard pulse oximetry and calculated oxygen saturation values based on measured PO2 are unreliable in the presence of methemoglobinemia.

Methemoglobin level: Administrations of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite solely to achieve an arbitrary level of methemoglobinemia may be unnecessary and potentially hazardous. The therapeutic effects of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite do not appear to be mediated by methemoglobin formation alone and clinical responses to Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration have been reported in association with methemoglobin levels of less than 10%. Administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite beyond the initial dose should be guided primarily by clinical response to treatment (i.e., a second dose should be considered only if there is inadequate clinical response to the first dose). It is generally recommended that methemoglobin concentrations be closely monitored and kept below 30%. Serum methemoglobin levels should be monitored during treatment using co-oximetry, and administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should generally be discontinued when methemoglobin levels exceed 30%. Intravenous methylene blue and exchange transfusion have been reported in the literature as treatments for life-threatening methemoglobinemia.

2.3 Incompatibility Information

Chemical incompatibility has been reported between Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and hydroxocobalamin and these drugs should not be administered simultaneously through the same IV line. No chemical incompatibility has been reported between Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, when administered sequentially through the same IV line as described in Dosage and Administration.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection consists of:

  • One vial of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection, USP 300 mg/10mL (30 mg/mL)

Administration of the contents of one vial constitutes a single dose.

  • Injection, 300 mg/10 mL (30 mg/mL). (3)

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

None

  • None. (4)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Methemoglobinemia: Lactated Ringer's nitrite reacts with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin and should be used with caution in patients known to have anemia. Monitor oxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin levels by pulse oximetry or other measurements. Optimally, the Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite dose should be reduced in proportion to the oxygen carrying capacity. (5.2)
  • Smoke inhalation: Carbon monoxide contained in smoke can result in the formation of carboxyhemoglobin that can reduce the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in patients with smoke inhalation injury because of the potential for worsening hypoxia due to methemoglobin formation. Carboxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin levels should be monitored by pulse oximetry or other measurements in patients that present with evidence of smoke inhalation. Optimally, the Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite dose should be reduced in proportion to the oxygen carrying capacity. (5.4)

5.1 Hypotension

5.2 Methemoglobinemia

Supportive care alone may be sufficient treatment without administration of antidotes for many cases of cyanide intoxication, particularly in conscious patients without signs of severe toxicity. Patients should be closely monitored to ensure adequate perfusion and oxygenation during treatment with Lactated Ringer's nitrite.

Methemoglobin levels should be monitored and oxygen administered during treatment with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite whenever possible. When Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is administered to humans a wide range of methemoglobin concentrations occur. Methemoglobin concentrations as high as 58% have been reported after two 300-mg doses of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administered to an adult. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of other drugs that may cause methemoglobinemia such as procaine and nitroprusside. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in patients who may be particularly susceptible to injury from vasodilation and its related hemodynamic sequelae. Hemodynamics should be monitored closely during and after administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, and infusion rates should be slowed if hypotension occurs.

5.3 Anemia

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in patients with known anemia. Patients with anemia will form more methemoglobin (as a percentage of total hemoglobin) than persons with normal red blood cell (RBC) volumes. Optimally, these patients should receive a Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite dose that is reduced in proportion to their oxygen carrying capacity.

5.4 Smoke Inhalation Injury

Lactated Ringer's nitrite should be used with caution in persons with smoke inhalation injury or carbon monoxide poisoning because of the potential for worsening hypoxia due to methemoglobin formation.

5.5 Neonates and Infants

Neonates and infants may be more susceptible than adults and older pediatric patients to severe methemoglobinemia when Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is administered. Reduced dosing guidelines should be followed in pediatric patients.

5.6 G6PD Deficiency

Because patients with G6PD deficiency are at increased risk of a hemolytic crisis with Lactated Ringer's nitrite administration, alternative therapeutic approaches should be considered in these patients. Patients with known or suspected G6PD deficiency should be monitored for an acute drop in hematocrit. Exchange transfusion may be needed for patients with G6PD deficiency who receive Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.

5.7 Use with Other Drugs

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of concomitant antihypertensive medications, diuretics or volume depletion due to diuretics, or drugs known to increase vascular nitric oxide, such as PDE5 inhibitors.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

There have been no controlled clinical trials conducted to systematically assess the adverse events profile of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.

The medical literature has reported the following adverse events in association with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration. These adverse events were not reported in the context of controlled trials or with consistent monitoring and reporting methodologies for adverse events. Therefore, frequency of occurrence of these adverse events cannot be assessed.

Cardiovascular system: syncope, hypotension, tachycardia, methemoglobinemia, palpitations, dysrhythmia

Hematological: methemoglobinemia

Central nervous system: headache, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, confusion, coma

Gastrointestinal system: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain

Respiratory system: tachypnea, dyspnea

Body as a Whole: anxiety, diaphoresis, lightheadedness, injection site tingling, cyanosis, acidosis, fatigue, weakness, urticaria, generalized numbness and tingling

Severe hypotension, methemoglobinemia, cardiac dysrhythmias, coma and death have been reported in patients without life-threatening cyanide poisoning but who were treated with injection of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at doses less than twice those recommended for the treatment of cyanide poisoning.

Most common adverse reactions are:

  • Syncope, hypotension, tachycardia, palpitations, dysrhythmia, methemoglobinemia, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, confusion, coma (6)

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Hope Pharmaceuticals at 1-800-755-9595 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Formal drug interaction studies have not been conducted with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

  • Renal impairment: Lactated Ringer's nitrite is substantially excreted by the kidney. The risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. (8.6).

8.1 Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has caused fetal death in humans as well as animals. There are no studies in humans that have directly evaluated the potential reproductive toxicity of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. There are two epidemiological studies conducted in Australia that report a statistically significant increase in the risk for congenital malformations, particularly in the CNS, associated with maternal consumption of water containing nitrate levels in excess of 5 ppm. Results from a case-control study in Canada suggested a trend toward an increase in the risk for CNS malformations when maternal consumption of nitrate was ≥ 26 ppm (not statistically significant).

The potential reproductive toxicity of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite exposure restricted to the prenatal period has been reported in guinea pigs, mice, and rats. There was no evidence of teratogenicity in guinea pigs, mice, or rats. However, Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite treatment of pregnant guinea pigs with 60 or 70 mg/kg/day resulted in abortion of the litters within 1-4 days of treatment. All animals treated subcutaneously with 70 mg/kg, Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite died within 60 minutes of treatment. Further studies demonstrated that a dose of 60 mg/kg resulted in measurable blood levels of methemoglobin in the dams and their fetuses for up to 6 hours post treatment. Maternal methemoglobin levels were higher than the levels in the offspring at all times measured. Based on a body surface area comparison, a 60 mg/kg dose in the guinea pig that resulted in death was only 1.7 times higher than the highest clinical dose of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).

Studies testing prenatal and postnatal exposure have been reported in mice and rats. Treatment of pregnant rats via drinking water with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at concentrations of either 2000 or 3000 mg/L resulted in a dose-related increased mortality postpartum. This exposure regimen in the rat model would result in dosing of approximately 220 and 300 mg/kg/day (43 and 65 times the highest clinical dose of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning, based on a body surface area comparison).

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite produces methemoglobin. Fetal hemoglobin is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin. In addition, the fetus has lower levels of methemoglobin reductase than adults. Collectively, these data suggest that the human fetus would show greater sensitivity to methemoglobin resulting in nitrite-induced prenatal hypoxia leading to retarded development of certain neurotransmitter systems in the brain and long lasting dysfunction.

Nonteratogenic Effects: Behavioral and neurodevelopmental studies in rats suggest persistent effects of prenatal exposure to Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that were detectable postnatally. Specifically, animals that were exposed prenatally to Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite demonstrated impaired discrimination learning behavior (both auditory and visual) and reduced long-term retention of the passive-avoidance response compared to control animals. Additional studies demonstrated a delay in the development of AchE and 5-HT positive fiber ingrowth into the hippocampal dentate gyrus and parietal neocortex during the first week of life of prenatal nitrite treated pups. These changes have been attributed to prenatal hypoxia following nitrite exposure.

8.2 Labor and Delivery

Because fetal hemoglobin is more readily oxidized to methemoglobin and lower levels of methemoglobin appear to be fatal to the fetus compared to the adult, Lactated Ringer's nitrite should be used during labor and delivery only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is excreted in human milk. Because Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection may be administered in life-threatening situations, breast-feeding is not a contraindication to its use. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised following Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection administration to a nursing woman. There are no data to determine when breastfeeding may be safely restarted following administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. In studies conducted with Long-Evans rats, Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administered in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation resulted in severe anemia, reduced growth and increased mortality in the offspring.

8.4 Pediatric Use

There are case reports in the medical literature of Lactated Ringer's nitrite in conjunction with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate being administered to pediatric patients with cyanide poisoning; however, there have been no clinical studies to evaluate the safety or efficacy of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in the pediatric population. As for adult patients, dosing recommendations for pediatric patients have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite must be used with caution in patients less than 6 months of age because they may be at higher risk of developing severe methemoglobinemia compared to older children and adults. The presence of fetal hemoglobin, which is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin, and lower methemoglobin reductase levels compared to older children and adults may contribute to risk.

Mortality attributed to Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite was reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

8.6 Renal Disease

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Large doses of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite result in severe hypotension and toxic levels of methemoglobin which may lead to cardiovascular collapse.

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration has been reported to cause or significantly contribute to mortality in adults at oral doses as low as 1 g and intravenous doses as low as 600 mg. A death attributed to Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has been reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.

Cyanosis may become apparent at a methemoglobin level of 10-20%. Other clinical signs and symptoms of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite toxicity (anxiety, dyspnea, nausea, and tachycardia) can be apparent at methemoglobin levels as low as 15%. More serious signs and symptoms, including cardiac dysrhythmias, circulatory failure, and central nervous system depression are seen as methemoglobin levels increase, and levels above 70% are usually fatal.

Treatment of overdose involves supplemental oxygen and supportive measures such as exchange transfusion. Treatment of severe methemoglobinemia with intravenous methylene blue has been described in the medical literature; however, this may also cause release of cyanide bound to methemoglobin. Because hypotension appears to be mediated primarily by an increase in venous capacitance, measures to increase venous return may be most appropriate to treat hypotension.

11 DESCRIPTION

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has the chemical name nitrous acid Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) salt. The chemical formula is NaNO2 and the molecular weight is 69.0. The structural formula is:

Structure of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection is a cyanide antidote which contains one 10 mL glass vial of a 3% solution of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection.

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection is a sterile aqueous solution and is intended for intravenous injection. Each vial contains 300 mg of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in 10 mL solution (30 mg/mL). Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection is a clear solution with a pH between 7.0 and 9.0.

Chemical Structure

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Exposure to a high dose of cyanide can result in death within minutes due to the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in arrest of cellular respiration. Specifically, cyanide binds rapidly with cytochrome a3, a component of the cytochrome c oxidase complex in mitochondria. Inhibition of cytochrome a3 prevents the cell from using oxygen and forces anaerobic metabolism, resulting in lactate production, cellular hypoxia and metabolic acidosis. In massive acute cyanide poisoning, the mechanism of toxicity may involve other enzyme systems as well.

The synergy resulting from treatment of cyanide poisoning with the combination of Lactated Ringer's nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate is the result of differences in their primary mechanisms of action as antidotes for cyanide poisoning.

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is thought to exert its therapeutic effect by reacting with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin, an oxidized form of hemoglobin incapable of oxygen transport but with high affinity for cyanide. Cyanide preferentially binds to methemoglobin over cytochrome a3, forming the nontoxic cyanomethemoglobin. Methemoglobin displaces cyanide from cytochrome oxidase, allowing resumption of aerobic metabolism. The chemical reaction is as follows:

NaNO2 + Hemoglobin → Methemoglobin

HCN + Methemoglobin → Cyanomethemoglobin

Vasodilation has also been cited to account for at least part of the therapeutic effect of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. It has been suggested that Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia may be more efficacious against cyanide poisoning than comparable levels of methemoglobinemia induced by other oxidants. Also, Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite appears to retain some efficacy even when the formation of methemoglobin is inhibited by methylene blue.

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate

The primary route of endogenous cyanide detoxification is by enzymatic transulfuration to thiocyanate (SCN-), which is relatively nontoxic and readily excreted in the urine. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate is thought to serve as a sulfur donor in the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme rhodanese, thus enhancing the endogenous detoxification of cyanide in the following chemical reaction:

Chemical Structure

12. 2 Pharmacodynamics

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite

When 4 mg/kg Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite was administered intravenously to six healthy human volunteers, the mean peak methemoglobin concentration was 7%, achieved at 30-60 minutes after injection, consistent with reports in cyanide poisoning victims. Supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures dropped approximately 20% within 10 minutes, a drop which was sustained throughout the 40 minutes of testing. This was associated with a 20 beat per minute increase in pulse rate that returned to baseline in 10 minutes. Five of these subjects were unable to withstand orthostatic testing due to fainting. One additional subject, who received a 12 mg/kg dose of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, experienced severe cardiovascular effects and achieved a peak methemoglobin concentration of 30% at 60 minutes following injection.

Oral doses of 120 to 180 mg of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administered to healthy volunteers caused minimal cardiovascular changes when subjects were maintained in the horizontal position. However, minutes after being placed in the upright position subjects exhibited tachycardia and hypotension with syncope.

The half life for conversion of methemoglobin to normal hemoglobin in a cyanide poisoning victim who has been administered Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is estimated to be 55 minutes.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is a strong oxidant, and reacts rapidly with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin. The pharmacokinetics of free Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in humans have not been well studied. It has been reported that approximately 40% of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is excreted unchanged in the urine while the remaining 60% is metabolized to ammonia and related small molecules.

Cyanide

The apparent terminal elimination half life and volume of distribution of cyanide, in a patient treated for an acute cyanide poisoning with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate administration, have been reported to be 19 hours and 0.41 L/kg, respectively. Additionally, an initial elimination half life of cyanide has been reported to be approximately 1-3 hours.

Thiocyanate

After detoxification, in healthy subjects, thiocyanate is excreted mainly in the urine at a rate inversely proportional to creatinine clearance. In healthy subjects, the elimination half-life and volume of distribution of thiocyanate have been reported to be 2.7 days and 0.25 L/kg, respectively. However, in subjects with renal insufficiency the reported elimination half life is approximately 9 days.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

The potential benefit of an acute exposure to Lactated Ringer's nitrite as part of a cyanide antidote outweighs concerns raised by the equivocal findings in chronic rodent studies. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 35, 70, or 130 mg/kg for males and 0, 40, 80, or 150 mg/kg for females) was orally administered to rats (Fischer 344 strain) for 2 years via drinking water. There were no significant increases in the incidence of tumor in either male or female rats. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 60, 120, or 220 mg/kg for males and 0, 45, 90, or 165 mg/kg for females) was administered to B6C3F1 mice for 2 years via the drinking water. Equivocal results were obtained in female mice. Specifically, there was a positive trend toward an increase in the incidence of squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma in the forestomach of female mice. Although the incidence of hyperplasia of the glandular stomach epithelium was significantly greater in the high-dose male mice compared to controls, there were no significant increases in tumors in the male mice. Numerous reports in the published literature indicate that Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite may react in vivo with secondary amines to form carcinogenic nitrosamines in the stomach. Concurrent exposure to Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and secondary amines in feed or drinking water resulted in an increase in the incidence of tumors in rodents.

Mutagenesis

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA100, TA1530, TA1535 with and without metabolic activation; however, it was negative in strain TA98, TA102, DJ460 and E. coli strain WP2UVRA/PKM101. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has been reported to be genotoxic to V79 hamster cells in vitro and in the mouse lymphoma assay, both assays conducted in the absence of metabolic activation. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite was negative in the in vitro chromosomal aberrations assay using human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Acute administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite to male rats or male mice did not produce an increased incidence of micronuclei in bone marrow. Likewise, Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration to mice for 14-weeks did not result in an increase in the incidence of micronuclei in the peripheral blood.

Fertility

Clinical studies to evaluate the potential effects of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite intake on fertility of either males or females have not been reported. In contrast, multigenerational fertility and reproduction studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program did not detect any evidence of an effect of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite (0.0, 0.06, 0.12, and 0.24% weight/volume) on either fertility or any reproductive parameter in Swiss CD-1 mice. This treatment protocol resulted in approximate doses of 125, 260, and 425 mg/kg/day. The highest exposure in this mouse study is 4.6 times greater than the highest clinical dose of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).

13.2 Animal Pharmacology

Due to the extreme toxicity of cyanide, experimental evaluation of treatment efficacy has predominantly been completed in animal models. The efficacy of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate treatment alone to counteract the toxicity of cyanide was initially reported in 1895 by Lang. The efficacy of amyl nitrite treatment in cyanide poisoning of the dog model was first reported in 1888 by Pedigo. Further studies in the dog model, which demonstrated the utility of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite as a therapeutic intervention, were reported in 1929 by Mladoveanu and Gheorghiu. However, Hugs and Chen et al. independently reported upon the superior efficacy of the combination of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate in 1932-1933. Treatment consisted of intravenously administered 22.5 mg/kg (half the lethal dose) Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite or 1 g/kg Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate alone or in sequence immediately after subcutaneous injection of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) cyanide into dogs over a range of doses. Subsequent doses of 10 mg/kg Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and/or 0.5 g/kg Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate were administered when clinical signs or symptoms of poisoning persisted or reappeared. Either therapy administered alone increased the dose of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) cyanide required to cause death, and when administered together, Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate resulted in a synergistic effect in raising the lethal dose of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) cyanide. The combined therapy appeared to have reduced efficacy when therapy was delayed until signs of poisoning (e.g. convulsions) appeared; however, other investigators have reported survival in dogs that were administered antidotal treatment after respiratory arrest had occurred.

Animal studies conducted in other species (e.g., rat, guinea pig, sheep, pigeon and cat) have also supported a synergistic effect of intravenous Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate in the treatment of cyanide poisoning.

While intravenous injection of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate was effective in reversing the effects of lethal doses of cyanide in dogs, intramuscular injection of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, with or without Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, was found not to be effective in the same setting.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

The human data supporting the use of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite for cyanide poisoning consists primarily of published case reports. There are no randomized controlled clinical trials. Nearly all the human data describing the use of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate report its use in conjunction with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. Dosing recommendations for humans have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.

There have been no human studies to prospectively and systematically evaluate the safety of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in humans. Available human safety information is based largely on anecdotal case reports and case series of limited scope.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

Each Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite carton (NDC 60267-311-10) consists of the following:

  • One 10 mL glass vial of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection 30 mg/mL (containing 300 mg of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) nitrite);

Storage

Store at controlled room temperature between 20°C and 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted from 15 to 30°C (59 to 86°F). Protect from direct light. Do not freeze.

(Note: Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate must be obtained separately.)

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Lactated Ringer's Nitrite Injection is indicated for acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening and in this setting, patients will likely be unresponsive or may have difficulty in comprehending counseling information.

17.1 Hypotension and Methemoglobin Formation

When feasible, patients should be informed of the possibility of life-threatening hypotension and methemoglobin formation.

17.2 Monitoring

Where feasible, patients should be informed of the need for close monitoring of blood pressure and oxygenation.

Manufactured by Cangene BioPharma, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland 21230 for

Hope Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, Arizona 85260

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton

NDC 60267-311-10

Rx Only

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite

Injection, USP

300 mg/10 mL

(30 mg/mL)

FOR INTRAVENOUS USE

SINGLE USE ONLY

Any unused portion of a vial

should be discarded.

Use with

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate

for Treatment of

Cyanide Poisoning

Manufactured by

CANGENE bioPharma, Inc.

Baltimore, MD for

HOPE

PHARMACEUTICALS®

Scottsdale, AZ 85260 U.S.A.

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton

Sodium Lactate:


1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Lactated Ringer's nitrite is indicated for sequential use with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate for treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. (1)

  • Use with caution if the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain. (1)

1.1 Indication

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite Injection is indicated for sequential use with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. When the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain, the potentially life-threatening risks associated with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite Injection should be carefully weighed against the potential benefits, especially if the patient is not in extremis.

1.2 Identifying Patients with Cyanide Poisoning

Cyanide poisoning may result from inhalation, ingestion, or dermal exposure to various cyanide-containing compounds, including smoke from closed-space fires. Sources of cyanide poisoning include hydrogen cyanide and its salts, cyanogenic plants, aliphatic nitriles, and prolonged exposure to Lactated Ringer's nitroprusside.

The presence and extent of cyanide poisoning are often initially unknown. There is no widely available, rapid, confirmatory cyanide blood test. Treatment decisions must be made on the basis of clinical history and signs and symptoms of cyanide intoxication. If clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning is high, Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite Injection and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Thiosulfate Injection should be administered without delay.

Symptoms Signs
  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • Dyspnea
  • Chest Tightness
  • Nausea
  • Altered Mental Status

    (e.g., confusion, disorientation)

  • Seizures or Coma
  • Mydriasis
  • Tachypnea/Hyperpnea (early)
  • Bradypnea/Apnea (late)
  • Hypertension (early)/ Hypotension (late)
  • Cardiovascular Collapse
  • Vomiting
  • Plasma Lactate Concentration ≥ 8 mmol/L

In some settings, panic symptoms including tachypnea and vomiting may mimic early cyanide poisoning signs. The presence of altered mental status (e.g., confusion and disorientation) and/or mydriasis is suggestive of true cyanide poisoning although these signs can occur with other toxic exposures as well.

The expert advice of a regional poison control center may be obtained by calling 1-800-222-1222.

Smoke Inhalation

Not all smoke inhalation victims will have cyanide poisoning and may present with burns, trauma, and exposure to other toxic substances making a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning particularly difficult. Prior to administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite Injection, smoke-inhalation victims should be assessed for the following:

  • Exposure to fire or smoke in an enclosed area
  • Presence of soot around the mouth, nose, or oropharynx
  • Altered mental status

Although hypotension is highly suggestive of cyanide poisoning, it is only present in a small percentage of cyanide-poisoned smoke inhalation victims. Also indicative of cyanide poisoning is a plasma lactate concentration greater than or equal to 10 mmol/L (a value higher than that typically listed in the table of signs and symptoms of isolated cyanide poisoning because carbon monoxide associated with smoke inhalation also contributes to lactic acidemia). If cyanide poisoning is suspected, treatment should not be delayed to obtain a plasma lactate concentration.

1.3 Use with Other Cyanide Antidotes

Caution should be exercised when administering cyanide antidotes, other than Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate, simultaneously with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite Injection, as the safety of co-administration has not been established. If a decision is made to administer another cyanide antidote, other than Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate, with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite Injection, these drugs should not be administered concurrently in the same IV line. [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) ]

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Age Intravenous Dose of Lactated Ringer's Nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Thiosulfate
Adults
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite -10 mL of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Thiosulfate - 50 mL of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate immediately following administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite.
Children
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite - 0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg or 6-8 mL/m2 BSA) of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute not to exceed 10 mL
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Thiosulfate - 1 mL/kg of body weight (250 mg/kg or approximately 30-40 mL/m2 of BSA) not to exceed 50 mL total dose immediately following administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite.

Redosing: If signs of cyanide poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate.

Monitoring: Blood pressure must be monitored during treatment. (2.2)

2.1 Administration Recommendation

Comprehensive treatment of acute cyanide intoxication requires support of vital functions. Administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite, followed by Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate, should be considered adjunctive to appropriate supportive therapies. Airway, ventilatory and circulatory support, and oxygen administration should not be delayed to administer Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate.

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite injection and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate injection are administered by slow intravenous injection. They should be given as early as possible after a diagnosis of acute life-threatening cyanide poisoning has been established. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite should be administered first, followed immediately by Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate. Blood pressure must be monitored during infusion in both adults and children. The rate of infusion should be decreased if significant hypotension is noted.

Age Intravenous Dose of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Thiosulfate
Adults
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite -10 mL of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Thiosulfate - 50 mL of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate immediately following administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite.
Children
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite -0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg or 6-8 mL/m2 BSA) of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute not to exceed 10 mL
  • Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Thiosulfate - 1 mL/kg of body weight (250 mg/kg or approximately 30-40 mL/m2 of BSA) not to exceed 50 mL total dose immediately following administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite.

NOTE: If signs of poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate.

In adult and pediatric patients with known anemia, it is recommended that the dosage of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite should be reduced proportionately to the hemoglobin concentration.

All parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

2.2 Recommended Monitoring

Patients should be monitored for at least 24-48 hours after Lactated Ringer's Nitrite Injection administration for adequacy of oxygenation and perfusion and for recurrent signs and symptoms of cyanide toxicity. When possible, hemoglobin/hematocrit should be obtained when treatment is initiated. Measurements of oxygen saturation using standard pulse oximetry and calculated oxygen saturation values based on measured PO2 are unreliable in the presence of methemoglobinemia.

Methemoglobin level: Administrations of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite solely to achieve an arbitrary level of methemoglobinemia may be unnecessary and potentially hazardous. The therapeutic effects of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite do not appear to be mediated by methemoglobin formation alone and clinical responses to Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite administration have been reported in association with methemoglobin levels of less than 10%. Administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite beyond the initial dose should be guided primarily by clinical response to treatment (i.e., a second dose should be considered only if there is inadequate clinical response to the first dose). It is generally recommended that methemoglobin concentrations be closely monitored and kept below 30%. Serum methemoglobin levels should be monitored during treatment using co-oximetry, and administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite should generally be discontinued when methemoglobin levels exceed 30%. Intravenous methylene blue and exchange transfusion have been reported in the literature as treatments for life-threatening methemoglobinemia.

2.3 Incompatibility Information

Chemical incompatibility has been reported between Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite and hydroxocobalamin and these drugs should not be administered simultaneously through the same IV line. No chemical incompatibility has been reported between Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite, when administered sequentially through the same IV line as described in Dosage and Administration.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite Injection consists of:

  • One vial of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite injection, USP 300 mg/10mL (30 mg/mL)

Administration of the contents of one vial constitutes a single dose.

  • Injection, 300 mg/10 mL (30 mg/mL). (3)

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

None

  • None. (4)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Methemoglobinemia: Lactated Ringer's nitrite reacts with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin and should be used with caution in patients known to have anemia. Monitor oxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin levels by pulse oximetry or other measurements. Optimally, the Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite dose should be reduced in proportion to the oxygen carrying capacity. (5.2)
  • Smoke inhalation: Carbon monoxide contained in smoke can result in the formation of carboxyhemoglobin that can reduce the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite should be used with caution in patients with smoke inhalation injury because of the potential for worsening hypoxia due to methemoglobin formation. Carboxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin levels should be monitored by pulse oximetry or other measurements in patients that present with evidence of smoke inhalation. Optimally, the Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite dose should be reduced in proportion to the oxygen carrying capacity. (5.4)

5.1 Hypotension

5.2 Methemoglobinemia

Supportive care alone may be sufficient treatment without administration of antidotes for many cases of cyanide intoxication, particularly in conscious patients without signs of severe toxicity. Patients should be closely monitored to ensure adequate perfusion and oxygenation during treatment with Lactated Ringer's nitrite.

Methemoglobin levels should be monitored and oxygen administered during treatment with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite whenever possible. When Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite is administered to humans a wide range of methemoglobin concentrations occur. Methemoglobin concentrations as high as 58% have been reported after two 300-mg doses of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite administered to an adult. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of other drugs that may cause methemoglobinemia such as procaine and nitroprusside. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite should be used with caution in patients who may be particularly susceptible to injury from vasodilation and its related hemodynamic sequelae. Hemodynamics should be monitored closely during and after administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite, and infusion rates should be slowed if hypotension occurs.

5.3 Anemia

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite should be used with caution in patients with known anemia. Patients with anemia will form more methemoglobin (as a percentage of total hemoglobin) than persons with normal red blood cell (RBC) volumes. Optimally, these patients should receive a Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite dose that is reduced in proportion to their oxygen carrying capacity.

5.4 Smoke Inhalation Injury

Lactated Ringer's nitrite should be used with caution in persons with smoke inhalation injury or carbon monoxide poisoning because of the potential for worsening hypoxia due to methemoglobin formation.

5.5 Neonates and Infants

Neonates and infants may be more susceptible than adults and older pediatric patients to severe methemoglobinemia when Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite is administered. Reduced dosing guidelines should be followed in pediatric patients.

5.6 G6PD Deficiency

Because patients with G6PD deficiency are at increased risk of a hemolytic crisis with Lactated Ringer's nitrite administration, alternative therapeutic approaches should be considered in these patients. Patients with known or suspected G6PD deficiency should be monitored for an acute drop in hematocrit. Exchange transfusion may be needed for patients with G6PD deficiency who receive Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite.

5.7 Use with Other Drugs

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of concomitant antihypertensive medications, diuretics or volume depletion due to diuretics, or drugs known to increase vascular nitric oxide, such as PDE5 inhibitors.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

There have been no controlled clinical trials conducted to systematically assess the adverse events profile of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite.

The medical literature has reported the following adverse events in association with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite administration. These adverse events were not reported in the context of controlled trials or with consistent monitoring and reporting methodologies for adverse events. Therefore, frequency of occurrence of these adverse events cannot be assessed.

Cardiovascular system: syncope, hypotension, tachycardia, methemoglobinemia, palpitations, dysrhythmia

Hematological: methemoglobinemia

Central nervous system: headache, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, confusion, coma

Gastrointestinal system: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain

Respiratory system: tachypnea, dyspnea

Body as a Whole: anxiety, diaphoresis, lightheadedness, injection site tingling, cyanosis, acidosis, fatigue, weakness, urticaria, generalized numbness and tingling

Severe hypotension, methemoglobinemia, cardiac dysrhythmias, coma and death have been reported in patients without life-threatening cyanide poisoning but who were treated with injection of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite at doses less than twice those recommended for the treatment of cyanide poisoning.

Most common adverse reactions are:

  • Syncope, hypotension, tachycardia, palpitations, dysrhythmia, methemoglobinemia, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, confusion, coma (6)

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Hope Pharmaceuticals at 1-800-755-9595 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Formal drug interaction studies have not been conducted with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite Injection.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

  • Renal impairment: Lactated Ringer's nitrite is substantially excreted by the kidney. The risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. (8.6).

8.1 Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite Injection should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite has caused fetal death in humans as well as animals. There are no studies in humans that have directly evaluated the potential reproductive toxicity of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite. There are two epidemiological studies conducted in Australia that report a statistically significant increase in the risk for congenital malformations, particularly in the CNS, associated with maternal consumption of water containing nitrate levels in excess of 5 ppm. Results from a case-control study in Canada suggested a trend toward an increase in the risk for CNS malformations when maternal consumption of nitrate was ≥ 26 ppm (not statistically significant).

The potential reproductive toxicity of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite exposure restricted to the prenatal period has been reported in guinea pigs, mice, and rats. There was no evidence of teratogenicity in guinea pigs, mice, or rats. However, Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite treatment of pregnant guinea pigs with 60 or 70 mg/kg/day resulted in abortion of the litters within 1-4 days of treatment. All animals treated subcutaneously with 70 mg/kg, Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite died within 60 minutes of treatment. Further studies demonstrated that a dose of 60 mg/kg resulted in measurable blood levels of methemoglobin in the dams and their fetuses for up to 6 hours post treatment. Maternal methemoglobin levels were higher than the levels in the offspring at all times measured. Based on a body surface area comparison, a 60 mg/kg dose in the guinea pig that resulted in death was only 1.7 times higher than the highest clinical dose of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).

Studies testing prenatal and postnatal exposure have been reported in mice and rats. Treatment of pregnant rats via drinking water with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite at concentrations of either 2000 or 3000 mg/L resulted in a dose-related increased mortality postpartum. This exposure regimen in the rat model would result in dosing of approximately 220 and 300 mg/kg/day (43 and 65 times the highest clinical dose of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning, based on a body surface area comparison).

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite produces methemoglobin. Fetal hemoglobin is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin. In addition, the fetus has lower levels of methemoglobin reductase than adults. Collectively, these data suggest that the human fetus would show greater sensitivity to methemoglobin resulting in nitrite-induced prenatal hypoxia leading to retarded development of certain neurotransmitter systems in the brain and long lasting dysfunction.

Nonteratogenic Effects: Behavioral and neurodevelopmental studies in rats suggest persistent effects of prenatal exposure to Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite that were detectable postnatally. Specifically, animals that were exposed prenatally to Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite demonstrated impaired discrimination learning behavior (both auditory and visual) and reduced long-term retention of the passive-avoidance response compared to control animals. Additional studies demonstrated a delay in the development of AchE and 5-HT positive fiber ingrowth into the hippocampal dentate gyrus and parietal neocortex during the first week of life of prenatal nitrite treated pups. These changes have been attributed to prenatal hypoxia following nitrite exposure.

8.2 Labor and Delivery

Because fetal hemoglobin is more readily oxidized to methemoglobin and lower levels of methemoglobin appear to be fatal to the fetus compared to the adult, Lactated Ringer's nitrite should be used during labor and delivery only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite is excreted in human milk. Because Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite Injection may be administered in life-threatening situations, breast-feeding is not a contraindication to its use. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised following Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite Injection administration to a nursing woman. There are no data to determine when breastfeeding may be safely restarted following administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite. In studies conducted with Long-Evans rats, Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite administered in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation resulted in severe anemia, reduced growth and increased mortality in the offspring.

8.4 Pediatric Use

There are case reports in the medical literature of Lactated Ringer's nitrite in conjunction with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate being administered to pediatric patients with cyanide poisoning; however, there have been no clinical studies to evaluate the safety or efficacy of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite in the pediatric population. As for adult patients, dosing recommendations for pediatric patients have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite must be used with caution in patients less than 6 months of age because they may be at higher risk of developing severe methemoglobinemia compared to older children and adults. The presence of fetal hemoglobin, which is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin, and lower methemoglobin reductase levels compared to older children and adults may contribute to risk.

Mortality attributed to Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite was reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

8.6 Renal Disease

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Large doses of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite result in severe hypotension and toxic levels of methemoglobin which may lead to cardiovascular collapse.

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite administration has been reported to cause or significantly contribute to mortality in adults at oral doses as low as 1 g and intravenous doses as low as 600 mg. A death attributed to Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite has been reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.

Cyanosis may become apparent at a methemoglobin level of 10-20%. Other clinical signs and symptoms of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite toxicity (anxiety, dyspnea, nausea, and tachycardia) can be apparent at methemoglobin levels as low as 15%. More serious signs and symptoms, including cardiac dysrhythmias, circulatory failure, and central nervous system depression are seen as methemoglobin levels increase, and levels above 70% are usually fatal.

Treatment of overdose involves supplemental oxygen and supportive measures such as exchange transfusion. Treatment of severe methemoglobinemia with intravenous methylene blue has been described in the medical literature; however, this may also cause release of cyanide bound to methemoglobin. Because hypotension appears to be mediated primarily by an increase in venous capacitance, measures to increase venous return may be most appropriate to treat hypotension.

11 DESCRIPTION

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite has the chemical name nitrous acid Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) salt. The chemical formula is NaNO2 and the molecular weight is 69.0. The structural formula is:

Structure of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite Injection is a cyanide antidote which contains one 10 mL glass vial of a 3% solution of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite injection.

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite injection is a sterile aqueous solution and is intended for intravenous injection. Each vial contains 300 mg of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite in 10 mL solution (30 mg/mL). Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite injection is a clear solution with a pH between 7.0 and 9.0.

Chemical Structure

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Exposure to a high dose of cyanide can result in death within minutes due to the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in arrest of cellular respiration. Specifically, cyanide binds rapidly with cytochrome a3, a component of the cytochrome c oxidase complex in mitochondria. Inhibition of cytochrome a3 prevents the cell from using oxygen and forces anaerobic metabolism, resulting in lactate production, cellular hypoxia and metabolic acidosis. In massive acute cyanide poisoning, the mechanism of toxicity may involve other enzyme systems as well.

The synergy resulting from treatment of cyanide poisoning with the combination of Lactated Ringer's nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate is the result of differences in their primary mechanisms of action as antidotes for cyanide poisoning.

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite is thought to exert its therapeutic effect by reacting with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin, an oxidized form of hemoglobin incapable of oxygen transport but with high affinity for cyanide. Cyanide preferentially binds to methemoglobin over cytochrome a3, forming the nontoxic cyanomethemoglobin. Methemoglobin displaces cyanide from cytochrome oxidase, allowing resumption of aerobic metabolism. The chemical reaction is as follows:

NaNO2 + Hemoglobin → Methemoglobin

HCN + Methemoglobin → Cyanomethemoglobin

Vasodilation has also been cited to account for at least part of the therapeutic effect of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite. It has been suggested that Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia may be more efficacious against cyanide poisoning than comparable levels of methemoglobinemia induced by other oxidants. Also, Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite appears to retain some efficacy even when the formation of methemoglobin is inhibited by methylene blue.

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Thiosulfate

The primary route of endogenous cyanide detoxification is by enzymatic transulfuration to thiocyanate (SCN-), which is relatively nontoxic and readily excreted in the urine. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate is thought to serve as a sulfur donor in the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme rhodanese, thus enhancing the endogenous detoxification of cyanide in the following chemical reaction:

Chemical Structure

12. 2 Pharmacodynamics

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite

When 4 mg/kg Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite was administered intravenously to six healthy human volunteers, the mean peak methemoglobin concentration was 7%, achieved at 30-60 minutes after injection, consistent with reports in cyanide poisoning victims. Supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures dropped approximately 20% within 10 minutes, a drop which was sustained throughout the 40 minutes of testing. This was associated with a 20 beat per minute increase in pulse rate that returned to baseline in 10 minutes. Five of these subjects were unable to withstand orthostatic testing due to fainting. One additional subject, who received a 12 mg/kg dose of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite, experienced severe cardiovascular effects and achieved a peak methemoglobin concentration of 30% at 60 minutes following injection.

Oral doses of 120 to 180 mg of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite administered to healthy volunteers caused minimal cardiovascular changes when subjects were maintained in the horizontal position. However, minutes after being placed in the upright position subjects exhibited tachycardia and hypotension with syncope.

The half life for conversion of methemoglobin to normal hemoglobin in a cyanide poisoning victim who has been administered Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite is estimated to be 55 minutes.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite is a strong oxidant, and reacts rapidly with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin. The pharmacokinetics of free Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite in humans have not been well studied. It has been reported that approximately 40% of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite is excreted unchanged in the urine while the remaining 60% is metabolized to ammonia and related small molecules.

Cyanide

The apparent terminal elimination half life and volume of distribution of cyanide, in a patient treated for an acute cyanide poisoning with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate administration, have been reported to be 19 hours and 0.41 L/kg, respectively. Additionally, an initial elimination half life of cyanide has been reported to be approximately 1-3 hours.

Thiocyanate

After detoxification, in healthy subjects, thiocyanate is excreted mainly in the urine at a rate inversely proportional to creatinine clearance. In healthy subjects, the elimination half-life and volume of distribution of thiocyanate have been reported to be 2.7 days and 0.25 L/kg, respectively. However, in subjects with renal insufficiency the reported elimination half life is approximately 9 days.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

The potential benefit of an acute exposure to Lactated Ringer's nitrite as part of a cyanide antidote outweighs concerns raised by the equivocal findings in chronic rodent studies. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 35, 70, or 130 mg/kg for males and 0, 40, 80, or 150 mg/kg for females) was orally administered to rats (Fischer 344 strain) for 2 years via drinking water. There were no significant increases in the incidence of tumor in either male or female rats. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 60, 120, or 220 mg/kg for males and 0, 45, 90, or 165 mg/kg for females) was administered to B6C3F1 mice for 2 years via the drinking water. Equivocal results were obtained in female mice. Specifically, there was a positive trend toward an increase in the incidence of squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma in the forestomach of female mice. Although the incidence of hyperplasia of the glandular stomach epithelium was significantly greater in the high-dose male mice compared to controls, there were no significant increases in tumors in the male mice. Numerous reports in the published literature indicate that Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite may react in vivo with secondary amines to form carcinogenic nitrosamines in the stomach. Concurrent exposure to Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite and secondary amines in feed or drinking water resulted in an increase in the incidence of tumors in rodents.

Mutagenesis

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite is mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA100, TA1530, TA1535 with and without metabolic activation; however, it was negative in strain TA98, TA102, DJ460 and E. coli strain WP2UVRA/PKM101. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite has been reported to be genotoxic to V79 hamster cells in vitro and in the mouse lymphoma assay, both assays conducted in the absence of metabolic activation. Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite was negative in the in vitro chromosomal aberrations assay using human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Acute administration of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite to male rats or male mice did not produce an increased incidence of micronuclei in bone marrow. Likewise, Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite administration to mice for 14-weeks did not result in an increase in the incidence of micronuclei in the peripheral blood.

Fertility

Clinical studies to evaluate the potential effects of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite intake on fertility of either males or females have not been reported. In contrast, multigenerational fertility and reproduction studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program did not detect any evidence of an effect of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite (0.0, 0.06, 0.12, and 0.24% weight/volume) on either fertility or any reproductive parameter in Swiss CD-1 mice. This treatment protocol resulted in approximate doses of 125, 260, and 425 mg/kg/day. The highest exposure in this mouse study is 4.6 times greater than the highest clinical dose of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).

13.2 Animal Pharmacology

Due to the extreme toxicity of cyanide, experimental evaluation of treatment efficacy has predominantly been completed in animal models. The efficacy of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate treatment alone to counteract the toxicity of cyanide was initially reported in 1895 by Lang. The efficacy of amyl nitrite treatment in cyanide poisoning of the dog model was first reported in 1888 by Pedigo. Further studies in the dog model, which demonstrated the utility of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite as a therapeutic intervention, were reported in 1929 by Mladoveanu and Gheorghiu. However, Hugs and Chen et al. independently reported upon the superior efficacy of the combination of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate in 1932-1933. Treatment consisted of intravenously administered 22.5 mg/kg (half the lethal dose) Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite or 1 g/kg Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate alone or in sequence immediately after subcutaneous injection of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) cyanide into dogs over a range of doses. Subsequent doses of 10 mg/kg Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite and/or 0.5 g/kg Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate were administered when clinical signs or symptoms of poisoning persisted or reappeared. Either therapy administered alone increased the dose of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) cyanide required to cause death, and when administered together, Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate resulted in a synergistic effect in raising the lethal dose of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) cyanide. The combined therapy appeared to have reduced efficacy when therapy was delayed until signs of poisoning (e.g. convulsions) appeared; however, other investigators have reported survival in dogs that were administered antidotal treatment after respiratory arrest had occurred.

Animal studies conducted in other species (e.g., rat, guinea pig, sheep, pigeon and cat) have also supported a synergistic effect of intravenous Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate in the treatment of cyanide poisoning.

While intravenous injection of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite and Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate was effective in reversing the effects of lethal doses of cyanide in dogs, intramuscular injection of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite, with or without Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate, was found not to be effective in the same setting.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

The human data supporting the use of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite for cyanide poisoning consists primarily of published case reports. There are no randomized controlled clinical trials. Nearly all the human data describing the use of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) thiosulfate report its use in conjunction with Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite. Dosing recommendations for humans have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.

There have been no human studies to prospectively and systematically evaluate the safety of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite in humans. Available human safety information is based largely on anecdotal case reports and case series of limited scope.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

Each Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite carton (NDC 60267-311-10) consists of the following:

  • One 10 mL glass vial of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite injection 30 mg/mL (containing 300 mg of Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) nitrite);

Storage

Store at controlled room temperature between 20°C and 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted from 15 to 30°C (59 to 86°F). Protect from direct light. Do not freeze.

(Note: Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Thiosulfate must be obtained separately.)

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Lactated Ringer's Nitrite Injection is indicated for acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening and in this setting, patients will likely be unresponsive or may have difficulty in comprehending counseling information.

17.1 Hypotension and Methemoglobin Formation

When feasible, patients should be informed of the possibility of life-threatening hypotension and methemoglobin formation.

17.2 Monitoring

Where feasible, patients should be informed of the need for close monitoring of blood pressure and oxygenation.

Manufactured by Cangene BioPharma, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland 21230 for

Hope Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, Arizona 85260

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton

NDC 60267-311-10

Rx Only

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Nitrite

Injection, USP

300 mg/10 mL

(30 mg/mL)

FOR INTRAVENOUS USE

SINGLE USE ONLY

Any unused portion of a vial

should be discarded.

Use with

Lactated Ringer's (Sodium Lactate) Thiosulfate

for Treatment of

Cyanide Poisoning

Manufactured by

CANGENE bioPharma, Inc.

Baltimore, MD for

HOPE

PHARMACEUTICALS®

Scottsdale, AZ 85260 U.S.A.

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton

Lactated Ringer's pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

infoActive ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Lactated Ringer's available forms, composition, doses:

infoForm of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Lactated Ringer's destination | category:

infoDestination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Lactated Ringer's Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

infoA medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Lactated Ringer's pharmaceutical companies:

infoPharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


advertisement

References

  1. Dailymed."NASAL SPA NATURAL SEA SALT (SODIUM CHLORIDE) SPRAY [NACUR HEALTHCARE LTD]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."SODIUM LACTATE INJECTION, SOLUTION, CONCENTRATE [HOSPIRA, INC.]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. Dailymed."POTASSIUM CHLORIDE TABLET, EXTENDED RELEASE [BRYANT RANCH PREPACK]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Lactated Ringer's?

Depending on the reaction of the Lactated Ringer's after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Lactated Ringer's not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Lactated Ringer's addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

advertisement

Review

sDrugs.com conducted a study on Lactated Ringer's, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Lactated Ringer's consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

Visitor reports

Visitor reviews


There are no reviews yet. Be the first to write one!


Your name: 
Email: 
Spam protection:  < Type 14 here

The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

© 2002 - 2018 "sDrugs.com". All Rights Reserved