Ketamine

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Ketamine uses



NADA 045-290, Approved by FDA

Veterinary Injection for Intramuscular Use in Cats and Subhuman Primates Only

Caution:

Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian.

Description:

Ketamine (ketamine hydrochloride injection, USP) is a rapid-acting, nonnarcotic, nonbarbiturate agent for anesthetic use in cats and for restraint in subhuman primates. It is chemically designated dl 2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino) cyclohexanone hydrochloride and is supplied as a slightly acid (pH 3.5 to 5.5) solution for intramuscular injection in a concentration containing the equivalent of 100 mg Ketamine base per milliliter and contains not more than 0.1 mg/mL benzethonium chloride as a preservative.

Indications:

Ketamine may be used in cats for restraint or as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic or minor, brief, surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation. It may be used in subhuman primates for restraint.

Dosage and Administration:

Ketamine is well tolerated by cats and subhuman primates when administered by intramuscular injection.

Fasting prior to induction of anesthesia or restraint with Ketamine is not essential; however, when preparing for elective surgery, it is advisable to withhold food for at least six hours prior to administration of Ketamine.

Anesthesia may be of shorter duration in immature cats. Restraint in subhuman primate neonates (less than 24 hours of age) is difficult to achieve.

As with other anesthetic agents, the individual response to Ketamine is somewhat varied depending upon the dose, general condition and age of the subject so that dosage recommendations cannot be absolutely fixed.

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Dosage – Cats:

A dose of 11 mg/kg (5 mg/lb) is recommended to produce restraint. Dosages from 22 to 33 mg/kg (10 to 15 mg/lb) produce anesthesia that is suitable for diagnostic or minor surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation.

Subhuman Primates:

The recommended restraint dosages of Ketamine (ketamine hydrochloride injection, USP) for the following species are: Cercocebus torquatus (white-collared mangabey), Papio cynocephalus (yellow baboon), Pan troglodytes verus (chimpanzee), Papio anubis (olive baboon), Pongo pygmaeus (orangutan), Macaca nemestrina (pig-tailed macaque) 5 to 7.5 mg/kg; Presbytis entellus (entellus langur) 3 to 5 mg/kg; Gorilla gorilla gorilla (gorilla) 7 to 10 mg/kg; Aotus trivirgatus (night monkey) 10 to 12 mg/kg; Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey) 5 to 10 mg/kg; Cebus capucinus (white-throated capuchin) 13 to 15 mg/kg; and Macaca fascicularis (crab-eating macaque), Macaca radiata (bonnet macaque) and Saimiri sciureus (squirrel monkey) 12 to 15 mg/kg.

A single intramuscular injection produces restraint suitable for TB testing; radiography, physical examination or blood collection.

Contraindications:

Ketamine is contraindicated in cats and subhuman primates suffering from renal or hepatic insufficiency.

Ketamine is detoxified by the liver and excreted by the kidneys; therefore, any preexistent hepatic or renal pathology or impairment of function can be expected to result in prolonged anesthesia; related fatalities have been reported.

Precautions:

In cats, doses in excess of 50 mg/kg during any single procedure should not be used. The maximum recommended dose in subhuman primates is 40 mg/kg.

To reduce the incidence of emergence reactions, animals should not be stimulated by sound or handling during the recovery period. However, this does not preclude the monitoring of vital signs.

Apnea, respiratory arrest, cardiac arrest and death have occasionally been reported with Ketamine used alone, and more frequently when used in conjunction with sedatives or other anesthetics. Close monitoring of patients is strongly advised during induction, maintenance and recovery from anesthesia.

Color of solution may vary from colorless to very slightly yellowish and may darken upon prolonged exposure to light. This darkening does not affect potency. Do not use if precipitate appears.

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Adverse Reactions:

Respiratory depression may occur following administration of high doses of Ketamine (ketamine hydrochloride injection, USP). If at any time respiration becomes excessively depressed and the animal becomes cyanotic, resuscitative measures should be instituted promptly. Adequate pulmonary ventilation using either oxygen or room air is recommended as a resuscitative measure.

Adverse reactions reported have included emesis, salivation, vocalization, erratic recovery and prolonged recovery, spastic jerking movements, convulsions, muscular tremors, hypertonicity, opisthotonos, dyspnea and cardiac arrest. In the cat, myoclonic jerking and/or mild tonic convulsions can be controlled by ultrashort-acting barbiturates which should be given to effect. The barbiturates should be administered intravenously at a dose level of one-sixth to one-fourth the usual dose for the product being used. Acepromazine may also be used. However, recent information indicates that some phenothiazine derivatives may potentiate the toxic effects of organic phosphate compounds such as found in flea collars and certain anthelmintics. A study has indicated that Ketamine hydrochloride alone does not potentiate the toxic effects of organic phosphate compounds.

To report suspected adverse reactions, to obtain a Material Safety Data Sheet or for technical assistance, call 1-866-638-2226.

Action:

Ketamine is a rapid-acting agent whose pharmacological action is characterized by profound analgesia, normal pharyngeal-laryngeal reflexes, mild cardiac stimulation and respiratory depression. Skeletal muscle tone is variable and may be normal, enhanced or diminished. The anesthetic state produced does not fit into the conventional classification of stages of anesthesia, but instead Ketamine produces a state of unconsciousness which has been termed “dissociative” anesthesia in that it appears to selectively interrupt association pathways to the brain before producing somesthetic sensory blockade.

In contrast to other anesthetics, protective reflexes, such as coughing and swallowing are maintained under Ketamine anesthesia. The degree of muscle tone is dependent upon level of dose; therefore, variations in body temperature may occur. At low dosage levels there may be an increase in muscle tone and a concomitant slight increase in body temperature. However, at high dosage levels there is some diminution in muscle tone and a resultant decrease in body temperature, to the point where supplemental heat may be advisable.

In cats, there is usually some transient cardiovascular stimulation, increased cardiac output with slight increase in mean systolic pressure with little or no change in total peripheral resistance. At higher doses the respiratory rate is usually decreased.

The assurance of a patent airway is greatly enhanced by virtue of maintained pharyngeal-laryngeal reflexes. Although some salivation is occasionally noted, the persistence of the swallowing reflex aids in minimizing the hazards associated with ptyalism. Salivation may be effectively controlled with atropine sulfate in dosages of 0.04 mg/kg (0.02 mg/lb) in cats and 0.01 to 0.05 mg/kg (0.005 to 0.025 mg/lb) in subhuman primates.

Other reflexes, e.g., corneal, pedal, etc., are maintained during Ketamine (ketamine hydrochloride injection, USP) anesthesia, and should not be used as criteria for judging depth of anesthesia. The eyes normally remain open with the pupils dilated. It is suggested that a bland ophthalmic ointment be applied to the cornea if anesthesia is to be prolonged.

Following administration of recommended doses, cats become ataxic in about 5 minutes with anesthesia usually lasting from 30 to 45 minutes at higher doses. At the lower doses, complete recovery usually occurs in 4 to 5 hours but with higher doses recovery time is more prolonged and may be as long as 24 hours.

In studies involving 14 species of subhuman primates represented by at least 10 anesthetic episodes for each species, the median time to restraint ranged from 1.5 [Aotus trivirgatus (night monkey) and Cebus capucinus (white-throated capuchin)] to 5.3 minutes [Macaca nemestrina (pig-tailed macaque)]. The median duration of restraint ranged between 20 and 55 minutes in all but five of the species studied. Total time from injection to end of restraint ranged from 43 [Saimiri sciureus (squirrel monkey)] to 183 minutes [Macaca nemestrina (pig-tailed macaque)] after injection. Recovery is generally smooth and uneventful. The duration is dose related.

By single intramuscular injection, Ketamine usually has a wide margin of safety in cats and subhuman primates. In cats, cases of prolonged recovery and death have been reported.

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Clinical Studies:

Ketamine has been clinically studied in subhuman primates in addition to those species listed under Dosage and Administration. Dosages for restraint in these additional species, based on limited clinical data, are: Cercopithecus aethiops (grivet), Papio papio (guinea baboon) 10 to 12 mg/kg; Erythrocebus patas patas (patas monkey) 3 to 5 mg/kg; Hylobates lar (white-handed gibbon) 5 to 10 mg/kg; Lemur catta (ringtailed lemur) 7.5 to 10 mg/kg; Macaca fuscata (Japanese macaque) 5 mg/kg; Macaca speciosa (stumptailed macaque) and Miopithecus talapoin (mangrove monkey) 5 to 7.5 mg/kg; and Symphalangus syndactylus (siamangs) 5 to 7 mg/kg.

Storage Information:

Store at or below 25°C (77°F). Protect from light. Use contents within 6 months of first puncture.

How Supplied:

Ketamine (ketamine hydrochloride injection, USP) is supplied as the hydrochloride in concentrations equivalent to Ketamine base. Each 10 mL vial contains 100 mg/mL.

NDC 13985-584-10 - 10 mL vial

383010-01

Rev. 04/14

Distributed by: MWI

Boise, ID 83705

(888) 694-8381

www. VetOne.net

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Ketamine pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Ketamine available forms, composition, doses:

Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.

Price
Injectable; Injection; Ketamine Hydrochloride 10 mg / ml
Injectable; Injection; Ketamine Hydrochloride 10%
Injectable; Injection; Ketamine Hydrochloride 100 mg / ml
Injectable; Injection; Ketamine Hydrochloride 50 mg / ml
Ketalar 10 mg/ml vial0.99 USD
Ketalar 100 mg/ml vial1.95 USD
Ketalar 50 mg/ml vial0.75 USD
Ketamine 10 mg/ml vial0.99 USD
Ketamine 100 mg/ml vial2.36 USD
Ketamine 50 mg/ml vial0.61 USD
Ketamine HCl 50 mg/ml Solution1.77 USD
Ketamine hcl powder7.22 USD
Ketamine hcl-ns 100 mg/10 ml1.95 USD
Ketamine hcl-ns 50 mg/5 ml syr2.82 USD

Ketamine destination | category:

Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Ketamine Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Ketamine pharmaceutical companies:

Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."ZETAMINE (KETAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE) INJECTION [MWI/VETONE]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. "ketamine". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "ketamine". http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB0122... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Ketamine?

Depending on the reaction of the Ketamine after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Ketamine not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Ketamine addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sdrugs.com conducted a study on Ketamine, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Ketamine consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

Visitor reports

Visitor reported useful

No survey data has been collected yet

Visitor reported side effects

No survey data has been collected yet

Visitor reported price estimates

No survey data has been collected yet

Visitor reported frequency of use

No survey data has been collected yet

Two visitors reported doses

What is the dose of Ketamine drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sdrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 51-100mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
Visitors%
51-100mg1
50.0%
101-200mg1
50.0%

Visitor reported time for results

No survey data has been collected yet

One visitor reported administration

The drugs are administered in various routes, like oral or injection form. They are administered before food or after food. How are you taking Ketamine drug, before food or after food?
Click here to find out how other users of our website are taking it. For any doubts or queries on how and when the medicine is administered, contact your health care provider immediately.
Visitors%
After food1
100.0%

Visitor reported age

No survey data has been collected yet

Visitor reviews


There are no reviews yet. Be the first to write one!


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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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