DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Kemiderm usesKemiderm consists of Chloramphenicol, Hydrocortisone Acetate.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Indication: Used in treatment of cholera, as it destroys the vibrios and decreases the diarrhea. It is effective against tetracycline-resistant vibrios. It is also used in eye drops or ointment to treat bacterial conjunctivitis.
Kemiderm (Chloramphenicol) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that was derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae and is now produced synthetically. Kemiderm (Chloramphenicol) is effective against a wide variety of microorganisms, but due to serious side-effects (e.g., damage to the bone marrow, including aplastic anemia) in humans, it is usually reserved for the treatment of serious and life-threatening infections (e.g., typhoid fever). Kemiderm (Chloramphenicol) is bacteriostatic but may be bactericidal in high concentrations or when used against highly susceptible organisms. Kemiderm (Chloramphenicol) stops bacterial growth by binding to the bacterial ribosome (blocking peptidyl transferase) and inhibiting protein synthesis.
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate)® (hydrocortisone probutate) Cream, 0.1% is indicated for the relief of the inflammatory and pruritic manifestations of corticosteroid-responsive dermatoses in patients 18 years of age or older.
PANDEL® (hydrocortisone probutate) Cream, 0.1% is a corticosteroid indicated for the relief of the inflammatory and pruritic manifestations of corticosteroid-responsive dermatoses in patients 18 years of age or older.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Apply a thin film of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) to the affected area once or twice a day depending on the severity of the condition. Massage gently until the medication disappears.
Occlusive dressings may be used for the management of refractory lesions of psoriasis and other deep-seated dermatoses, such as localized neurodermatitis (lichen simplex chronicus).
Discontinue Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) when control is achieved. If no improvement is seen within 2 weeks, reassessment of the diagnosis may be necessary.
Do not use Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) with occlusive dressings unless directed by the physician. Do not apply Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) in the diaper area, as diapers or plastic pants may constitute occlusive dressings.
- For topical use.
- Apply a thin film to the affected skin areas once daily or twice a day.
- Discontinue therapy when control is achieved.
- If no improvement is seen within 2 weeks, reassess diagnosis.
- Do not use with occlusive dressings unless directed by a physician.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Cream, 0.1%. Each gram of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) contains 1 mg of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) probutate in a cream base.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
- Kemiderm can produce reversible HPA axis suppression with the potential for glucocorticosteroid insufficiency during or after treatment. (5.1)
- Cushing’s syndrome, hyperglycemia, and unmasking of latent diabetes mellitus can result from systemic absorption of topical corticosteroids. (5.1)
- Use of topical corticosteroids may require periodic evaluation for HPA axis suppression. (5.1)
- High potency corticosteroids, large treatment surface area, prolong use, use of occlusion dressings, altered skin barrier, liver failure and young age may predispose patients to HPA axis suppression. (5.1)
- Modify use if HPA axis suppression develops. (5.1)
- Pediatric patients may be more susceptible to systemic toxicity. (5.1, 8.4)
5.1 Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis Suppression and Other Unwanted Systemic Glucocorticoid Effects
Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) can produce reversible hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression with the potential for glucocorticosteroid insufficiency. This may occur during or after withdrawal of treatment. Factors that predispose to HPA axis suppression include the use of high-potency corticosteroids, large treatment surface areas, prolonged use, use of occlusive dressings, altered skin barrier, liver failure, and young age.
Use of topical corticosteroids may require periodic evaluation for HPA axis suppression. Evaluation for HPA axis suppression may be done by using the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test.
If HPA axis suppression is documented, gradually withdraw the drug, reduce the frequency of application, or substitute with a less potent corticosteroid. If signs and symptoms of steroid withdrawal occur, supplemental systemic corticosteroids may be required. Recovery of HPA axis function is generally prompt and complete upon discontinuation of the drug.
In a trial including 15 evaluable subjects 18 years of age or older with psoriasis or atopic dermatitis affecting more than 20% of body surface area, 1 subject (6.7%) had ACTH stimulation test results suggestive of adrenal suppression after treatment with Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) twice daily for 21 days. Recovery of HPA axis suppression for this subject is unknown [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.2 )].
Systemic effects of topical corticosteroids may also manifest as Cushing’s syndrome, hyperglycemia, and unmasking latent diabetes mellitus.
Patients applying a topical steroid to a large surface area or to areas under occlusion should be evaluated periodically for evidence of HPA-axis suppression.
Pediatric patients may be more susceptible to systemic toxicity due to their larger skin surface to body mass ratios [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.4 )].
5.2 Allergic Contact Dermatitis
Allergic contact dermatitis with corticosteroids is usually diagnosed by observing a failure to heal rather than noting a clinical exacerbation, as observed with most topical products not containing corticosteroids. If irritation develops, discontinue Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) and institute appropriate therapy.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
- Most frequent adverse reactions include burning, stinging, rash, papulovesicular rash, redness, itching, moderate paresthesia, and contact dermatitis.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact PharmaDerm®, A division of Fougera Pharmaceuticals Inc. at 1-800-645-9833 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
The most frequent adverse reactions reported for Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) during clinical trials were application site reactions, including burning in 4, stinging in 2, and moderate paresthesia in 1 out of 226 subjects.
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) because these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
These adverse reactions are as follows:
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: rash, papulovesicular rash
Application Site Reactions: dryness, erythema, pruritus, allergic contact dermatitis.
The following local adverse reactions are reported with topical corticosteroids, and they may occur more frequently with the use of occlusive dressings. These reactions are listed in an approximate decreasing order of occurrence: itching, irritation, dryness, folliculitis, hypertrichosis, acneiform eruptions, hypopigmentation, perioral dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, secondary infections, skin atrophy, striae, and miliaria.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
There is no clinical information on Kemiderm use in pregnant women to inform any drug-associated risk for major birth defects and miscarriage. In animal reproduction studies, Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) probutate given by the subcutaneous route during the period of organogenesis was teratogenic at doses equal to or greater than 1 mg/kg/day in rats or 0.1 mg/kg/day in rabbits (12 times and 2 times the human topical dose, respectively) .
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.
Effects on embryo-fetal development were evaluated in rats and rabbits following subcutaneous administration of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) probutate during the period of organogenesis. Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) probutate was teratogenic in rats when given during the period of organogenesis at subcutaneous doses equal to or greater than 1 mg/kg/day (12 times the human average topical dose of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) assuming 3% absorption and an application of 30 g/day on a 70 kg individual). Abnormalities included delayed ossification of the caudal vertebrae and other skeletal variations, cleft palate, umbilical hernia, edema, and exencephalia.
In rabbits, Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) probutate given by the subcutaneous route was teratogenic at doses equal to or greater than 0.1 mg/kg/day (2 times the human average topical dose of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) assuming 3% absorption and an application of 30 g/day on a 70 kg individual). Fetal weight and survival were affected. Delayed ossification and increased incidences of malformations (skeletal abnormalities and cleft palate) were also noted.
No adverse effects were seen in rats following subcutaneous administration of up to 1 mg/kg/day of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) probutate during the perinatal and postnatal period (12 times the human average topical dose of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) assuming 3% absorption and an application of 30 g/day on a 70 kg individual).
There is no information on the presence of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) probutate in breast milk, or on its effects on the breastfed infant or on milk production. It is not known whether topical administration of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) or from the underlying maternal condition.
To minimize potential exposure to the breastfed infant via breast milk, use Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) on the smallest area of skin and for the shortest duration possible while breastfeeding.
8.4 Pediatric Use
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Because of a higher ratio of skin surface area to body mass, pediatric patients are at a greater risk than adults of HPA axis suppression and Cushing’s syndrome when they are treated with topical corticosteroids. They are therefore also at a greater risk of adrenal insufficiency during and/or after withdrawal of treatment. Adverse effects including striae have been reported with inappropriate use of topical corticosteroids in infants and children.
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression, Cushing’s syndrome, linear growth retardation, delayed weight gain, and intracranial hypertension have been reported in children receiving topical corticosteroids. Manifestations of adrenal suppression in children include low plasma cortisol levels and an absence of response to ACTH stimulation. Manifestations of intracranial hypertension include bulging fontanelles, headaches, and bilateral papilledema.
Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate)(hydrocortisone probutate) Cream, 0.1% contains Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) probutate, a synthetic corticosteroid. The topical corticosteroids constitute a class of primarily synthetic steroids used as anti-inflammatory and anti-pruritic agents.
Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) probutate is a tasteless and odorless white crystalline powder practically insoluble in hexane or water, slightly soluble in ether, and very soluble in dichloromethane, methanol and acetone. Chemically, it is 11β,17,21-trihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione 17-butyrate 21-propionate. The structural formula is:
Molecular Formula: C28H40O7
Molecular Weight: 488.62
Each gram of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) (hydrocortisone probutate) Cream, 0.1% contains: 1 mg of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) probutate in a cream base of propylene glycol, white petrolatum, light mineral oil, stearyl alcohol, polysorbate 60, sorbitan monostearate, glyceryl monostearate, PEG-20 stearate, glyceryl stearate SE, methylparaben, butylparaben, citric acid, sodium citrate anhydrous, and purified water.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Corticosteroids play a role in cellular signaling, immune function, inflammation, and protein regulation; however, the precise mechanism of action in corticosteroid responsive dermatoses is unknown
Studies performed with Kemiderm indicate that it is in the medium range of potency as demonstrated in vasoconstrictor trials in healthy subjects when compared with other topical corticosteroids. However, similar blanching scores do not necessarily imply therapeutic equivalence.
Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) Axis Suppression
In an open label HPA axis suppression trial, 19 adult subjects (ages 23 to 82 years) with atopic dermatitis or plaque psoriasis covering greater than 20% Body Surface Area (BSA) were treated with Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) twice daily for 21 days and were assessed for HPA axis suppression. At baseline, the mean disease BSA involvement was 36%. The criterion for HPA axis suppression was a serum cortisol level of less than or equal to 18 micrograms per deciliter at 30-minutes after cosyntropin stimulation. Of these subjects, 15 were considered evaluable with respect to their adrenal axis function post-treatment. One of the evaluable subjects (6.7%) showed laboratory evidence of suppression on Day 22. This subject had psoriasis covering 48% of BSA at baseline and was reported to have received 98% of the twice-daily applications of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) over the 21 day treatment period. It is not known if this subject had recovery of adrenal function because follow-up testing was not performed.
The extent of percutaneous absorption of topical corticosteroids is determined by many factors, including the vehicle and the integrity of the epidermal barrier. Use of occlusive dressings with Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) for up to 24 hours has not been shown to increase penetration; however, occlusion of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) for 96 hours does markedly enhance penetration. Topical corticosteroids can be absorbed from normal intact skin. Inflammation and/or other disease processes in the skin increase percutaneous absorption.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No long-term studies in animals have been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) probutate.
Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) probutate revealed no evidence of mutagenic or clastogenic potential based on the results of an in vitro genotoxicity test (Ames assay) and an in vivo genotoxicity test (mouse micronucleus assay).
Effects on fertility and early embryonic development were evaluated in rats following subcutaneous administration of up to 0.4 mg/kg/day Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) probutate (5 times the human average topical dose of Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate) assuming 3% absorption and an application of 30 g/day on a 70 kg individual) prior to and during mating and through early pregnancy. No treatment related effects on fertility or mating parameters were noted in this study.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate), a white to off-white opaque cream is supplied as follows:
45 g tubes NDC 10337-153-46
80 g tubes NDC 10337-153-80
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
Advise the patient and/or caregiver to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Patient Information).
Inform patients and/or caregivers of the following:
A division of Fougera
Melville, New York 11747 www.pharmaderm.com
Kemiderm (Hydrocortisone Acetate)®
(hydrocortisone probutate) Cream, 0.1%
FOR DERMATOLOGIC USE ONLY.
NOT FOR OPHTHALMIC USE.
Kemiderm pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Kemiderm available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Kemiderm destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Kemiderm Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Kemiderm pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Kemiderm?
Depending on the reaction of the Kemiderm after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Kemiderm not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Kemiderm addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Kemiderm, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Kemiderm consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
Visitor reported usefulNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported side effectsNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported price estimatesNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported frequency of useNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported dosesNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported time for resultsNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported administrationNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported ageNo survey data has been collected yet
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology