DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Intrazoline for Injection, USP is indicated in the treatment of the following infections due to susceptible organisms:
Respiratory Tract Infections: Due to S. pneumoniae, Klebsiella species, H. influenzae , S. aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant), and group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.
Injectable benzathine penicillin is considered to be the drug of choice in treatment and prevention of streptococcal infections, including the prophylaxis of rheumatic fever.
Intrazoline for Injection, USP is effective in the eradication of streptococci from the nasopharynx; however, data establishing the efficacy of Intrazoline for Injection, USP in the subsequent prevention of rheumatic fever are not available at present.
Urinary Tract Infections: Due to E. coli, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella species, and some strains of enterobacter and enterococci.
Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Due to S. aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant), group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, and other strains of streptococci.
Biliary Tract Infections: Due to E. coli, various strains of streptococci, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella species, and S. aureus.
Bone and Joint Infections: Due to S. aureus.
Genital Infections: (i.e., prostatitis, epididymitis) due to E. coli, P. mirabilis, Klebsiella species, and some strains of enterococci.
Septicemia: Due to S. pneumoniae, S. aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant), P. mirabilis, E. coli, and Klebsiella species.
Endocarditis: Due to S. aureus (penicillin-sensitive and penicillin-resistant) and group A beta-hemolytic streptococci.
Perioperative Prophylaxis: The prophylactic administration of Intrazoline for Injection, USP preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively may reduce the incidence of certain postoperative infections in patients undergoing surgical procedures which are classified as contaminated or potentially contaminated (e.g., vaginal hysterectomy, and cholecystectomy in high-risk patients such as those older than 70 years, with acute cholecystitis, obstructive jaundice, or common duct bile stones).
The perioperative use of Intrazoline for Injection, USP may also be effective in surgical patients in whom infection at the operative site would present a serious risk (e.g., during open-heart surgery and prosthetic arthroplasty).
The prophylactic administration of Intrazoline for Injection, USP should usually be discontinued within a 24-hour period after the surgical procedure. In surgery where the occurrence of infection may be particularly devastating (e.g., open-heart surgery and prosthetic arthroplasty), the prophylactic administration of Intrazoline for Injection, USP may be continued for 3 to 5 days following the completion of surgery.
If there are signs of infection, specimens for cultures should be obtained for the identification of the causative organism so that appropriate therapy may be instituted. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Intrazoline for Injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Intrazoline for Injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Intrazoline FOR INJECTION IS CONTRAINDICATED IN PATIENTS WITH KNOWN ALLERGY TO THE CEPHALOSPORIN GROUP OF ANTIBIOTICS.
BEFORE THERAPY WITH Intrazoline FOR INJECTION IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO Intrazoline, CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS, OR OTHER DRUGS. IF THIS PRODUCT IS GIVEN TO PENICILLIN-SENSITIVE PATIENTS, CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED BECAUSE CROSS-HYPERSENSITIVITY AMONG BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS HAS BEEN CLEARLY DOCUMENTED AND MAY OCCUR IN UP TO 10% OF PATIENTS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN ALLERGY. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION TO Intrazoline FOR INJECTION OCCURS, DISCONTINUE TREATMENT WITH THE DRUG. SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES, INCLUDING OXYGEN, IV FLUIDS, IV ANTIHISTAMINES, CORTICOSTEROIDS, PRESSOR AMINES, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, AS CLINICALLY INDICATED.
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including Intrazoline, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of antibacterial agents.
Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is a primary cause of “antibiotic-associated colitis.”
After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuation alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation, and treatment with an oral antibacterial drug clinically effective against C. difficile colitis.
Prolonged use of Intrazoline for Injection may result in the overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Careful clinical observation of the patient is essential.
When Intrazoline for Injection is administered to patients with low urinary output because of impaired renal function, lower daily dosage is required.
As with other β-lactam antibiotics, seizures may occur if inappropriately high doses are administered to patients with impaired renal function (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
Intrazoline for Injection, as with all cephalosporins, should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.
Cephalosporins may be associated with a fall in prothrombin activity. Those at risk include patients with renal or hepatic impairment or poor nutritional state, as well as patients receiving a protracted course of antimicrobial therapy, and patients previously stabilized on anticoagulant therapy. Prothrombin time should be monitored in patients at risk and exogenous vitamin K administered as indicated.
Prescribing Intrazoline for Injection in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Probenecid may decrease renal tubular secretion of cephalosporins when used concurrently, resulting in increased and more prolonged cephalosporin blood levels.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions
A false positive reaction for glucose in the urine may occur with Benedict’s solution, Fehling’s solution or with CLINITEST® tablets, but not with enzyme-based tests such as CLINISTIX®.
Positive direct and indirect antiglobulin tests have occurred; these may also occur in neonates whose mothers received cephalosporins before delivery.
Information for Patients
Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible.
Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Intrazoline for Injection should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Intrazoline for Injection is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may: (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment, and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Intrazoline for Injection or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Mutagenicity studies and long-term studies in animals to determine the carcinogenic potential of Intrazoline for Injection have not been performed.
Pregnancy Category B
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats, mice, and rabbits at doses up to 25 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Intrazoline for Injection. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Labor and Delivery
When Intrazoline has been administered prior to caesarean section, drug levels in cord blood have been approximately one quarter to one third of maternal drug levels. The drug appears to have no adverse effect on the fetus.
Intrazoline is present in very low concentrations in the milk of nursing mothers. Caution should be exercised when Intrazoline for Injection is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness for use in premature infants and neonates have not been established. See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION for recommended dosage in pediatric patients older than 1 month.
Of the 920 subjects who received Intrazoline for Injection in clinical studies, 313 (34%) were 65 years and over, while 138 (15%) were 75 years and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function (see PRECAUTIONS, General and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ).
The following reactions have been reported:
Gastrointestinal: Diarrhea, oral candidiasis (oral thrush), vomiting, nausea, stomach cramps, anorexia, and pseudomembranous colitis. Onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibiotic treatment (see WARNINGS ). Nausea and vomiting have been reported rarely.
Allergic: Anaphylaxis, eosinophilia, itching, drug fever, skin rash, Stevens-Johnson syndrome.
Hematologic: Neutropenia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocythemia.
Hepatic: Transient rise in SGOT, SGPT, and alkaline phosphatase levels has been observed. As with other cephalosporins, reports of hepatitis have been received.
Renal: As with other cephalosporins, reports of increased BUN and creatinine levels, as well as renal failure, have been received.
Local Reactions: Rare instances of phlebitis have been reported at site of injection. Pain at the site of injection after intramuscular administration has occurred infrequently. Some induration has occurred.
Other Reactions: Genital and anal pruritus (including vulvar pruritus, genital moniliasis, and vaginitis).
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE EVENTS, contact FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Usual Adult Dosage
Perioperative Prophylactic Use
To prevent postoperative infection in contaminated or potentially contaminated surgery, recommended doses are:
a. 1 gram IV or IM administered 1/2 hour to 1 hour prior to the start of surgery.
b. For lengthy operative procedures (e.g., 2 hours or more), 500 mg to 1 gram IV or IM during surgery (administration modified depending on the duration of the operative procedure).
c. 500 mg to 1 gram IV or IM every 6 to 8 hours for 24 hours postoperatively.
It is important that (1) the preoperative dose be given just (1/2 to 1 hour) prior to the start of surgery so that adequate antibiotic levels are present in the serum and tissues at the time of initial surgical incision; and (2) Intrazoline for Injection be administered, if necessary, at appropriate intervals during surgery to provide sufficient levels of the antibiotic at the anticipated moments of greatest exposure to infective organisms.
In surgery where the occurrence of infection may be particularly devastating (e.g., open-heart surgery and prosthetic arthroplasty), the prophylactic administration of Intrazoline for Injection may be continued for 3 to 5 days following the completion of surgery.
Dosage Adjustment for Patients with Reduced Renal Function
Intrazoline for Injection may be used in patients with reduced renal function with the following dosage adjustments: Patients with a creatinine clearance of 55 mL/min. or greater or a serum creatinine of 1.5 mg% or less can be given full doses. Patients with creatinine clearance rates of 35 to 54 mL/min. or serum creatinine of 1.6 to 3 mg% can also be given full doses but dosage should be restricted to at least 8 hour intervals. Patients with creatinine clearance rates of 11 to 34 mL/min. or serum creatinine of 3.1 to 4.5 mg% should be given 1/2 the usual dose every 12 hours. Patients with creatinine clearance rates of 10 mL/min. or less or serum creatinine of 4.6 mg% or greater should be given 1/2 the usual dose every 18 to 24 hours. All reduced dosage recommendations apply after an initial loading dose appropriate to the severity of the infection. Patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis: see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY .
In pediatric patients, a total daily dosage of 25 to 50 mg per kg (approximately 10 to 20 mg per pound) of body weight, divided into 3 or 4 equal doses, is effective for most mild to moderately severe infections. Total daily dosage may be increased to 100 mg per kg (45 mg per pound) of body weight for severe infections. Since safety for use in premature infants and in neonates has not been established, the use of Intrazoline for Injection in these patients is not recommended.
In pediatric patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance of 70 to 40 mL/min.), 60 percent of the normal daily dose given in equally divided doses every 12 hours should be sufficient. In patients with moderate impairment (creatinine clearance of 40 to 20 mL/min.), 25 percent of the normal daily dose given in equally divided doses every 12 hours should be adequate. Pediatric patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance of 20 to 5 mL/min.) may be given 10 percent of the normal daily dose every 24 hours. All dosage recommendations apply after an initial loading dose.
Preparation of Parenteral Solution
Parenteral drug products should be SHAKEN WELL when reconstituted, and inspected visually for particulate matter prior to administration. If particulate matter is evident in reconstituted fluids, the drug solutions should be discarded.
When reconstituted or diluted according to the instructions below, Intrazoline for Injection is stable for 24 hours at room temperature or for 10 days if stored under refrigeration. Reconstituted solutions may range in color from pale yellow to yellow without a change in potency.
For IM injection, IV direct (bolus) injection or IV infusion, reconstitute with Sterile Water for Injection according to the following table. SHAKE WELL.
Reconstitute vials with Sterile Water for Injection according to the dilution table above. Shake well until dissolved. Intrazoline for Injection should be injected into a large muscle mass. Pain on injection is infrequent with Intrazoline for Injection.
Direct (bolus) injection: Following reconstitution according to the above table, further dilute vials with approximately 5 mL Sterile Water for Injection. Inject the solution slowly over 3 to 5 minutes, directly or through tubing for patients receiving parenteral fluids.
Intermittent or continuous infusion: Dilute reconstituted Intrazoline for Injection in 50 to 100 mL of 1 of the following solutions:
Sodium Chloride Injection, USP
5% or 10% Dextrose Injection, USP
5% Dextrose in Lactated Ringer’s Injection, USP
5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP
5% Dextrose and 0.45% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP
5% Dextrose and 0.2% Sodium Chloride Injection, USP
Lactated Ringer’s Injection, USP
Invert Sugar 5% or 10% in Sterile Water for Injection
Ringer’s Injection, USP
5% Sodium Bicarbonate Injection, USP
Prior to administration parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration whenever solution and container permit.
Each vial of Intrazoline for Injection, USP contains Intrazoline sodium equivalent to 500 mg Intrazoline.
NDC 0781-9338-95, 500 mg, carton of 10 vials
As with other cephalosporins, Intrazoline for Injection, USP tends to darken depending on storage conditions; within the stated recommendations, however product potency is not adversely affected.
Before reconstitution protect from light and store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
Clinitest® is a registered trademark of Miles, Inc.
Clinistix® is a registered trademark of Bayer Corporation.
NOVAPLUS is a registered trademark of Vizient, Inc.
Manufactured in Austria by
Sandoz GmbH for
Sandoz Inc., Princeton, NJ 08540
for Injection, USP
500 mg per vial
For I.M. or I.V. use Sterile
Rx only Single-Use Vial
Novation® and NOVAPLUS
are registered trademarks of Novation LLC.
Intrazoline pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Intrazoline available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Intrazoline destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Intrazoline Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Intrazoline pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Intrazoline?
Depending on the reaction of the Intrazoline after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Intrazoline not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Intrazoline addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Intrazoline, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Intrazoline consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
Visitor reported usefulNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported side effectsNo survey data has been collected yet
One visitor reported price estimatesWhat is your opinion about drug cost? Did you feel the cost is apt, or did you feel it is expensive?
The report given by the sdrugs.com website users shows the following figures about several people who felt the medicine Intrazoline is expensive, and the medicine is not expensive. The results are mixed. The perception of the cost of the medicine to be expensive or not depends on the brand name of the medicine, country, and place where it is sold, and the affordability of the patient. You can choose a generic drug in the place of the branded drug to save the cost. The efficiency of the medicine will not vary if it is generic or a branded one.
Visitor reported frequency of useNo survey data has been collected yet
Visitor reported dosesNo survey data has been collected yet
One visitor reported time for resultsWhat is the time duration Intrazoline drug must be taken for it to be effective or for it to reduce the symptoms?
Most chronic conditions need at least some time so the dose and the drug action gets adjusted to the body to get the desired effect. The stastistics say sdrugs.com website users needed 1 day to notice the result from using Intrazoline drug. The time needed to show improvement in health condition after using the medicine Intrazoline need not be same for all the users. It varies based on other factors.
One visitor reported administrationThe drugs are administered in various routes, like oral or injection form. They are administered before food or after food. How are you taking Intrazoline drug, before food or after food?
Click here to find out how other users of our website are taking it. For any doubts or queries on how and when the medicine is administered, contact your health care provider immediately.
Visitor reported ageNo survey data has been collected yet
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology