Halmezin

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Halmezin uses

Halmezin consists of Ammonium Chloride, Bromhexine Hydrochloride, Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide, Promethazine Hydrochloride, Sodium Citrate.

Ammonium Chloride:


INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Halmezin (Ammonium Chloride) Lactate Lotion, 12% is indicated for the treatment of dry, scaly skin (xerosis) and ichthyosis vulgaris, and for the temporary relief of itching associated with these conditions.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Halmezin (Ammonium Chloride) Lactate Lotion, 12% is contraindicated in those patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any of the label ingredients.

WARNING

Sun exposure (natural or artificial sunlight) to areas of the skin treated with Halmezin (Ammonium Chloride) Lactate Lotion, 12% should be minimized or avoided (see PRECAUTIONS). The use of Halmezin (Ammonium Chloride) Lactate Lotion, 12% should be discontinued if any hypersensitivity is observed.

PRECAUTIONS

General -

For external use only. Stinging or burning may occur when applied to skin with fissures, erosions, or that is otherwise abraded. Caution is advised when used on the face because of the potential for irritation. The potential for post-inflammatory hypo- or hyperpigmentation has not been studied.

Information for Patients

Patients using Halmezin (Ammonium Chloride) Lactate Lotion, 12% should receive the following information and instructions:

  • This medication is to be used as directed by the physician, and should not be used for any disorder other than for which it was prescribed. It is for external use only. Avoid contact with eyes, lips, or mucous membranes.
  • Patients should minimize or avoid use of this product on areas of the skin that may be exposed to natural or artificial sunlight, including the face. If sun exposure is unavoidable, clothing should be worn to protect the skin.
  • This medication may cause transient stinging or burning when applied to skin with fissures, erosions, or abrasions (for example, after shaving the legs).
  • If the skin condition worsens with treatment, the medication should be promptly discontinued.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility -

The topical treatment of CD-1 mice with 12%, 21% or 30% Halmezin lactate formulations for two-years did not produce a significant increase in dermal or systemic tumors in the absence of increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The maximum systemic exposure of the mice in this study was 0.7 times the maximum possible systemic exposure in humans. However, a long-term photocarcinogenicity study in hairless albino mice suggested that topically applied 12% Halmezin (Ammonium Chloride) lactate formulations enhanced the rate of ultraviolet light-induced skin tumor formation.

The mutagenic potential of Halmezin (Ammonium Chloride) lactate formulations was evaluated in the Ames assay and in the mouse in vivo micronucleus assay, both of which were negative.

In dermal Segment I and III studies with Halmezin (Ammonium Chloride) lactate formulations there were no effects observed in fertility or pre- or postnatal development parameters in rats at dose levels of 300 mg/kg/day (1800 mg/m2/day), approximately 0.4 times the human topical dose.

Pregnancy:

Teratogenic effects:

Pregnancy Category B -

Animal reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 0.7 and 1.5 times the human dose, respectively and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Halmezin (Ammonium Chloride) lactate formulations. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, Halmezin (Ammonium Chloride) Lactate Lotion, 12% should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers -

Although lactic acid is a normal constituent of blood and tissues, it is not known to what extent this drug affects normal lactic acid levels in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Halmezin (Ammonium Chloride) lactate is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use -

Safety and effectiveness of Halmezin lactate have been demonstrated in infants and children. No unusual toxic effects were reported.

Geriatric Use -

Clinical studies of Halmezin (Ammonium Chloride) lactate lotion, 12% did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious.

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ADVERSE REACTIONS

The most frequent adverse experiences in patients with xerosis are transient stinging (1 in 30 patients), burning (1 in 30 patients), erythema (1 in 50 patients) and peeling (1 in 60 patients). Other adverse reactions which occur less frequently are irritation, eczema, petechiae, dryness, and hyperpigmentation. Due to the more severe initial skin conditions associated with ichthyosis, there was a higher incidence of transient stinging, burning and erythema (each occurring in 1 in 10 patients).

OVERDOSAGE

The oral administration of Halmezin (Ammonium Chloride) lactate to rats and mice showed this drug to be practically non-toxic (LD50>15 mL/kg).

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Shake well. Apply to the affected areas and rub in thoroughly. Use twice daily or as directed by a physician.

HOW SUPPLIED

Halmezin Lactate Lotion, 12% is available as follows:

225 g bottle (NDC 45802-419-54)

400 g bottle (NDC 45802-419-26)

STORAGE

Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F).

Manufactured By Perrigo, Bronx, NY 10457

Distributed By Perrigo, Allegan, MI 49010

0K5A7 RC F6

Rev 01-17

Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide:


Pharmacological action

Halmezin is an antitussive medication. Inhibiting the excitability of the cough center this medicine suppresses the cough of any origin. Halmezin (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) has not addiction effects and it has no analgesic and hypnotic action. Halmezin (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) starts to act after 10-30 minutes after oral administration, the duration of therapeutic action: 5-6 hours for adults and 6-9 hours for children. Halmezin (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) is an optical isomer of levomethorphan which is similar to morphine. Due to optical isomerism this drug has no opioid effects. Halmezin (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) used mainly for replacement of codeine as a cough suppressant. In addition to the cough suppressant this medication is used in medicine for diagnostic purposes and may be useful in various cases - from seizures to heroin addiction treatment, some chronic neurodegenerative diseases. These include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (Charcot's disease), disease of "mad cow and other prion diseases. Halmezin (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) has also been used for the treatment of mental retardation, Parkinson's disease, in the treatment of lung and other cancers and to prevent tissue rejection in transplantation because of the (poorly known) effects of sigma ligands on tumor cells and immune system.

Pharmacokinetics

After oral administration Halmezin (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) is completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Cmax of Halmezin (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) in plasma is reached after 2 h. This medication biotransformes in the liver. Up to 45% of this drug is excreted by kidneys and there was considerable individual variation in rates of excretion of individual metabolites.

Why is Halmezin prescribed?

Dry cough of different etiology.

Dosage and administration

For adults and children over 12 years Halmezin prescribed on 15 mg 4 times / day, children aged 6 years - 7.5 mg 4 times / day.

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Halmezin (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) side effects, adverse reactions

Drowsiness, nausea, dizziness.

Halmezin contraindications

Bronchial asthma, bronchitis, simultaneous reception of mucolytic.

Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

During pregnancy and lactation (breastfeeding) Halmezin (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) prescribed with caution, only in cases where the expected therapeutic effect for the mother outweighs the potential risk to the fetus or child.

Special instructions

With carefully administered Halmezin (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) with impaired liver function.

Halmezin drug interactions

MAO inhibitors (including furazolidone, procarbazine, selegiline) when administered simultaneous with Halmezin (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) may cause adrenergic crisis, collapse, coma, dizziness, agitation, increased blood pressure, hyperpyrexia, intracranial hemorrhage, lethargy, nausea, cramps, tremor. In combination with tricyclic antidepressants (amitriptyline, etc.) Halmezin (Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide) may appeal serotonin syndrome and possible subsequent death. Amiodarone, fluoxetine, quinidine, inhibiting system cytochrome P450, may increase the drug concentration in the blood. Tobacco smoke can lead to increased secretion of glands in the background of inhibition of cough reflex. Some inhibitors of CYP450 (such as quinidine) increase and extended effects of this medicine.

Halmezin in case of emergency / overdose

Symptoms: excitement, dizziness, respiratory depression, impaired consciousness, decreased blood pressure, tachycardia, muscle hypertonicity, ataxia.

Treatment: mechanical ventilation, symptomatic agents.

Promethazine Hydrochloride:


INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) with codeine syrup is indicated for the temporary relief of coughs and upper respiratory symptoms associated with allergy or the common cold.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

The combination of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride and codeine phosphate is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age, because the combination may cause fatal respiratory depression in this age population.

Codeine is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to the drug.

Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) is contraindicated in comatose states, and in individuals known to be hypersensitive or to have had an idiosyncratic reaction to Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) or to other phenothiazines.

Antihistamines and codeine are both contraindicated for use in the treatment of lower respiratory tract symptoms, including asthma.

WARNINGS

WARNING:

The combination of Halmezin hydrochloride and codeine phosphate is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age. Concomitant administration of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) products with other respiratory depressants has an association with respiratory depression, and sometimes death, in pediatric patients.

Postmarketing cases of respiratory depression, including fatalities, have been reported with use of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride in pediatric patients less than 2 years of age. A wide range of weight-based doses of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride have resulted in respiratory depression in these patients.

Codeine:

Dosage of codeine SHOULD NOT BE INCREASED if cough fails to respond; an unresponsive cough should be reevaluated in 5 days or sooner for possible underlying pathology, such as foreign body or lower respiratory tract disease.

Codeine may cause or aggravate constipation.

Respiratory depression leading to arrest, coma, and death has occurred with the use of codeine antitussives in young children, particularly in the under-one-year infants whose ability to deactivate the drug is not fully developed.

Administration of codeine may be accompanied by histamine release and should be used with caution in atopic children.

Head Injury And Increased Intracranial Pressure:

The respiratory-depressant effects of narcotic analgesics and their capacity to elevate cerebrospinal fluid pressure may be markedly exaggerated in the presence of head injury, intracranial lesions or a pre-existing increase in intracranial pressure. Narcotics may produce adverse reactions which may obscure the clinical course of patients with head injuries.

Asthma And Other Respiratory Conditions:

Narcotic analgesics or cough suppressants, including codeine, should not be used in asthmatic patients. Nor should they be used in acute febrile illness associated with productive cough or in chronic respiratory disease where interference with ability to clear the tracheobronchial tree of secretions would have a deleterious effect on the patient's respiratory function.

Hypotensive Effect:

Codeine may produce orthostatic hypotension in ambulatory patients.

Halmezin :

CNS Depression –

Halmezin may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a vehicle or operating machinery. The impairment may be amplified by concomitant use of other central-nervous-system depressants such as alcohol, sedatives/hypnotics (including barbiturates), narcotics, narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers; therefore, such agents should either be eliminated or given in reduced dosage in the presence of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl (see PRECAUTIONS - Information For Patients and Drug Interactions ).

Respiratory Depression –

Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) may lead to potentially fatal respiratory depression.

Use of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) in patients with compromised respiratory function (e.g., COPD, sleep apnea) should be avoided.

Lower Seizure Threshold –

Halmezin may lower seizure threshold. It should be used with caution in persons with seizure disorders or in persons who are using concomitant medications, such as narcotics or local anesthetics, which may also affect seizure threshold.

Bone-Marrow Depression –

Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) should be used with caution in patients with bone marrow depression. Leukopenia and agranulocytosis have been reported, usually when Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl has been used in association with other known marrow-toxic agents.

Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome –

A potentially fatal symptom complex sometimes referred to as Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) has been reported in association with Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl alone or in combination with antipsychotic drugs. Clinical manifestations of NMS are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered mental status and evidence of autonomic instability (irregular pulse or blood pressure, tachycardia, diaphoresis and cardiac dysrhythmias).

The diagnostic evaluation of patients with this syndrome is complicated. In arriving at a diagnosis, it is important to identify cases where the clinical presentation includes both serious medical illness (e.g., pneumonia, systemic infection, etc.) and untreated or inadequately treated extrapyramidal signs and symptoms (EPS). Other important considerations in the differential diagnosis include central anticholinergic toxicity, heat stroke, drug fever and primary central nervous system (CNS) pathology.

The management of NMS should include 1) immediate discontinuation of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl, antipsychotic drugs, if any, and other drugs not essential to concurrent therapy, 2) intensive symptomatic treatment and medical monitoring, and 3) treatment of any concomitant serious medical problems for which specific treatments are available. There is no general agreement about specific pharmacological treatment regimens for uncomplicated NMS.

Since recurrences of NMS have been reported with phenothiazines, the reintroduction of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl should be carefully considered.

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Use In Pediatric Patients

The combination of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride and codeine phosphate is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age. Concomitant administration of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) products with other respiratory depressants has an association with respiratory depression, and sometimes death, in pediatric patients. The association does not directly relate to individualized weight-based dosing, which might otherwise permit safe administration.

Excessively large dosages of antihistamines, including Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride, in pediatric patients may cause sudden death (see OVERDOSAGE ). Hallucinations and convulsions have occurred with therapeutic doses and overdoses of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride in pediatric patients. In pediatric patients who are acutely ill associated with dehydration, there is an increased susceptibility to dystonias with the use of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl.

Other Considerations

Administration of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) has been associated with reported cholestatic jaundice.

PRECAUTIONS

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with the drug combination-promethazine and codeine. It is not known whether this drug combination can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproduction capacity. Halmezin hydrochloride and codeine phosphate should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

General:

Narcotic analgesics, including codeine, should be administered with caution and the initial dose reduced in patients with acute abdominal conditions, convulsive disorders, significant hepatic or renal impairment, fever, hypothyroidism, Addison's disease, ulcerative colitis, prostatic hypertrophy, in patients with recent gastrointestinal or urinary tract surgery, and in the very young or elderly or debilitated patients.

Drugs having anticholinergic properties should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, stenosing peptic ulcer, pyloroduodenal obstruction, and bladder-neck obstruction.

Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) should be used cautiously in persons with cardiovascular disease or with impairment of liver function.

Ultra-Rapid Metabolizers of Codeine

Some individuals may be ultra-rapid metabolizers due to a specific CYP2D6*2x2 genotype. These individuals convert codeine into its active metabolite, morphine, more rapidly and completely than other people. This rapid conversion results in higher than expected serum morphine levels. Even at labeled dosage regimens, individuals who are ultra-rapid metabolizers may experience overdose symptoms such as extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing.

The prevalence of this CYP2D6 phenotype varies widely and has been estimated at 0.5 to 1% in Chinese and Japanese, 0.5 to 1% in Hispanics, 1–10% in Caucasians, 3% in African Americans, and 16–28% in North Africans, Ethiopians and Arabs. Data is not available for other ethnic groups.

When physicians prescribe codeine-containing drugs, they should choose the lowest effective dose for the shortest period of time and should inform their patients about these risks and the signs of morphine overdose.

Information For Patients:

Patients should be advised to measure Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) with codeine syrup with an accurate measuring device. A household teaspoon is not an accurate measuring device and could lead to overdosage, especially when a half a teaspoon is measured. A pharmacist can recommend an appropriate measuring device and can provide instructions for measuring the correct dose.

Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) and codeine may cause marked drowsiness or may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks, such as driving a vehicle or operating machinery. Ambulatory patients should be told to avoid engaging in such activities until it is known that they do not become drowsy or dizzy from Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) and codeine therapy. Pediatric patients should be supervised to avoid potential harm in bike riding or in other hazardous activities.

The concomitant use of alcohol or other central-nervous-system depressants, such as sedatives/hypnotics (including barbiturates), narcotics, narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers may enhance impairment and should be avoided or their dosage reduced (see WARNINGS -CNS Depression and PRECAUTIONS-Drug Interactions ).

Patients should be advised to report any involuntary muscle movements.

Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun.

Codeine, like other narcotic analgesics, may produce orthostatic hypotension in some ambulatory patients. Patients should be cautioned accordingly.

Caution patients that some people have a variation in a liver enzyme and change codeine into morphine more rapidly and completely than other people. These people are ultra-rapid metabolizers and are more likely to have higher-than-normal levels of morphine in their blood after taking codeine which can result in overdose symptoms such as extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing. In most cases, it is unknown if someone is an ultra-rapid codeine metabolizer.

Nursing mothers taking codeine can also have higher morphine levels in their breast milk if they are ultra-rapid metabolizers. These higher levels of morphine in breast milk may lead to life-threatening or fatal side effects in nursing babies. Instruct nursing mothers to watch for signs of morphine toxicity in their infants including increased sleepiness (more than usual), difficulty breastfeeding, breathing difficulties, or limpness. Instruct nursing mothers to talk to the baby's doctor immediately if they notice these signs and, if they cannot reach the doctor right away, to take the baby to an emergency room or call 911 (or local emergency services).

Drug Interactions:

Codeine:

In patients receiving MAO inhibitors, an initial small test dose is advisable to allow observation of any excessive narcotic effects or MAOI interaction.

Halmezin :

CNS Depressants –

Halmezin may increase, prolong, or intensify the sedative action of other central-nervous-system depressants, such as alcohol, sedatives/hypnotics (including barbiturates), narcotics, narcotic analgesics, general anesthetics, tricyclic antidepressants, and tranquilizers; therefore, such agents should be avoided or administered in reduced dosage to patients receiving Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl. When given concomitantly with Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride), the dose of barbiturates should be reduced by at least one-half, and the dose of narcotics should be reduced by one-quarter to one-half. Dosage must be individualized. Excessive amounts of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl relative to a narcotic may lead to restlessness and motor hyperactivity in the patient with pain; these symptoms usually disappear with adequate control of the pain.

Epinephrine –

Because of the potential for Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) to reverse epinephrine's vasopressor effect, epinephrine should NOT be used to treat hypotension associated with Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) overdose.

Anticholinergics –

Concomitant use of other agents with anticholinergic properties should be undertaken with caution.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors –

Drug interactions, including an increased incidence of extrapyramidal effects, have been reported when some MAOI and phenothiazines are used concomitantly.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions:

Because narcotic analgesics may increase biliary tract pressure with resultant increases in plasma amylase or lipase levels, determination of these enzyme levels may be unreliable for 24 hours after a narcotic analgesic has been given.

The following laboratory tests may be affected in patients who are receiving therapy with Halmezin hydrochloride.

Pregnancy Tests:

Diagnostic pregnancy tests based on immunological reactions between HCG and anti-HCG may result in false-negative or false-positive interpretations.

Glucose Tolerance Test:

An increase in blood glucose has been reported in patients receiving Halmezin.

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility:

Long-term animal studies have not been performed to assess the carcinogenic potential of codeine or of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride), nor are there other animal or human data concerning carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, or impairment of fertility with these agents. Codeine has been reported to show no evidence of carcinogenicity or mutagenicity in a variety of test systems, including the micronucleus and sperm abnormality assays and the Salmonella assay. Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) was nonmutagenic in the Salmonella test system of Ames.

Pregnancy:

Teratogenic Effects - Pregnancy Category C.

Codeine:

A study in rats and rabbits reported no teratogenic effect of codeine administered during the period of organogenesis in doses ranging from 5 to 120 mg/kg. In the rat, doses at the 120-mg/kg level, in the toxic range for the adult animal, were associated with an increase in embryo resorption at the time of implantation. In another study a single 100-mg/kg dose of codeine administered to pregnant mice reportedly resulted in delayed ossification in the offspring.

There are no studies in humans, and the significance of these findings to humans, if any, is not known.

Halmezin :

Teratogenic effects have not been demonstrated in rat-feeding studies at doses of 6.25 and 12.5 mg/kg of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl. These doses are from approximately 2.1 to 4.2 times the maximum recommended total daily dose of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) for a 50-kg subject, depending upon the indication for which the drug is prescribed. Daily doses of 25 mg/kg intraperitoneally have been found to produce fetal mortality in rats.

Specific studies to test the action of the drug on parturition, lactation, and development of the animal neonate were not done, but a general preliminary study in rats indicated no effect on these parameters. Although antihistamines have been found to produce fetal mortality in rodents, the pharmacological effects of histamine in the rodent do not parallel those in man. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) in pregnant women.

Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) and codeine should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nonteratogenic Effects -

Dependence has been reported in newborns whose mothers took opiates regularly during pregnancy. Withdrawal signs include irritability, excessive crying, tremors, hyperreflexia, fever, vomiting, and diarrhea. Signs usually appear during the first few days of life.

Halmezin administered to a pregnant woman within two weeks of delivery may inhibit platelet aggregation in the newborn.

Labor And Delivery:

Narcotic analgesics cross the placental barrier. The closer to delivery and the larger the dose used, the greater the possibility of respiratory depression in the newborn. Narcotic analgesics should be avoided during labor if delivery of a premature infant is anticipated. If the mother has received narcotic analgesics during labor, newborn infants should be observed closely for signs of respiratory depression. Resuscitation may be required (see OVERDOSAGE ).

Limited data suggest that use of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride during labor and delivery does not have an appreciable effect on the duration of labor or delivery and does not increase the risk of need for intervention in the newborn.

The effect of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) and/or codeine on the later growth and development of the newborn is unknown.

Nursing Mothers:

It is not known whether Halmezin is excreted in human milk.

Codeine is secreted into human milk. In women with normal codeine metabolism (normal CYP2D6 activity), the amount of codeine secreted into human milk is low and dose-dependent. Despite the common use of codeine products to manage postpartum pain, reports of adverse events in infants are rare. However, some women are ultra-rapid metabolizers of codeine. These women achieve higher-than-expected serum levels of codeine's active metabolite, morphine, leading to higher-than-expected levels of morphine in breast milk and potentially dangerously high serum morphine levels in their breastfed infants. Therefore, maternal use of codeine can potentially lead to serious adverse reactions, including death, in nursing infants.

The prevalence of this CYP2D6 phenotype varies widely and has been estimated at 0.5 to 1% in Chinese and Japanese, 0.5 to 1% in Hispanics, 1–10% in Caucasians, 3% in African Americans, and 16–28% in North Africans, Ethiopians and Arabs. Data is not available for other ethnic groups.

The risk of infant exposure to codeine and morphine through breast milk should be weighed against the benefits of breastfeeding for both the mother and baby. Caution should be exercised when codeine is administered to a nursing woman. If a codeine-containing product is selected, the lowest dose should be prescribed for the shortest period of time to achieve the desired clinical effect. Mothers using codeine should be informed about when to seek immediate medical care and how to identify the signs and symptoms of neonatal toxicity, such as drowsiness or sedation, difficulty breastfeeding, breathing difficulties, and decreased tone, in their baby. Nursing mothers who are ultra-rapid metabolizers may also experience overdose symptoms such as extreme sleepiness, confusion, or shallow breathing. Prescribers should closely monitor mother-infant pairs and notify treating pediatricians about the use of codeine during breastfeeding (see PRECAUTIONS – General - Ultra-Rapid Metabolizers of Codeine ).

Caution should be exercised when Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) with codeine syrup is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use:

The combination of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride and codeine phosphate is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age, because the combination may cause fatal respiratory depression in this age population (see WARNINGS – Box Warning and Use In Pediatric Patients).

The combination of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride and codeine phosphate should be used with caution in pediatric patients 6 years and older (see Warnings-Use in Pediatric Patients ).

Geriatric Use:

Clinical studies of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride and codeine phosphate syrup did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Sedating drugs may cause confusion and over-sedation in the elderly; elderly patients generally should be started on low doses of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) with codeine syrup and observed closely.

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ADVERSE REACTIONS

Codeine:

Nervous System – CNS depression, particularly respiratory depression, and to a lesser extent circulatory depression; light-headedness, dizziness, sedation, euphoria, dysphoria, headache, transient hallucination, disorientation, visual disturbances, and convulsions.

Cardiovascular – Tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitation, faintness, syncope, orthostatic hypotension (common to narcotic analgesics).

Gastrointestinal – Nausea, vomiting, constipation, and biliary tract spasm. Patients with chronic ulcerative colitis may experience increased colonic motility; in patients with acute ulcerative colitis, toxic dilation has been reported.

Genitourinary – Oliguria, urinary retention; antidiuretic effect has been reported (common to narcotic analgesics).

Allergic – Infrequent pruritus, giant urticaria, angioneurotic edema, and laryngeal edema.

Other – Flushing of the face, sweating and pruritus (due to opiate-induced histamine release); weakness.

Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride):

Central Nervous System – Drowsiness is the most prominent CNS effect of this drug. Sedation, somnolence, blurred vision, dizziness; confusion, disorientation, and extrapyramidal symptoms such as oculogyric crisis, torticollis, and tongue protrusion; lassitude, tinnitus, incoordination, fatigue, euphoria, nervousness, diplopia, insomnia, tremors, convulsive seizures, excitation, catatonic-like states, hysteria. Hallucinations have also been reported.

Cardiovascular – Increased or decreased blood pressure, tachycardia, bradycardia, faintness.

Dermatologic – Dermatitis, photosensitivity, urticaria.

Hematologic – Leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, agranulocytosis.

Gastrointestinal – Dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, jaundice.

Respiratory – Asthma, nasal stuffiness, respiratory depression (potentially fatal) and apnea (potentially fatal). (See WARNINGS - Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride); Respiratory Depression.)

Other – Angioneurotic edema. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (potentially fatal) has also been reported. (See WARNINGS - Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride); Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome.)

Paradoxical Reactions – Hyperexcitability and abnormal movements have been reported in patients following a single administration of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCI. Consideration should be given to the discontinuation of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl and to the use of other drugs if these reactions occur. Respiratory depression, nightmares, delirium, and agitated behavior have also been reported in some of these patients.

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

Controlled Substance:

Halmezin with codeine syrup is a Schedule V Controlled Substance.

Abuse:

Codeine is known to be subject to abuse; however, the abuse potential of oral codeine appears to be quite low. Even parenteral codeine does not appear to offer the psychic effects sought by addicts to the same degree as heroin or morphine. However, codeine must be administered only under close supervision to patients with a history of drug abuse or dependence.

Dependence:

Psychological dependence, physical dependence, and tolerance are known to occur with codeine.

OVERDOSAGE

Codeine:

Serious overdose with codeine is characterized by respiratory depression, extreme somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, and sometimes bradycardia and hypotension. The triad of coma, pinpoint pupils, and respiratory depression is strongly suggestive of opiate poisoning. In severe overdosage, particularly by the intravenous route, apnea, circulatory collapse, cardiac arrest, and death may occur. Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) is additive to the depressant effects of codeine.

It is difficult to determine what constitutes a standard toxic or lethal dose. However, the lethal oral dose of codeine in an adult is reported to be in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 gram. Infants and children are believed to be relatively more sensitive to opiates on a body-weight basis. Elderly patients are also comparatively intolerant to opiates.

Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride):

Signs and symptoms of overdosage with Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) HCl range from mild depression of the central nervous system and cardiovascular system to profound hypotension, respiratory depression, unconsciousness, and sudden death. Other reported reactions include hyperreflexia, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, and extensor-plantar reflexes (Babinski reflex).

Stimulation may be evident, especially in children and geriatric patients. Convulsions may rarely occur. A paradoxical-type reaction has been reported in children receiving single doses of 75 mg to 125 mg orally, characterized by hyperexcitability and nightmares.

Atropine-like signs and symptoms – dry mouth, fixed dilated pupils, flushing, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms may occur.

Treatment:

The treatment of overdosage with Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) and codeine is essentially symptomatic and supportive. Only in cases of extreme overdosage or individual sensitivity do vital signs including respiration, pulse, blood pressure, temperature, and EKG need to be monitored. Activated charcoal orally or by lavage may be given, or sodium or magnesium sulfate orally as a cathartic. Attention should be given to the reestablishment of adequate respiratory exchange through provision of a patent airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation. The narcotic antagonist, naloxone hydrochloride, may be administered when significant respiratory depression occurs with Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) and codeine; any depressant effects of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) are not reversed with naloxone. Diazepam may be used to control convulsions. Avoid analeptics, which may cause convulsions. Acidosis and electrolyte losses should be corrected. A rise in temperature or pulmonary complications may signal the need for institution of antibiotic therapy.

Severe hypotension usually responds to the administration of norepinephrine or phenylephrine. EPINEPHRINE SHOULD NOT BE USED, since its use in a patient with partial adrenergic blockade may further lower the blood pressure.

Limited experience with dialysis indicates that it is not helpful.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The combination of Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride and codeine phosphate is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 6 years of age, because the combination may cause fatal respiratory depression in this age population.

It is important that Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) with codeine syrup is measured with an accurate measuring device (see PRECAUTIONS-Information For Patients ). A household teaspoon is not an accurate measuring device and could lead to overdosage, especially when half a teaspoon is to be measured. It is strongly recommended that an accurate measuring device be used. A pharmacist can provide an appropriate device and can provide instructions for measuring the correct dose.

The average effective dose for adults and children 12 years of age and over is: 1 teaspoonful (5 mL) every 4 to 6 hours, not to exceed 30 mL in 24 hours.

The average effective dose for children 6 years to under 12 years of age is 1/2 to 1 teaspoonful (2.5 mL to 5 mL) every 4 to 6 hours, not to exceed 30 mL in 24 hours.

HOW SUPPLIED

Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) with Codeine Syrup, a clear purple syrup with odor of grape menthol, contains Halmezin (Promethazine Hydrochloride) hydrochloride 6.25 mg/5 mL, codeine phosphate 10 mg/5 mL and alcohol 7 percent, and is available in 4 fluid ounce (118 mL), 8 fluid ounce (237 mL) and pint (473 mL).

Store at 20°-25°C (68°-77°F).

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container with a child-resistant closure as defined in the USP.

Manufactured for:

QUALITEST PHARMACEUTICALS

Huntsville, AL 35811

8181652

R1/09-R4

Sodium Citrate:


1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Halmezin nitrite is indicated for sequential use with Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate for treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. (1)

  • Use with caution if the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain. (1)

1.1 Indication

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection is indicated for sequential use with Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. When the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain, the potentially life-threatening risks associated with Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection should be carefully weighed against the potential benefits, especially if the patient is not in extremis.

1.2 Identifying Patients with Cyanide Poisoning

Cyanide poisoning may result from inhalation, ingestion, or dermal exposure to various cyanide-containing compounds, including smoke from closed-space fires. Sources of cyanide poisoning include hydrogen cyanide and its salts, cyanogenic plants, aliphatic nitriles, and prolonged exposure to Halmezin nitroprusside.

The presence and extent of cyanide poisoning are often initially unknown. There is no widely available, rapid, confirmatory cyanide blood test. Treatment decisions must be made on the basis of clinical history and signs and symptoms of cyanide intoxication. If clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning is high, Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection and Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Thiosulfate Injection should be administered without delay.

Symptoms Signs
  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • Dyspnea
  • Chest Tightness
  • Nausea
  • Altered Mental Status

    (e.g., confusion, disorientation)

  • Seizures or Coma
  • Mydriasis
  • Tachypnea/Hyperpnea (early)
  • Bradypnea/Apnea (late)
  • Hypertension (early)/ Hypotension (late)
  • Cardiovascular Collapse
  • Vomiting
  • Plasma Lactate Concentration ≥ 8 mmol/L

In some settings, panic symptoms including tachypnea and vomiting may mimic early cyanide poisoning signs. The presence of altered mental status (e.g., confusion and disorientation) and/or mydriasis is suggestive of true cyanide poisoning although these signs can occur with other toxic exposures as well.

The expert advice of a regional poison control center may be obtained by calling 1-800-222-1222.

Smoke Inhalation

Not all smoke inhalation victims will have cyanide poisoning and may present with burns, trauma, and exposure to other toxic substances making a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning particularly difficult. Prior to administration of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection, smoke-inhalation victims should be assessed for the following:

  • Exposure to fire or smoke in an enclosed area
  • Presence of soot around the mouth, nose, or oropharynx
  • Altered mental status

Although hypotension is highly suggestive of cyanide poisoning, it is only present in a small percentage of cyanide-poisoned smoke inhalation victims. Also indicative of cyanide poisoning is a plasma lactate concentration greater than or equal to 10 mmol/L (a value higher than that typically listed in the table of signs and symptoms of isolated cyanide poisoning because carbon monoxide associated with smoke inhalation also contributes to lactic acidemia). If cyanide poisoning is suspected, treatment should not be delayed to obtain a plasma lactate concentration.

1.3 Use with Other Cyanide Antidotes

Caution should be exercised when administering cyanide antidotes, other than Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate, simultaneously with Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection, as the safety of co-administration has not been established. If a decision is made to administer another cyanide antidote, other than Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate, with Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection, these drugs should not be administered concurrently in the same IV line. [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) ]

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Age Intravenous Dose of Halmezin Nitrite and Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Thiosulfate
Adults
  • Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite -10 mL of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute
  • Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Thiosulfate - 50 mL of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate immediately following administration of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite.
Children
  • Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite - 0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg or 6-8 mL/m2 BSA) of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute not to exceed 10 mL
  • Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Thiosulfate - 1 mL/kg of body weight (250 mg/kg or approximately 30-40 mL/m2 of BSA) not to exceed 50 mL total dose immediately following administration of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite.

Redosing: If signs of cyanide poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate.

Monitoring: Blood pressure must be monitored during treatment. (2.2)

2.1 Administration Recommendation

Comprehensive treatment of acute cyanide intoxication requires support of vital functions. Administration of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite, followed by Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate, should be considered adjunctive to appropriate supportive therapies. Airway, ventilatory and circulatory support, and oxygen administration should not be delayed to administer Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate.

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite injection and Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate injection are administered by slow intravenous injection. They should be given as early as possible after a diagnosis of acute life-threatening cyanide poisoning has been established. Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite should be administered first, followed immediately by Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate. Blood pressure must be monitored during infusion in both adults and children. The rate of infusion should be decreased if significant hypotension is noted.

Age Intravenous Dose of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite and Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Thiosulfate
Adults
  • Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite -10 mL of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute
  • Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Thiosulfate - 50 mL of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate immediately following administration of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite.
Children
  • Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite -0.2 mL/kg (6 mg/kg or 6-8 mL/m2 BSA) of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite at the rate of 2.5 to 5 mL/minute not to exceed 10 mL
  • Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Thiosulfate - 1 mL/kg of body weight (250 mg/kg or approximately 30-40 mL/m2 of BSA) not to exceed 50 mL total dose immediately following administration of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite.

NOTE: If signs of poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate.

In adult and pediatric patients with known anemia, it is recommended that the dosage of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite should be reduced proportionately to the hemoglobin concentration.

All parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.

2.2 Recommended Monitoring

Patients should be monitored for at least 24-48 hours after Halmezin Nitrite Injection administration for adequacy of oxygenation and perfusion and for recurrent signs and symptoms of cyanide toxicity. When possible, hemoglobin/hematocrit should be obtained when treatment is initiated. Measurements of oxygen saturation using standard pulse oximetry and calculated oxygen saturation values based on measured PO2 are unreliable in the presence of methemoglobinemia.

Methemoglobin level: Administrations of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite solely to achieve an arbitrary level of methemoglobinemia may be unnecessary and potentially hazardous. The therapeutic effects of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite do not appear to be mediated by methemoglobin formation alone and clinical responses to Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite administration have been reported in association with methemoglobin levels of less than 10%. Administration of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite beyond the initial dose should be guided primarily by clinical response to treatment (i.e., a second dose should be considered only if there is inadequate clinical response to the first dose). It is generally recommended that methemoglobin concentrations be closely monitored and kept below 30%. Serum methemoglobin levels should be monitored during treatment using co-oximetry, and administration of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite should generally be discontinued when methemoglobin levels exceed 30%. Intravenous methylene blue and exchange transfusion have been reported in the literature as treatments for life-threatening methemoglobinemia.

2.3 Incompatibility Information

Chemical incompatibility has been reported between Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and hydroxocobalamin and these drugs should not be administered simultaneously through the same IV line. No chemical incompatibility has been reported between Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate and Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite, when administered sequentially through the same IV line as described in Dosage and Administration.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection consists of:

  • One vial of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite injection, USP 300 mg/10mL (30 mg/mL)

Administration of the contents of one vial constitutes a single dose.

  • Injection, 300 mg/10 mL (30 mg/mL). (3)

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

None

  • None. (4)

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

  • Methemoglobinemia: Halmezin nitrite reacts with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin and should be used with caution in patients known to have anemia. Monitor oxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin levels by pulse oximetry or other measurements. Optimally, the Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite dose should be reduced in proportion to the oxygen carrying capacity. (5.2)
  • Smoke inhalation: Carbon monoxide contained in smoke can result in the formation of carboxyhemoglobin that can reduce the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite should be used with caution in patients with smoke inhalation injury because of the potential for worsening hypoxia due to methemoglobin formation. Carboxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin levels should be monitored by pulse oximetry or other measurements in patients that present with evidence of smoke inhalation. Optimally, the Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite dose should be reduced in proportion to the oxygen carrying capacity. (5.4)

5.1 Hypotension

5.2 Methemoglobinemia

Supportive care alone may be sufficient treatment without administration of antidotes for many cases of cyanide intoxication, particularly in conscious patients without signs of severe toxicity. Patients should be closely monitored to ensure adequate perfusion and oxygenation during treatment with Halmezin nitrite.

Methemoglobin levels should be monitored and oxygen administered during treatment with Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite whenever possible. When Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is administered to humans a wide range of methemoglobin concentrations occur. Methemoglobin concentrations as high as 58% have been reported after two 300-mg doses of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite administered to an adult. Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of other drugs that may cause methemoglobinemia such as procaine and nitroprusside. Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite should be used with caution in patients who may be particularly susceptible to injury from vasodilation and its related hemodynamic sequelae. Hemodynamics should be monitored closely during and after administration of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite, and infusion rates should be slowed if hypotension occurs.

5.3 Anemia

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite should be used with caution in patients with known anemia. Patients with anemia will form more methemoglobin (as a percentage of total hemoglobin) than persons with normal red blood cell (RBC) volumes. Optimally, these patients should receive a Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite dose that is reduced in proportion to their oxygen carrying capacity.

5.4 Smoke Inhalation Injury

Halmezin nitrite should be used with caution in persons with smoke inhalation injury or carbon monoxide poisoning because of the potential for worsening hypoxia due to methemoglobin formation.

5.5 Neonates and Infants

Neonates and infants may be more susceptible than adults and older pediatric patients to severe methemoglobinemia when Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is administered. Reduced dosing guidelines should be followed in pediatric patients.

5.6 G6PD Deficiency

Because patients with G6PD deficiency are at increased risk of a hemolytic crisis with Halmezin nitrite administration, alternative therapeutic approaches should be considered in these patients. Patients with known or suspected G6PD deficiency should be monitored for an acute drop in hematocrit. Exchange transfusion may be needed for patients with G6PD deficiency who receive Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite.

5.7 Use with Other Drugs

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of concomitant antihypertensive medications, diuretics or volume depletion due to diuretics, or drugs known to increase vascular nitric oxide, such as PDE5 inhibitors.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

There have been no controlled clinical trials conducted to systematically assess the adverse events profile of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite.

The medical literature has reported the following adverse events in association with Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite administration. These adverse events were not reported in the context of controlled trials or with consistent monitoring and reporting methodologies for adverse events. Therefore, frequency of occurrence of these adverse events cannot be assessed.

Cardiovascular system: syncope, hypotension, tachycardia, methemoglobinemia, palpitations, dysrhythmia

Hematological: methemoglobinemia

Central nervous system: headache, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, confusion, coma

Gastrointestinal system: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain

Respiratory system: tachypnea, dyspnea

Body as a Whole: anxiety, diaphoresis, lightheadedness, injection site tingling, cyanosis, acidosis, fatigue, weakness, urticaria, generalized numbness and tingling

Severe hypotension, methemoglobinemia, cardiac dysrhythmias, coma and death have been reported in patients without life-threatening cyanide poisoning but who were treated with injection of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite at doses less than twice those recommended for the treatment of cyanide poisoning.

Most common adverse reactions are:

  • Syncope, hypotension, tachycardia, palpitations, dysrhythmia, methemoglobinemia, headache, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, confusion, coma (6)

To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Hope Pharmaceuticals at 1-800-755-9595 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Formal drug interaction studies have not been conducted with Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

  • Renal impairment: Halmezin nitrite is substantially excreted by the kidney. The risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. (8.6).

8.1 Pregnancy

Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C.

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite has caused fetal death in humans as well as animals. There are no studies in humans that have directly evaluated the potential reproductive toxicity of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite. There are two epidemiological studies conducted in Australia that report a statistically significant increase in the risk for congenital malformations, particularly in the CNS, associated with maternal consumption of water containing nitrate levels in excess of 5 ppm. Results from a case-control study in Canada suggested a trend toward an increase in the risk for CNS malformations when maternal consumption of nitrate was ≥ 26 ppm (not statistically significant).

The potential reproductive toxicity of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite exposure restricted to the prenatal period has been reported in guinea pigs, mice, and rats. There was no evidence of teratogenicity in guinea pigs, mice, or rats. However, Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite treatment of pregnant guinea pigs with 60 or 70 mg/kg/day resulted in abortion of the litters within 1-4 days of treatment. All animals treated subcutaneously with 70 mg/kg, Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite died within 60 minutes of treatment. Further studies demonstrated that a dose of 60 mg/kg resulted in measurable blood levels of methemoglobin in the dams and their fetuses for up to 6 hours post treatment. Maternal methemoglobin levels were higher than the levels in the offspring at all times measured. Based on a body surface area comparison, a 60 mg/kg dose in the guinea pig that resulted in death was only 1.7 times higher than the highest clinical dose of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).

Studies testing prenatal and postnatal exposure have been reported in mice and rats. Treatment of pregnant rats via drinking water with Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite at concentrations of either 2000 or 3000 mg/L resulted in a dose-related increased mortality postpartum. This exposure regimen in the rat model would result in dosing of approximately 220 and 300 mg/kg/day (43 and 65 times the highest clinical dose of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning, based on a body surface area comparison).

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite produces methemoglobin. Fetal hemoglobin is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin. In addition, the fetus has lower levels of methemoglobin reductase than adults. Collectively, these data suggest that the human fetus would show greater sensitivity to methemoglobin resulting in nitrite-induced prenatal hypoxia leading to retarded development of certain neurotransmitter systems in the brain and long lasting dysfunction.

Nonteratogenic Effects: Behavioral and neurodevelopmental studies in rats suggest persistent effects of prenatal exposure to Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite that were detectable postnatally. Specifically, animals that were exposed prenatally to Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite demonstrated impaired discrimination learning behavior (both auditory and visual) and reduced long-term retention of the passive-avoidance response compared to control animals. Additional studies demonstrated a delay in the development of AchE and 5-HT positive fiber ingrowth into the hippocampal dentate gyrus and parietal neocortex during the first week of life of prenatal nitrite treated pups. These changes have been attributed to prenatal hypoxia following nitrite exposure.

8.2 Labor and Delivery

Because fetal hemoglobin is more readily oxidized to methemoglobin and lower levels of methemoglobin appear to be fatal to the fetus compared to the adult, Halmezin nitrite should be used during labor and delivery only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is excreted in human milk. Because Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection may be administered in life-threatening situations, breast-feeding is not a contraindication to its use. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised following Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection administration to a nursing woman. There are no data to determine when breastfeeding may be safely restarted following administration of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite. In studies conducted with Long-Evans rats, Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite administered in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation resulted in severe anemia, reduced growth and increased mortality in the offspring.

8.4 Pediatric Use

There are case reports in the medical literature of Halmezin nitrite in conjunction with Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate being administered to pediatric patients with cyanide poisoning; however, there have been no clinical studies to evaluate the safety or efficacy of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite in the pediatric population. As for adult patients, dosing recommendations for pediatric patients have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite must be used with caution in patients less than 6 months of age because they may be at higher risk of developing severe methemoglobinemia compared to older children and adults. The presence of fetal hemoglobin, which is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin, and lower methemoglobin reductase levels compared to older children and adults may contribute to risk.

Mortality attributed to Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite was reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

8.6 Renal Disease

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Large doses of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite result in severe hypotension and toxic levels of methemoglobin which may lead to cardiovascular collapse.

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite administration has been reported to cause or significantly contribute to mortality in adults at oral doses as low as 1 g and intravenous doses as low as 600 mg. A death attributed to Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite has been reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.

Cyanosis may become apparent at a methemoglobin level of 10-20%. Other clinical signs and symptoms of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite toxicity (anxiety, dyspnea, nausea, and tachycardia) can be apparent at methemoglobin levels as low as 15%. More serious signs and symptoms, including cardiac dysrhythmias, circulatory failure, and central nervous system depression are seen as methemoglobin levels increase, and levels above 70% are usually fatal.

Treatment of overdose involves supplemental oxygen and supportive measures such as exchange transfusion. Treatment of severe methemoglobinemia with intravenous methylene blue has been described in the medical literature; however, this may also cause release of cyanide bound to methemoglobin. Because hypotension appears to be mediated primarily by an increase in venous capacitance, measures to increase venous return may be most appropriate to treat hypotension.

11 DESCRIPTION

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite has the chemical name nitrous acid Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) salt. The chemical formula is NaNO2 and the molecular weight is 69.0. The structural formula is:

Structure of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite Injection is a cyanide antidote which contains one 10 mL glass vial of a 3% solution of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite injection.

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite injection is a sterile aqueous solution and is intended for intravenous injection. Each vial contains 300 mg of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite in 10 mL solution (30 mg/mL). Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite injection is a clear solution with a pH between 7.0 and 9.0.

Chemical Structure

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Exposure to a high dose of cyanide can result in death within minutes due to the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in arrest of cellular respiration. Specifically, cyanide binds rapidly with cytochrome a3, a component of the cytochrome c oxidase complex in mitochondria. Inhibition of cytochrome a3 prevents the cell from using oxygen and forces anaerobic metabolism, resulting in lactate production, cellular hypoxia and metabolic acidosis. In massive acute cyanide poisoning, the mechanism of toxicity may involve other enzyme systems as well.

The synergy resulting from treatment of cyanide poisoning with the combination of Halmezin nitrite and Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate is the result of differences in their primary mechanisms of action as antidotes for cyanide poisoning.

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is thought to exert its therapeutic effect by reacting with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin, an oxidized form of hemoglobin incapable of oxygen transport but with high affinity for cyanide. Cyanide preferentially binds to methemoglobin over cytochrome a3, forming the nontoxic cyanomethemoglobin. Methemoglobin displaces cyanide from cytochrome oxidase, allowing resumption of aerobic metabolism. The chemical reaction is as follows:

NaNO2 + Hemoglobin → Methemoglobin

HCN + Methemoglobin → Cyanomethemoglobin

Vasodilation has also been cited to account for at least part of the therapeutic effect of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite. It has been suggested that Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia may be more efficacious against cyanide poisoning than comparable levels of methemoglobinemia induced by other oxidants. Also, Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite appears to retain some efficacy even when the formation of methemoglobin is inhibited by methylene blue.

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Thiosulfate

The primary route of endogenous cyanide detoxification is by enzymatic transulfuration to thiocyanate (SCN-), which is relatively nontoxic and readily excreted in the urine. Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate is thought to serve as a sulfur donor in the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme rhodanese, thus enhancing the endogenous detoxification of cyanide in the following chemical reaction:

Chemical Structure

12. 2 Pharmacodynamics

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite

When 4 mg/kg Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite was administered intravenously to six healthy human volunteers, the mean peak methemoglobin concentration was 7%, achieved at 30-60 minutes after injection, consistent with reports in cyanide poisoning victims. Supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures dropped approximately 20% within 10 minutes, a drop which was sustained throughout the 40 minutes of testing. This was associated with a 20 beat per minute increase in pulse rate that returned to baseline in 10 minutes. Five of these subjects were unable to withstand orthostatic testing due to fainting. One additional subject, who received a 12 mg/kg dose of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite, experienced severe cardiovascular effects and achieved a peak methemoglobin concentration of 30% at 60 minutes following injection.

Oral doses of 120 to 180 mg of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite administered to healthy volunteers caused minimal cardiovascular changes when subjects were maintained in the horizontal position. However, minutes after being placed in the upright position subjects exhibited tachycardia and hypotension with syncope.

The half life for conversion of methemoglobin to normal hemoglobin in a cyanide poisoning victim who has been administered Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is estimated to be 55 minutes.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is a strong oxidant, and reacts rapidly with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin. The pharmacokinetics of free Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite in humans have not been well studied. It has been reported that approximately 40% of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is excreted unchanged in the urine while the remaining 60% is metabolized to ammonia and related small molecules.

Cyanide

The apparent terminal elimination half life and volume of distribution of cyanide, in a patient treated for an acute cyanide poisoning with Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate administration, have been reported to be 19 hours and 0.41 L/kg, respectively. Additionally, an initial elimination half life of cyanide has been reported to be approximately 1-3 hours.

Thiocyanate

After detoxification, in healthy subjects, thiocyanate is excreted mainly in the urine at a rate inversely proportional to creatinine clearance. In healthy subjects, the elimination half-life and volume of distribution of thiocyanate have been reported to be 2.7 days and 0.25 L/kg, respectively. However, in subjects with renal insufficiency the reported elimination half life is approximately 9 days.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

The potential benefit of an acute exposure to Halmezin nitrite as part of a cyanide antidote outweighs concerns raised by the equivocal findings in chronic rodent studies. Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 35, 70, or 130 mg/kg for males and 0, 40, 80, or 150 mg/kg for females) was orally administered to rats (Fischer 344 strain) for 2 years via drinking water. There were no significant increases in the incidence of tumor in either male or female rats. Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 60, 120, or 220 mg/kg for males and 0, 45, 90, or 165 mg/kg for females) was administered to B6C3F1 mice for 2 years via the drinking water. Equivocal results were obtained in female mice. Specifically, there was a positive trend toward an increase in the incidence of squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma in the forestomach of female mice. Although the incidence of hyperplasia of the glandular stomach epithelium was significantly greater in the high-dose male mice compared to controls, there were no significant increases in tumors in the male mice. Numerous reports in the published literature indicate that Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite may react in vivo with secondary amines to form carcinogenic nitrosamines in the stomach. Concurrent exposure to Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and secondary amines in feed or drinking water resulted in an increase in the incidence of tumors in rodents.

Mutagenesis

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite is mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA100, TA1530, TA1535 with and without metabolic activation; however, it was negative in strain TA98, TA102, DJ460 and E. coli strain WP2UVRA/PKM101. Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite has been reported to be genotoxic to V79 hamster cells in vitro and in the mouse lymphoma assay, both assays conducted in the absence of metabolic activation. Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite was negative in the in vitro chromosomal aberrations assay using human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Acute administration of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite to male rats or male mice did not produce an increased incidence of micronuclei in bone marrow. Likewise, Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite administration to mice for 14-weeks did not result in an increase in the incidence of micronuclei in the peripheral blood.

Fertility

Clinical studies to evaluate the potential effects of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite intake on fertility of either males or females have not been reported. In contrast, multigenerational fertility and reproduction studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program did not detect any evidence of an effect of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite (0.0, 0.06, 0.12, and 0.24% weight/volume) on either fertility or any reproductive parameter in Swiss CD-1 mice. This treatment protocol resulted in approximate doses of 125, 260, and 425 mg/kg/day. The highest exposure in this mouse study is 4.6 times greater than the highest clinical dose of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).

13.2 Animal Pharmacology

Due to the extreme toxicity of cyanide, experimental evaluation of treatment efficacy has predominantly been completed in animal models. The efficacy of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate treatment alone to counteract the toxicity of cyanide was initially reported in 1895 by Lang. The efficacy of amyl nitrite treatment in cyanide poisoning of the dog model was first reported in 1888 by Pedigo. Further studies in the dog model, which demonstrated the utility of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite as a therapeutic intervention, were reported in 1929 by Mladoveanu and Gheorghiu. However, Hugs and Chen et al. independently reported upon the superior efficacy of the combination of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate in 1932-1933. Treatment consisted of intravenously administered 22.5 mg/kg (half the lethal dose) Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite or 1 g/kg Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate alone or in sequence immediately after subcutaneous injection of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) cyanide into dogs over a range of doses. Subsequent doses of 10 mg/kg Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and/or 0.5 g/kg Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate were administered when clinical signs or symptoms of poisoning persisted or reappeared. Either therapy administered alone increased the dose of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) cyanide required to cause death, and when administered together, Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate resulted in a synergistic effect in raising the lethal dose of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) cyanide. The combined therapy appeared to have reduced efficacy when therapy was delayed until signs of poisoning (e.g. convulsions) appeared; however, other investigators have reported survival in dogs that were administered antidotal treatment after respiratory arrest had occurred.

Animal studies conducted in other species (e.g., rat, guinea pig, sheep, pigeon and cat) have also supported a synergistic effect of intravenous Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate in the treatment of cyanide poisoning.

While intravenous injection of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite and Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate was effective in reversing the effects of lethal doses of cyanide in dogs, intramuscular injection of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite, with or without Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate, was found not to be effective in the same setting.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

The human data supporting the use of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite for cyanide poisoning consists primarily of published case reports. There are no randomized controlled clinical trials. Nearly all the human data describing the use of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) thiosulfate report its use in conjunction with Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite. Dosing recommendations for humans have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.

There have been no human studies to prospectively and systematically evaluate the safety of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite in humans. Available human safety information is based largely on anecdotal case reports and case series of limited scope.

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

Each Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite carton (NDC 60267-311-10) consists of the following:

  • One 10 mL glass vial of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite injection 30 mg/mL (containing 300 mg of Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) nitrite);

Storage

Store at controlled room temperature between 20°C and 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted from 15 to 30°C (59 to 86°F). Protect from direct light. Do not freeze.

(Note: Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Thiosulfate must be obtained separately.)

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

Halmezin Nitrite Injection is indicated for acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening and in this setting, patients will likely be unresponsive or may have difficulty in comprehending counseling information.

17.1 Hypotension and Methemoglobin Formation

When feasible, patients should be informed of the possibility of life-threatening hypotension and methemoglobin formation.

17.2 Monitoring

Where feasible, patients should be informed of the need for close monitoring of blood pressure and oxygenation.

Manufactured by Cangene BioPharma, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland 21230 for

Hope Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, Arizona 85260

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton

NDC 60267-311-10

Rx Only

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Nitrite

Injection, USP

300 mg/10 mL

(30 mg/mL)

FOR INTRAVENOUS USE

SINGLE USE ONLY

Any unused portion of a vial

should be discarded.

Use with

Halmezin (Sodium Citrate) Thiosulfate

for Treatment of

Cyanide Poisoning

Manufactured by

CANGENE bioPharma, Inc.

Baltimore, MD for

HOPE

PHARMACEUTICALS®

Scottsdale, AZ 85260 U.S.A.

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton

Halmezin pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Halmezin available forms, composition, doses:

Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Halmezin destination | category:

Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Halmezin Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Halmezin pharmaceutical companies:

Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."FUS-SOL (AMMONIUM CHLORIDE) LIQUID [PERFORMANCE PRODUCTS, INC.]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."NAUZENE (SODIUM CITRATE) SYRUP [ALVA-AMCO PHARMACAL COMPANIES, INC.]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. Dailymed."ADULT WAL TUSSIN COUGH LONG ACTING (DEXTROMETHORPHAN HYDROBROMIDE) SOLUTION [WALGREEN COMPANY]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Halmezin?

Depending on the reaction of the Halmezin after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Halmezin not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Halmezin addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sdrugs.com conducted a study on Halmezin, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Halmezin consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

Visitor reports

Visitor reported useful

No survey data has been collected yet

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Visitor reported frequency of use

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Visitor reported doses

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One visitor reported time for results

What is the time duration Halmezin drug must be taken for it to be effective or for it to reduce the symptoms?
Most chronic conditions need at least some time so the dose and the drug action gets adjusted to the body to get the desired effect. The stastistics say sdrugs.com website users needed 2 weeks to notice the result from using Halmezin drug. The time needed to show improvement in health condition after using the medicine Halmezin need not be same for all the users. It varies based on other factors.
Visitors%
2 weeks1
100.0%

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The information was verified by Dr. Rachana Salvi, MD Pharmacology

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