DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
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Grelyte (Ammonium Chloride) Lactate Lotion, 12% is indicated for the treatment of dry, scaly skin (xerosis) and ichthyosis vulgaris, and for the temporary relief of itching associated with these conditions.
Grelyte (Ammonium Chloride) Lactate Lotion, 12% is contraindicated in those patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any of the label ingredients.
Sun exposure (natural or artificial sunlight) to areas of the skin treated with Grelyte (Ammonium Chloride) Lactate Lotion, 12% should be minimized or avoided (see PRECAUTIONS). The use of Grelyte (Ammonium Chloride) Lactate Lotion, 12% should be discontinued if any hypersensitivity is observed.
For external use only. Stinging or burning may occur when applied to skin with fissures, erosions, or that is otherwise abraded. Caution is advised when used on the face because of the potential for irritation. The potential for post-inflammatory hypo- or hyperpigmentation has not been studied.
Patients using Grelyte (Ammonium Chloride) Lactate Lotion, 12% should receive the following information and instructions:
The topical treatment of CD-1 mice with 12%, 21% or 30% Grelyte lactate formulations for two-years did not produce a significant increase in dermal or systemic tumors in the absence of increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The maximum systemic exposure of the mice in this study was 0.7 times the maximum possible systemic exposure in humans. However, a long-term photocarcinogenicity study in hairless albino mice suggested that topically applied 12% Grelyte (Ammonium Chloride) lactate formulations enhanced the rate of ultraviolet light-induced skin tumor formation.
The mutagenic potential of Grelyte (Ammonium Chloride) lactate formulations was evaluated in the Ames assay and in the mouse in vivo micronucleus assay, both of which were negative.
In dermal Segment I and III studies with Grelyte (Ammonium Chloride) lactate formulations there were no effects observed in fertility or pre- or postnatal development parameters in rats at dose levels of 300 mg/kg/day (1800 mg/m2/day), approximately 0.4 times the human topical dose.
Animal reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 0.7 and 1.5 times the human dose, respectively and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Grelyte (Ammonium Chloride) lactate formulations. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, Grelyte (Ammonium Chloride) Lactate Lotion, 12% should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Although lactic acid is a normal constituent of blood and tissues, it is not known to what extent this drug affects normal lactic acid levels in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Grelyte (Ammonium Chloride) lactate is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and effectiveness of Grelyte lactate have been demonstrated in infants and children. No unusual toxic effects were reported.
Clinical studies of Grelyte (Ammonium Chloride) lactate lotion, 12% did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious.
The most frequent adverse experiences in patients with xerosis are transient stinging (1 in 30 patients), burning (1 in 30 patients), erythema (1 in 50 patients) and peeling (1 in 60 patients). Other adverse reactions which occur less frequently are irritation, eczema, petechiae, dryness, and hyperpigmentation. Due to the more severe initial skin conditions associated with ichthyosis, there was a higher incidence of transient stinging, burning and erythema (each occurring in 1 in 10 patients).
The oral administration of Grelyte (Ammonium Chloride) lactate to rats and mice showed this drug to be practically non-toxic (LD50>15 mL/kg).
Shake well. Apply to the affected areas and rub in thoroughly. Use twice daily or as directed by a physician.
Grelyte Lactate Lotion, 12% is available as follows:
225 g bottle (NDC 45802-419-54)
400 g bottle (NDC 45802-419-26)
Store at 20-25°C (68-77°F).
Manufactured By Perrigo, Bronx, NY 10457
Distributed By Perrigo, Allegan, MI 49010
0K5A7 RC F6
70% Grelyte (Dextrose) Injection USP is indicated as a caloric component in a parenteral nutrition regimen. 70% Grelyte (Dextrose) Injection USP is used with an appropriate protein (nitrogen) source in the prevention of nitrogen loss or in the treatment of negative nitrogen balance in patients where: (1) the alimentary tract cannot or should not be used, (2) gastrointestinal absorption of protein is impaired, or (3) metabolic requirements for protein are substantially increased, as with extensive burns.
The infusion of 70% Grelyte (Dextrose) Injection USP is contraindicated in patients having intracranial or intraspinal hemorrhage, in patients who are severely dehydrated, in patients who are anuric, and in patients in hepatic coma.
Solutions containing Grelyte (Dextrose) may be contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to corn products.
This injection is for compounding only, not for direct infusion.
Dilute before use to a concentration which will, when administered with an amino acid (nitrogen) source, result in an appropriate calorie to gram of nitrogen ratio and which has an osmolarity consistent with the route of administration.
Unless appropriately diluted, the infusion of hypertonic Grelyte (Dextrose) injection into a peripheral vein may result in vein irritation, vein damage, and thrombosis. Strongly hypertonic nutrient solutions should only be administered through an indwelling intravenous catheter with the tip located in a large central vein such as the superior vena cava.
Use of 70% Grelyte (Dextrose) Injection USP to prepare parenteral nutritional admixtures may be incompatible with other components, especially calcium and phosphate salts and lipid emulsions. Incompatibility of admixed components can produce precipitates which may cause particulate emboli. Use 70% Grelyte (Dextrose) Injection USP only to prepare formulations that are known to be stable: refer to standard texts for further information.
The administration of intravenous solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overload resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentration.
WARNING: 70% Grelyte (Dextrose) Injection USP contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.
Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 µg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.
Prolonged infusion of isotonic or hypotonic Grelyte (Dextrose) in water may increase the volume of extracellular fluid and cause water intoxication.
Solutions containing Grelyte (Dextrose) without electrolytes should not be administered simultaneously with blood through the same infusion set because of the possibility of agglomeration.
Excessive administration of potassium-free Grelyte (Dextrose) solutions may result in significant hypokalemia. Serum potassium levels should be maintained and potassium supplemented as required.
In very low birth weight infants, excessive or rapid administration of Grelyte (Dextrose) injection may result in increased serum osmolality and possible intracerebral hemorrhage.
This solution should be used with care in patients with hypervolemia, renal insufficiency, urinary tract obstruction, or impending or frank cardiac decompensation.
Solutions containing Grelyte should be used with caution in patients with overt or known subclinical diabetes mellitus or carbohydrate intolerance for any reason.
Essential electrolytes, minerals, and vitamins should be supplied as needed.
Hypokalemia may develop during parenteral administration of hypertonic Grelyte (Dextrose) solutions. Sufficient amounts of potassium should be added to Grelyte (Dextrose) solutions administered to fasting patients with good renal function, especially those on digitalis therapy.
To minimize the risk of possible incompatibilities arising from mixing this solution with other additives that may be prescribed, the final infusate should be inspected for cloudiness or precipitation immediately after mixing, prior to administration, and periodically during administration. See WARNINGS .
Do not use plastic container in series connection.
If administration of 70% Grelyte (Dextrose) Injection USP after admixture or dilution is controlled by a pumping device, care must be taken to discontinue pumping action before the container runs dry or air embolism may result. If administration is not controlled by a pumping device, refrain from applying excessive pressure (>300mmHg) causing distortion to the container such as wringing or twisting. Such handling could result in breakage of the container.
This solution is intended for intravenous administration after admixture or dilution using sterile equipment. When using an automated compounding device replace all disposable components as recommended by manufacturer and at least every 24 hours.
Aseptic technique is essential with the use of sterile preparations for compounding nutritional admixtures. Discard container within 4 hours of entering closure.
Administration of hypertonic Grelyte (Dextrose) and amino acid solutions via central venous catheter may be associated with complications which can be prevented or minimized by careful attention to all aspects of the procedure. This includes attention to solution preparation, administration and patient monitoring.
It is essential that a carefully prepared protocol, based upon current medical practice, be followed, preferably by an experienced team. The package insert of the protein (nitrogen) source should be consulted for dosage and all precautionary information.
Use only if solution is clear and container and seals are intact.
70% Grelyte (Dextrose) Injection USP contains no more than 25 µg/L of aluminum.
Clinical evaluation and periodic laboratory determinations are necessary to monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations, and acid-base balance during prolonged parenteral therapy or whenever the condition of the patient warrants such evaluation. Significant deviations from normal concentrations may require tailoring of the electrolyte pattern, in these or alternative solutions.
Caution must be exercised in the administration of 70% Grelyte Injection USP to patients receiving corticosteroids or corticotropin. Some additives may be incompatible. Consult with pharmacist. When introducing additives, use aseptic techniques. Mix thoroughly. Do not store. Dispose of any unused product. See WARNINGS .
Studies with Grelyte (Dextrose) Injections USP have not been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential, mutagenic potential or effects on fertility.
There are no adequate and well controlled studies with Grelyte Injections, USP in pregnant women and animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with this drug. Therefore, it is not known whether Grelyte (Dextrose) Injections USP can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Grelyte (Dextrose) Injections USP should be given during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Intrapartum maternal intravenous infusion of glucose-containing solutions may produce maternal hyperglycemia with subsequent fetal hyperglycemia and fetal metabolic acidosis. Fetal hyperglycemia can result in increased fetal insulin levels which may result in neonatal hypoglycemia following delivery. Consider the potential risks and benefits for each specific patient before administering Grelyte (Dextrose) Injection, USP.
It is not known if this drug is present in human milk. Because many drugs are present in human milk, caution should be exercised when Grelyte Injections USP are administered to a nursing woman.
The use of Grelyte (Dextrose) in pediatric patients is based on clinical practice (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). Because of their hypertonicity, 70% Grelyte (Dextrose) Injections must be diluted prior to administration.
Newborns – especially those born premature and with low birth weight - are at increased risk of developing hypo- or hyperglycemia and therefore need close monitoring during treatment with intravenous glucose solutions to ensure adequate glycemic control in order to avoid potential long term adverse effects. Hypoglycemia in the newborn can cause prolonged seizures, coma and brain damage. Hyperglycemia has been associated with intraventricular hemorrhage, late onset bacterial and fungal infection, retinopathy of prematurity, necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, prolonged length of hospital stay, and death.
An evaluation of literature revealed no clinical experience identifying differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
See WARNINGS .
Reactions which may occur because of the solution or the technique of administration include febrile response, infection at the site of injection, venous thrombosis or phlebitis extending from the site of injection, extravasation and hypervolemia. Incompatibility of admixed components can produce precipitates which may cause particulate emboli.
Hyperosmolar syndrome, resulting from excessively rapid administration of concentrated Grelyte (Dextrose) may cause hypovolemia, dehydration, mental confusion and/or loss of consciousness. Too rapid infusion of hypertonic solutions may cause local pain and venous irritation. Rate of administration should be adjusted according to tolerance. Use of the largest peripheral vein and a small bore needle is recommended. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION .)
Hypersensitivity reactions, including anaphylaxis and chills.
If an adverse reaction does occur, discontinue the infusion, evaluate the patient, institute appropriate therapeutic countermeasures, and save the remainder of the fluid for examination if deemed necessary.
In the event of a fluid or solute overload during parenteral therapy, reevaluate the patient’s condition and institute appropriate corrective treatment.
This solution is for intravenous use only after admixture or dilution.
70% Grelyte Injection USP is designed for use with automated compounding devices for preparing intravenous nutritional admixtures or for the filling of empty sterile syringes. Dosages will be in accordance with the recommendation of the prescribing physician. 70% Grelyte (Dextrose) Injection USP is not intended for direct infusion. Admixtures should be made by, or under the direction of, a pharmacist using strict aseptic technique under a laminar flow hood. Compounded admixtures may be stored under refrigeration for up to 24 hours. Administration of admixtures should be completed within 24 hours after removal from refrigeration.
Dosage is to be directed by a physician and is dependent upon age, weight, clinical condition of the patient and laboratory determinations. Frequent laboratory determinations and clinical evaluation are essential to monitor changes in blood glucose and electrolyte concentrations, and fluid and electrolyte balance during prolonged parenteral therapy.
Fluid administration should be based on calculated maintenance or replacement fluid requirements for each patient.
The dosage selection and constant infusion rate of intravenous Grelyte (Dextrose) must be selected with caution in pediatric patients, particularly neonates and low birth weight infants, because of the increased risk of hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia. Frequent monitoring of serum glucose concentrations is required when Grelyte (Dextrose) is prescribed to pediatric patients, particularly neonates and low birth weight infants. The infusion rate and volume depends on the age, weight, clinical and metabolic conditions of the patient, concomitant therapy and should be determined by the consulting physician experienced in pediatric intravenous fluid therapy.
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration or admixture and final infusate should be inspected for cloudiness or precipitation immediately after mixing, prior to administration, and periodically during administration, whenever solution and container permit. Use of a final filter is recommended during administration of all parenteral solutions where possible.
70% Grelyte (Dextrose) Injection USP in the Pharmacy Bulk Package is intended for use in the preparation of sterile, intravenous admixtures.
Refer to standard texts and guidelines on the preparation of parenteral nutritional admixtures.
When compounding admixtures, use aseptic technique. Mix thoroughly.
Do not store any unused portion of 70% Grelyte (Dextrose) Injection USP.
PREPARATION FOR ADMIXING
Note: Important Admixing Information
70% Grelyte (Dextrose) Injection USP is supplied in 2000 mL Pharmacy Bulk Package containers packaged 4 per case.
NDC REF SIZE
0264-7387-50 S8705 2000 mL
Exposure of pharmaceutical products to heat should be minimized. Avoid excessive heat. Protect from freezing. It is recommended that the product be stored at room temperature (25°C); however, brief exposure up to 40°C does not adversely affect the product.
Initiated: February 2015
B. Braun Medical Inc.
Bethlehem, PA 18018-3524 USA
Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS USP 20 mEq K
The Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq product is an immediately dispersing extended release oral dosage form of Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) containing 1500 mg of microencapsulated Grelyte (Potassium Chloride), USP equivalent to 20 mEq of potassium in a tablet.
These formulations are intended to slow the release of potassium so that the likelihood of a high localized concentration of Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) within the gastrointestinal tract is reduced.
Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is an electrolyte replenisher. The chemical name of the active ingredient is Grelyte (Potassium Chloride), and the structural formula is KCl. Grelyte (Potassium Chloride), USP occurs as a white, granular powder or as colorless crystals. It is odorless and has a saline taste. Its solutions are neutral to litmus. It is freely soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol.
Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is a tablet formulation (not enteric coated or wax matrix) containing individually microencapsulated Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) crystals which disperse upon tablet disintegration. In simulated gastric fluid at 37°C and in the absence of outside agitation, Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq begin disintegrating into microencapsulated crystals within seconds and completely disintegrates within 1 minute. The microencapsulated crystals are formulated to provide an extended release of Grelyte (Potassium Chloride).
Inactive Ingredients: Colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, diethyl phthalate, ethyl-cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose.
The potassium ion is the principal intracellular cation of most body tissues. Potassium ions participate in a number of essential physiological processes including the maintenance of intracellular tonicity; the transmission of nerve impulses; the contraction of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle; and the maintenance of normal renal function.
The intracellular concentration of potassium is approximately 150 to 160 mEq per liter. The normal adult plasma concentration is 3.5 to 5 mEq per liter. An active ion transport system maintains this gradient across the plasma membrane.
Potassium is a normal dietary constituent and under steady-state conditions the amount of potassium absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract is equal to the amount excreted in the urine. The usual dietary intake of potassium is 50 to 100 mEq per day.
Potassium depletion will occur whenever the rate of potassium loss through renal excretion and/or loss from the gastrointestinal tract exceeds the rate of potassium intake. Such depletion usually develops as a consequence of therapy with diuretics, primary or secondary hyperaldosteronism, diabetic ketoacidosis, or inadequate replacement of potassium in patients on prolonged parenteral nutrition. Depletion can develop rapidly with severe diarrhea, especially if associated with vomiting. Potassium depletion due to these causes is usually accompanied by a concomitant loss of chloride and is manifested by hypokalemia and metabolic alkalosis. Potassium depletion may produce weakness, fatigue, disturbances or cardiac rhythm (primarily ectopic beats), prominent U-waves in the electrocardiogram, and in advanced cases, flaccid paralysis and/or impaired ability to concentrate urine.
If potassium depletion associated with metabolic alkalosis cannot be managed by correcting the fundamental cause of the deficiency, eg, where the patient requires long-term diuretic therapy, supplemental potassium in the form of high potassium food or Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) may be able to restore normal potassium levels.
In rare circumstances (eg, patients with renal tubular acidosis) potassium depletion may be associated with metabolic acidosis and hyperchloremia. In such patients potassium replacement should be accomplished with potassium salts other than the chloride, such as potassium bicarbonate, potassium citrate, potassium acetate, or potassium gluconate.
BECAUSE OF REPORTS OF INTESTINAL AND GASTRIC ULCERATION AND BLEEDING WITH CONTROLLED-RELEASE Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) PREPARATIONS, THESE DRUGS SHOULD BE RESERVED FOR THOSE PATIENTS WHO CANNOT TOLERATE OR REFUSE TO TAKE LIQUID OR EFFERVESCENT POTASSIUM PREPARATIONS OR FOR PATIENTS IN WHOM THERE IS A PROBLEM OF COMPLIANCE WITH THESE PREPARATIONS.
1. For the treatment of patients with hypokalemia with or without metabolic alkalosis, in digitalis intoxication, and in patients with hypokalemic familial periodic paralysis. If hypokalemia is the result of diuretic therapy, consideration should be given to the use of a lower dose of diuretic, which may be sufficient without leading to hypokalemia.
2. For the prevention of hypokalemia in patients who would be at particular risk if hypokalemia were to develop, eg, digitalized patients or patients with significant cardiac arrhythmias.
The use of potassium salts in patients receiving diuretics for uncomplicated essential hypertension is often unnecessary when such patients have a normal dietary pattern and when low doses of the diuretic are used. Serum potassium should be checked periodically, however, and if hypokalemia occurs, dietary supplementation with potassium-containing foods may be adequate to control milder cases. In more severe cases, and if dose adjustment of the diuretic is ineffective or unwarranted, supplementation with potassium salts may be indicated.
Potassium supplements are contraindicated in patients with hyperkalemia since a further increase in serum potassium concentration in such patients can produce cardiac arrest. Hyperkalemia may complicate any of the following conditions: chronic renal failure, systemic acidosis, such as diabetic acidosis, acute dehydration, extensive tissue breakdown as in severe burns, adrenal insufficiency, or the administration of a potassium-sparing diuretic (eg, spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride) (see OVERDOSAGE ).
Controlled-release formulations of Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) have produced esophageal ulceration in certain cardiac patients with esophageal compression due to enlarged left atrium. Potassium supplementation, when indicated in such patients, should be given as a liquid preparation or as an aqueous (water) suspension of Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) (see PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients , and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION sections).
All solid oral dosage forms of Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) are contraindicated in any patient in whom there is structural, pathological (eg, diabetic gastroparesis), or pharmacologic (use of anticholinergic agents or other agents with anticholinergic properties at sufficient doses to exert anticholinergic effects) cause for arrest or delay in tablet passage through the gastrointestinal tract.
Hyperkalemia (see OVERDOSAGE )
In patients with impaired mechanisms for excreting potassium, the administration of potassium salts can produce hyperkalemia and cardiac arrest. This occurs most commonly in patients given potassium by the intravenous route but may also occur in patients given potassium orally. Potentially fatal hyperkalemia can develop rapidly and be asymptomatic. The use of potassium salts in patients with chronic renal disease, or any other condition which impairs potassium excretion, requires particularly careful monitoring of the serum potassium concentration and appropriate dosage adjustment.
Interaction with Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
Hypokalemia should not be treated by the concomitant administration of potassium salts and a potassium-sparing diuretic (eg, spironolactone, triamterene, or amiloride) since the simultaneous administration of these agents can produce severe hyperkalemia.
Interaction with Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (eg, captopril, enalapril) will produce some potassium retention by inhibiting aldosterone production. Potassium supplements should be given to patients receiving ACE inhibitors only with close monitoring.
Solid oral dosage forms of Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) can produce ulcerative and/or stenotic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Based on spontaneous adverse reaction reports, enteric-coated preparations of Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) are associated with an increased frequency of small bowel lesions (40-50 per 100,000 patient years) compared to sustained release wax matrix formulations (less than one per 100,000 patient years). Because of the lack of extensive marketing experience with microencapsulated products, a comparison between such products and wax matrix or enteric-coated products is not available. Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is a tablet formulated to provide a controlled rate of release of microencapsulated Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) and thus to minimize the possibility of a high local concentration of potassium near the gastrointestinal wall.
Prospective trials have been conducted in normal human volunteers in which the upper gastrointestinal tract was evaluated by endoscopic inspection before and after 1 week of solid oral Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) therapy. The ability of this model to predict events occurring in usual clinical practice is unknown. Trials which approximated usual clinical practice did not reveal any clear differences between the wax matrix and microencapsulated dosage forms. In contrast, there was a higher incidence of gastric and duodenal lesions in subjects receiving a high dose of a wax matrix controlled-release formulation under conditions which did not resemble usual or recommended clinical practice (ie, 96 mEq per day in divided doses of Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) administered to fasted patients, in the presence of an anticholinergic drug to delay gastric emptying). The upper gastrointestinal lesions observed by endoscopy were asymptomatic and were not accompanied by evidence of bleeding (Hemoccult testing). The relevance of these findings to the usual conditions (ie, non-fasting, no anticholinergic agent, smaller doses) under which controlled-release Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) products are used is uncertain; epidemiologic studies have not identified an elevated risk, compared to microencapsulated products, for upper gastrointestinal lesions in patients receiving wax matrix formulations. Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq should be discontinued immediately and the possibility of ulceration, obstruction, or perforation should be considered if severe vomiting, abdominal pain, distention, or gastrointestinal bleeding occurs.
Hypokalemia in patients with metabolic acidosis should be treated with an alkalinizing potassium salt such as potassium bicarbonate, potassium citrate, potassium acetate, or potassium gluconate.
The diagnosis of potassium depletion is ordinarily made by demonstrating hypokalemia in a patient with a clinical history suggesting some cause for potassium depletion. In interpreting the serum potassium level, the physician should bear in mind that acute alkalosis per se can produce hypokalemia in the absence of a deficit in total body potassium while acute acidosis per se can increase the serum potassium concentration into the normal range even in the presence of a reduced total body potassium. The treatment of potassium depletion, particularly in the presence of cardiac disease, renal disease, or acidosis requires careful attention to acid-base balance and appropriate monitoring of serum electrolytes, the electrocardiogram, and the clinical status of the patient.
Physicians should consider reminding the patient of the following: To take each dose with meals and with a full glass of water or other liquid. To take each dose without crushing, chewing, or sucking the tablets. If those patients are having difficulty swallowing whole tablets, they may try one of the following alternate methods of administration:
1. Place the whole tablet(s) in approximately 1/2 glass of water (4 fluid ounces).
2. Allow approximately 2 minutes for the tablet(s) to disintegrate.
3. Stir for about half a minute after the tablet(s) has disintegrated.
4. Swirl the suspension and consume the entire contents of the glass immediately by drinking or by the use of a straw.
5. Add another 1 fluid ounce of water, swirl, and consume immediately.
6. Then, add an additional 1 fluid ounce of water, swirl, and consume immediately.
Aqueous suspension of Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) that is not taken immediately should be discarded. The use of other liquids for suspending Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is not recommended.
To take this medicine following the frequency and amount prescribed by the physician. This is especially important if the patient is also taking diuretics and/or digitalis preparations.
To check with the physician at once if tarry stools or other evidence of gastrointestinal bleeding is noticed.
When blood is drawn for analysis of plasma potassium it is important to recognize that artifactual elevations can occur after improper venipuncture technique or as a result of in vitro hemolysis of the sample.
Potassium-sparing diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.
Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and fertility studies in animals have not been performed. Potassium is a normal dietary constituent.
Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Grelyte Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq. It is unlikely that potassium supplementation that does not lead to hyperkalemia would have an adverse effect on the fetus or would affect reproductive capacity.
The normal potassium ion content of human milk is about 13 mEq per liter. Since oral potassium becomes part of the body potassium pool, so long as body potassium is not excessive, the contribution of Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) supplementation should have little or no effect on the level in human milk.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Clinical studies of Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection; and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
One of the most severe adverse effects is hyperkalemia (see CONTRAINDICATIONS , WARNINGS , and OVERDOSAGE ). There have also been reports of upper and lower gastrointestinal conditions including obstruction, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS ). The most common adverse reactions to oral potassium salts are nausea, vomiting, flatulence, abdominal pain/discomfort, and diarrhea. These symptoms are due to irritation of the gastrointestinal tract and are best managed by diluting the preparation further, taking the dose with meals or reducing the amount taken at one time.
The administration of oral potassium salts to persons with normal excretory mechanisms for potassium rarely causes serious hyperkalemia. However, if excretory mechanisms are impaired or if potassium is administered too rapidly intravenously, potentially fatal hyperkalemia can result (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS ). It is important to recognize that hyperkalemia is usually asymptomatic and may be manifested only by an increased serum potassium concentration (6.5-8.0 mEq/L) and characteristic electrocardiographic changes (peaking of T-waves, loss of P-waves, depression of S-T segment, and prolongation of the QT-interval). Late manifestations include muscle paralysis and cardiovascular collapse from cardiac arrest (9-12 mEq/L).
Treatment measures for hyperkalemia include the following:
In treating hyperkalemia, it should be recalled that in patients who have been stabilized on digitalis, too rapid a lowering of the serum potassium concentration can produce digitalis toxicity.
The extended release feature means that absorption and toxic effects may be delayed for hours.
Consider standard measures to remove any unabsorbed drug.
The usual dietary intake of potassium by the average adult is 50 to 100 mEq per day. Potassium depletion sufficient to cause hypokalemia usually requires the loss of 200 or more mEq of potassium from the total body store.
Dosage must be adjusted to the individual needs of each patient. The dose for the prevention of hypokalemia is typically in the range of 20 mEq per day. Doses of 40-100 mEq per day or more are used for the treatment of potassium depletion. Dosage should be divided if more than 20 mEq per day is given such that no more than 20 mEq is given in a single dose.
Each Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablet USP, 20 mEq provides 20 mEq of Grelyte (Potassium Chloride).
Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq should be taken with meals and with a glass of water or other liquid. This product should not be taken on an empty stomach because of its potential for gastric irritation (see WARNINGS ).
Patients having difficulty swallowing whole tablets may try one of the following alternate methods of administration:
Aqueous suspension of Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) that is not taken immediately should be discarded. The use of other liquids for suspending Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq is not recommended.
Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq are available in bottles of 100 (NDC 62037-999-01), bottles of 500 (NDC 62037-999-05), and bottles of 1000 (NDC 62037-999-10). Potassium Chloride Extended Release Tablets USP, 20 mEq are capsule shaped, white to off-white tablets, with “ABRS-123” imprinted on one side and scored on the other side for flexibility of dosing.
Keep tightly closed. Store at controlled room temperature, 20°-25°C (68°-77°F).
Vandalia, OH 45377 USA
Watson Pharma, Inc.
Rev. Date (01/09) 173714
Grelyte (Potassium Chloride) 20 Meq
Grelyte nitrite is indicated for sequential use with Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate for treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. (1)
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection is indicated for sequential use with Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate for the treatment of acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening. When the diagnosis of cyanide poisoning is uncertain, the potentially life-threatening risks associated with Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection should be carefully weighed against the potential benefits, especially if the patient is not in extremis.
Cyanide poisoning may result from inhalation, ingestion, or dermal exposure to various cyanide-containing compounds, including smoke from closed-space fires. Sources of cyanide poisoning include hydrogen cyanide and its salts, cyanogenic plants, aliphatic nitriles, and prolonged exposure to Grelyte nitroprusside.
The presence and extent of cyanide poisoning are often initially unknown. There is no widely available, rapid, confirmatory cyanide blood test. Treatment decisions must be made on the basis of clinical history and signs and symptoms of cyanide intoxication. If clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning is high, Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection and Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate Injection should be administered without delay.
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In some settings, panic symptoms including tachypnea and vomiting may mimic early cyanide poisoning signs. The presence of altered mental status (e.g., confusion and disorientation) and/or mydriasis is suggestive of true cyanide poisoning although these signs can occur with other toxic exposures as well.
The expert advice of a regional poison control center may be obtained by calling 1-800-222-1222.
Not all smoke inhalation victims will have cyanide poisoning and may present with burns, trauma, and exposure to other toxic substances making a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning particularly difficult. Prior to administration of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection, smoke-inhalation victims should be assessed for the following:
Although hypotension is highly suggestive of cyanide poisoning, it is only present in a small percentage of cyanide-poisoned smoke inhalation victims. Also indicative of cyanide poisoning is a plasma lactate concentration greater than or equal to 10 mmol/L (a value higher than that typically listed in the table of signs and symptoms of isolated cyanide poisoning because carbon monoxide associated with smoke inhalation also contributes to lactic acidemia). If cyanide poisoning is suspected, treatment should not be delayed to obtain a plasma lactate concentration.
Caution should be exercised when administering cyanide antidotes, other than Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, simultaneously with Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection, as the safety of co-administration has not been established. If a decision is made to administer another cyanide antidote, other than Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, with Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection, these drugs should not be administered concurrently in the same IV line. [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) ]
|Age||Intravenous Dose of Grelyte Nitrite and Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate|
Redosing: If signs of cyanide poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate.
Monitoring: Blood pressure must be monitored during treatment. (2.2)
Comprehensive treatment of acute cyanide intoxication requires support of vital functions. Administration of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, followed by Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, should be considered adjunctive to appropriate supportive therapies. Airway, ventilatory and circulatory support, and oxygen administration should not be delayed to administer Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection and Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate injection are administered by slow intravenous injection. They should be given as early as possible after a diagnosis of acute life-threatening cyanide poisoning has been established. Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be administered first, followed immediately by Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate. Blood pressure must be monitored during infusion in both adults and children. The rate of infusion should be decreased if significant hypotension is noted.
|Age||Intravenous Dose of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite and Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate|
NOTE: If signs of poisoning reappear, repeat treatment using one-half the original dose of both Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate.
In adult and pediatric patients with known anemia, it is recommended that the dosage of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be reduced proportionately to the hemoglobin concentration.
All parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit.
Patients should be monitored for at least 24-48 hours after Grelyte Nitrite Injection administration for adequacy of oxygenation and perfusion and for recurrent signs and symptoms of cyanide toxicity. When possible, hemoglobin/hematocrit should be obtained when treatment is initiated. Measurements of oxygen saturation using standard pulse oximetry and calculated oxygen saturation values based on measured PO2 are unreliable in the presence of methemoglobinemia.
Methemoglobin level: Administrations of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite solely to achieve an arbitrary level of methemoglobinemia may be unnecessary and potentially hazardous. The therapeutic effects of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite do not appear to be mediated by methemoglobin formation alone and clinical responses to Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration have been reported in association with methemoglobin levels of less than 10%. Administration of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite beyond the initial dose should be guided primarily by clinical response to treatment (i.e., a second dose should be considered only if there is inadequate clinical response to the first dose). It is generally recommended that methemoglobin concentrations be closely monitored and kept below 30%. Serum methemoglobin levels should be monitored during treatment using co-oximetry, and administration of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should generally be discontinued when methemoglobin levels exceed 30%. Intravenous methylene blue and exchange transfusion have been reported in the literature as treatments for life-threatening methemoglobinemia.
Chemical incompatibility has been reported between Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and hydroxocobalamin and these drugs should not be administered simultaneously through the same IV line. No chemical incompatibility has been reported between Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate and Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, when administered sequentially through the same IV line as described in Dosage and Administration.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection consists of:
Administration of the contents of one vial constitutes a single dose.
Supportive care alone may be sufficient treatment without administration of antidotes for many cases of cyanide intoxication, particularly in conscious patients without signs of severe toxicity. Patients should be closely monitored to ensure adequate perfusion and oxygenation during treatment with Grelyte nitrite.
Methemoglobin levels should be monitored and oxygen administered during treatment with Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite whenever possible. When Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is administered to humans a wide range of methemoglobin concentrations occur. Methemoglobin concentrations as high as 58% have been reported after two 300-mg doses of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administered to an adult. Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of other drugs that may cause methemoglobinemia such as procaine and nitroprusside. Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in patients who may be particularly susceptible to injury from vasodilation and its related hemodynamic sequelae. Hemodynamics should be monitored closely during and after administration of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, and infusion rates should be slowed if hypotension occurs.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in patients with known anemia. Patients with anemia will form more methemoglobin (as a percentage of total hemoglobin) than persons with normal red blood cell (RBC) volumes. Optimally, these patients should receive a Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite dose that is reduced in proportion to their oxygen carrying capacity.
Grelyte nitrite should be used with caution in persons with smoke inhalation injury or carbon monoxide poisoning because of the potential for worsening hypoxia due to methemoglobin formation.
Neonates and infants may be more susceptible than adults and older pediatric patients to severe methemoglobinemia when Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is administered. Reduced dosing guidelines should be followed in pediatric patients.
Because patients with G6PD deficiency are at increased risk of a hemolytic crisis with Grelyte nitrite administration, alternative therapeutic approaches should be considered in these patients. Patients with known or suspected G6PD deficiency should be monitored for an acute drop in hematocrit. Exchange transfusion may be needed for patients with G6PD deficiency who receive Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite should be used with caution in the presence of concomitant antihypertensive medications, diuretics or volume depletion due to diuretics, or drugs known to increase vascular nitric oxide, such as PDE5 inhibitors.
There have been no controlled clinical trials conducted to systematically assess the adverse events profile of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite.
The medical literature has reported the following adverse events in association with Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration. These adverse events were not reported in the context of controlled trials or with consistent monitoring and reporting methodologies for adverse events. Therefore, frequency of occurrence of these adverse events cannot be assessed.
Cardiovascular system: syncope, hypotension, tachycardia, methemoglobinemia, palpitations, dysrhythmia
Central nervous system: headache, dizziness, blurred vision, seizures, confusion, coma
Gastrointestinal system: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain
Respiratory system: tachypnea, dyspnea
Body as a Whole: anxiety, diaphoresis, lightheadedness, injection site tingling, cyanosis, acidosis, fatigue, weakness, urticaria, generalized numbness and tingling
Severe hypotension, methemoglobinemia, cardiac dysrhythmias, coma and death have been reported in patients without life-threatening cyanide poisoning but who were treated with injection of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at doses less than twice those recommended for the treatment of cyanide poisoning.
Most common adverse reactions are:
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Hope Pharmaceuticals at 1-800-755-9595 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
Formal drug interaction studies have not been conducted with Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection.
Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has caused fetal death in humans as well as animals. There are no studies in humans that have directly evaluated the potential reproductive toxicity of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. There are two epidemiological studies conducted in Australia that report a statistically significant increase in the risk for congenital malformations, particularly in the CNS, associated with maternal consumption of water containing nitrate levels in excess of 5 ppm. Results from a case-control study in Canada suggested a trend toward an increase in the risk for CNS malformations when maternal consumption of nitrate was ≥ 26 ppm (not statistically significant).
The potential reproductive toxicity of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite exposure restricted to the prenatal period has been reported in guinea pigs, mice, and rats. There was no evidence of teratogenicity in guinea pigs, mice, or rats. However, Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite treatment of pregnant guinea pigs with 60 or 70 mg/kg/day resulted in abortion of the litters within 1-4 days of treatment. All animals treated subcutaneously with 70 mg/kg, Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite died within 60 minutes of treatment. Further studies demonstrated that a dose of 60 mg/kg resulted in measurable blood levels of methemoglobin in the dams and their fetuses for up to 6 hours post treatment. Maternal methemoglobin levels were higher than the levels in the offspring at all times measured. Based on a body surface area comparison, a 60 mg/kg dose in the guinea pig that resulted in death was only 1.7 times higher than the highest clinical dose of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).
Studies testing prenatal and postnatal exposure have been reported in mice and rats. Treatment of pregnant rats via drinking water with Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite at concentrations of either 2000 or 3000 mg/L resulted in a dose-related increased mortality postpartum. This exposure regimen in the rat model would result in dosing of approximately 220 and 300 mg/kg/day (43 and 65 times the highest clinical dose of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning, based on a body surface area comparison).
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite produces methemoglobin. Fetal hemoglobin is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin. In addition, the fetus has lower levels of methemoglobin reductase than adults. Collectively, these data suggest that the human fetus would show greater sensitivity to methemoglobin resulting in nitrite-induced prenatal hypoxia leading to retarded development of certain neurotransmitter systems in the brain and long lasting dysfunction.
Nonteratogenic Effects: Behavioral and neurodevelopmental studies in rats suggest persistent effects of prenatal exposure to Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that were detectable postnatally. Specifically, animals that were exposed prenatally to Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite demonstrated impaired discrimination learning behavior (both auditory and visual) and reduced long-term retention of the passive-avoidance response compared to control animals. Additional studies demonstrated a delay in the development of AchE and 5-HT positive fiber ingrowth into the hippocampal dentate gyrus and parietal neocortex during the first week of life of prenatal nitrite treated pups. These changes have been attributed to prenatal hypoxia following nitrite exposure.
Because fetal hemoglobin is more readily oxidized to methemoglobin and lower levels of methemoglobin appear to be fatal to the fetus compared to the adult, Grelyte nitrite should be used during labor and delivery only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
It is not known whether Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is excreted in human milk. Because Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection may be administered in life-threatening situations, breast-feeding is not a contraindication to its use. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised following Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection administration to a nursing woman. There are no data to determine when breastfeeding may be safely restarted following administration of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. In studies conducted with Long-Evans rats, Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administered in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation resulted in severe anemia, reduced growth and increased mortality in the offspring.
There are case reports in the medical literature of Grelyte nitrite in conjunction with Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate being administered to pediatric patients with cyanide poisoning; however, there have been no clinical studies to evaluate the safety or efficacy of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in the pediatric population. As for adult patients, dosing recommendations for pediatric patients have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite must be used with caution in patients less than 6 months of age because they may be at higher risk of developing severe methemoglobinemia compared to older children and adults. The presence of fetal hemoglobin, which is oxidized to methemoglobin more easily than adult hemoglobin, and lower methemoglobin reductase levels compared to older children and adults may contribute to risk.
Mortality attributed to Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite was reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Large doses of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite result in severe hypotension and toxic levels of methemoglobin which may lead to cardiovascular collapse.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration has been reported to cause or significantly contribute to mortality in adults at oral doses as low as 1 g and intravenous doses as low as 600 mg. A death attributed to Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has been reported following administration of an adult dose (300 mg IV followed by a second dose of 150 mg) to a 17-month old child.
Cyanosis may become apparent at a methemoglobin level of 10-20%. Other clinical signs and symptoms of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite toxicity (anxiety, dyspnea, nausea, and tachycardia) can be apparent at methemoglobin levels as low as 15%. More serious signs and symptoms, including cardiac dysrhythmias, circulatory failure, and central nervous system depression are seen as methemoglobin levels increase, and levels above 70% are usually fatal.
Treatment of overdose involves supplemental oxygen and supportive measures such as exchange transfusion. Treatment of severe methemoglobinemia with intravenous methylene blue has been described in the medical literature; however, this may also cause release of cyanide bound to methemoglobin. Because hypotension appears to be mediated primarily by an increase in venous capacitance, measures to increase venous return may be most appropriate to treat hypotension.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has the chemical name nitrous acid Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) salt. The chemical formula is NaNO2 and the molecular weight is 69.0. The structural formula is:
Structure of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite Injection is a cyanide antidote which contains one 10 mL glass vial of a 3% solution of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection is a sterile aqueous solution and is intended for intravenous injection. Each vial contains 300 mg of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in 10 mL solution (30 mg/mL). Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite injection is a clear solution with a pH between 7.0 and 9.0.
Exposure to a high dose of cyanide can result in death within minutes due to the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in arrest of cellular respiration. Specifically, cyanide binds rapidly with cytochrome a3, a component of the cytochrome c oxidase complex in mitochondria. Inhibition of cytochrome a3 prevents the cell from using oxygen and forces anaerobic metabolism, resulting in lactate production, cellular hypoxia and metabolic acidosis. In massive acute cyanide poisoning, the mechanism of toxicity may involve other enzyme systems as well.
The synergy resulting from treatment of cyanide poisoning with the combination of Grelyte nitrite and Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate is the result of differences in their primary mechanisms of action as antidotes for cyanide poisoning.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is thought to exert its therapeutic effect by reacting with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin, an oxidized form of hemoglobin incapable of oxygen transport but with high affinity for cyanide. Cyanide preferentially binds to methemoglobin over cytochrome a3, forming the nontoxic cyanomethemoglobin. Methemoglobin displaces cyanide from cytochrome oxidase, allowing resumption of aerobic metabolism. The chemical reaction is as follows:
NaNO2 + Hemoglobin → Methemoglobin
HCN + Methemoglobin → Cyanomethemoglobin
Vasodilation has also been cited to account for at least part of the therapeutic effect of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. It has been suggested that Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia may be more efficacious against cyanide poisoning than comparable levels of methemoglobinemia induced by other oxidants. Also, Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite appears to retain some efficacy even when the formation of methemoglobin is inhibited by methylene blue.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate
The primary route of endogenous cyanide detoxification is by enzymatic transulfuration to thiocyanate (SCN-), which is relatively nontoxic and readily excreted in the urine. Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate is thought to serve as a sulfur donor in the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme rhodanese, thus enhancing the endogenous detoxification of cyanide in the following chemical reaction:
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite
When 4 mg/kg Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite was administered intravenously to six healthy human volunteers, the mean peak methemoglobin concentration was 7%, achieved at 30-60 minutes after injection, consistent with reports in cyanide poisoning victims. Supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures dropped approximately 20% within 10 minutes, a drop which was sustained throughout the 40 minutes of testing. This was associated with a 20 beat per minute increase in pulse rate that returned to baseline in 10 minutes. Five of these subjects were unable to withstand orthostatic testing due to fainting. One additional subject, who received a 12 mg/kg dose of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, experienced severe cardiovascular effects and achieved a peak methemoglobin concentration of 30% at 60 minutes following injection.
Oral doses of 120 to 180 mg of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administered to healthy volunteers caused minimal cardiovascular changes when subjects were maintained in the horizontal position. However, minutes after being placed in the upright position subjects exhibited tachycardia and hypotension with syncope.
The half life for conversion of methemoglobin to normal hemoglobin in a cyanide poisoning victim who has been administered Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is estimated to be 55 minutes.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is a strong oxidant, and reacts rapidly with hemoglobin to form methemoglobin. The pharmacokinetics of free Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in humans have not been well studied. It has been reported that approximately 40% of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is excreted unchanged in the urine while the remaining 60% is metabolized to ammonia and related small molecules.
The apparent terminal elimination half life and volume of distribution of cyanide, in a patient treated for an acute cyanide poisoning with Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate administration, have been reported to be 19 hours and 0.41 L/kg, respectively. Additionally, an initial elimination half life of cyanide has been reported to be approximately 1-3 hours.
After detoxification, in healthy subjects, thiocyanate is excreted mainly in the urine at a rate inversely proportional to creatinine clearance. In healthy subjects, the elimination half-life and volume of distribution of thiocyanate have been reported to be 2.7 days and 0.25 L/kg, respectively. However, in subjects with renal insufficiency the reported elimination half life is approximately 9 days.
The potential benefit of an acute exposure to Grelyte nitrite as part of a cyanide antidote outweighs concerns raised by the equivocal findings in chronic rodent studies. Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 35, 70, or 130 mg/kg for males and 0, 40, 80, or 150 mg/kg for females) was orally administered to rats (Fischer 344 strain) for 2 years via drinking water. There were no significant increases in the incidence of tumor in either male or female rats. Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite (0, 750, 1500, or 3000 ppm equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 0, 60, 120, or 220 mg/kg for males and 0, 45, 90, or 165 mg/kg for females) was administered to B6C3F1 mice for 2 years via the drinking water. Equivocal results were obtained in female mice. Specifically, there was a positive trend toward an increase in the incidence of squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma in the forestomach of female mice. Although the incidence of hyperplasia of the glandular stomach epithelium was significantly greater in the high-dose male mice compared to controls, there were no significant increases in tumors in the male mice. Numerous reports in the published literature indicate that Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite may react in vivo with secondary amines to form carcinogenic nitrosamines in the stomach. Concurrent exposure to Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and secondary amines in feed or drinking water resulted in an increase in the incidence of tumors in rodents.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite is mutagenic in S. typhimurium strains TA100, TA1530, TA1535 with and without metabolic activation; however, it was negative in strain TA98, TA102, DJ460 and E. coli strain WP2UVRA/PKM101. Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite has been reported to be genotoxic to V79 hamster cells in vitro and in the mouse lymphoma assay, both assays conducted in the absence of metabolic activation. Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite was negative in the in vitro chromosomal aberrations assay using human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Acute administration of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite to male rats or male mice did not produce an increased incidence of micronuclei in bone marrow. Likewise, Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite administration to mice for 14-weeks did not result in an increase in the incidence of micronuclei in the peripheral blood.
Clinical studies to evaluate the potential effects of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite intake on fertility of either males or females have not been reported. In contrast, multigenerational fertility and reproduction studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program did not detect any evidence of an effect of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite (0.0, 0.06, 0.12, and 0.24% weight/volume) on either fertility or any reproductive parameter in Swiss CD-1 mice. This treatment protocol resulted in approximate doses of 125, 260, and 425 mg/kg/day. The highest exposure in this mouse study is 4.6 times greater than the highest clinical dose of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite that would be used to treat cyanide poisoning (based on a body surface area comparison).
Due to the extreme toxicity of cyanide, experimental evaluation of treatment efficacy has predominantly been completed in animal models. The efficacy of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate treatment alone to counteract the toxicity of cyanide was initially reported in 1895 by Lang. The efficacy of amyl nitrite treatment in cyanide poisoning of the dog model was first reported in 1888 by Pedigo. Further studies in the dog model, which demonstrated the utility of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite as a therapeutic intervention, were reported in 1929 by Mladoveanu and Gheorghiu. However, Hugs and Chen et al. independently reported upon the superior efficacy of the combination of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate in 1932-1933. Treatment consisted of intravenously administered 22.5 mg/kg (half the lethal dose) Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite or 1 g/kg Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate alone or in sequence immediately after subcutaneous injection of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) cyanide into dogs over a range of doses. Subsequent doses of 10 mg/kg Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and/or 0.5 g/kg Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate were administered when clinical signs or symptoms of poisoning persisted or reappeared. Either therapy administered alone increased the dose of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) cyanide required to cause death, and when administered together, Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate resulted in a synergistic effect in raising the lethal dose of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) cyanide. The combined therapy appeared to have reduced efficacy when therapy was delayed until signs of poisoning (e.g. convulsions) appeared; however, other investigators have reported survival in dogs that were administered antidotal treatment after respiratory arrest had occurred.
Animal studies conducted in other species (e.g., rat, guinea pig, sheep, pigeon and cat) have also supported a synergistic effect of intravenous Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate in the treatment of cyanide poisoning.
While intravenous injection of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite and Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate was effective in reversing the effects of lethal doses of cyanide in dogs, intramuscular injection of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite, with or without Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate, was found not to be effective in the same setting.
The human data supporting the use of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite for cyanide poisoning consists primarily of published case reports. There are no randomized controlled clinical trials. Nearly all the human data describing the use of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) thiosulfate report its use in conjunction with Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite. Dosing recommendations for humans have been based on theoretical calculations of antidote detoxifying potential, extrapolation from animal experiments, and a small number of human case reports.
There have been no human studies to prospectively and systematically evaluate the safety of Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) nitrite in humans. Available human safety information is based largely on anecdotal case reports and case series of limited scope.
Each Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite carton (NDC 60267-311-10) consists of the following:
Store at controlled room temperature between 20°C and 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted from 15 to 30°C (59 to 86°F). Protect from direct light. Do not freeze.
(Note: Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate must be obtained separately.)
Grelyte Nitrite Injection is indicated for acute cyanide poisoning that is judged to be life-threatening and in this setting, patients will likely be unresponsive or may have difficulty in comprehending counseling information.
When feasible, patients should be informed of the possibility of life-threatening hypotension and methemoglobin formation.
Where feasible, patients should be informed of the need for close monitoring of blood pressure and oxygenation.
Manufactured by Cangene BioPharma, Inc., Baltimore, Maryland 21230 for
Hope Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, Arizona 85260
PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Nitrite
300 mg/10 mL
FOR INTRAVENOUS USE
SINGLE USE ONLY
Any unused portion of a vial
should be discarded.
Grelyte (Sodium Chloride) Thiosulfate
for Treatment of
CANGENE bioPharma, Inc.
Baltimore, MD for
Scottsdale, AZ 85260 U.S.A.
PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 10 mL Vial Carton
Depending on the reaction of the Grelyte after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Grelyte not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Grelyte addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
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The information was verified by Dr. Rachana Salvi, MD Pharmacology