DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Fluoroquinolones, including Gemifix®, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This risk is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart and lung transplants (See WARNINGS).
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Gemifix and other antibacterial drugs, Gemifix should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Gemifix (gemifloxacin mesylate) is a synthetic broad-spectrum antibacterial agent for oral administration. Gemifix, a compound related to the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics, is available as the mesylate salt in the sesquihydrate form. Chemically, Gemifix is (R,S)-7-[(4Z)-3-(aminomethyl)-4-(methoxyimino)-1-pyrrolidinyl]-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxylic acid.
The mesylate salt is a white to light brown solid with a molecular weight of 485.49. Gemifix is considered freely soluble at neutral pH (350 μg/mL at 37ºC, pH 7.0). Its empirical formula is C18H20FN5O4•CH4O3S and its chemical structure is:Each white to off-white, oval, film-coated Gemifix tablet has breaklines and GE 320 debossed on both faces and contains Gemifix mesylate equivalent to 320 mg Gemifix. The inactive ingredients are crospovidone, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, and titanium dioxide.
The pharmacokinetics of Gemifix are approximately linear over the dose range from 40 mg to 640 mg. There was minimal accumulation of Gemifix following multiple oral doses up to 640 mg a day for 7 days. Following repeat oral administration of 320 mg Gemifix once daily, steady-state is achieved by the third day of dosing.
Absorption and Bioavailability
Gemifix, given as an oral tablet, is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Peak plasma concentrations of Gemifix were observed between 0.5 and 2 hours following oral tablet administration and the absolute bioavailability of the 320 mg tablet averaged approximately 71% (95% CI 60%-84%). Following repeat oral doses of 320 mg to healthy subjects, the mean ± SD maximal Gemifix plasma concentrations (Cmax) and systemic drug exposure (AUC (0-24)) were 1.61 ± 0.51 μg/mL (range 0.70-2.62 μg/mL) and 9.93 ± 3.07 μg•hr/mL (range 4.71-20.1 μg•hr/mL), respectively. In patients with respiratory and urinary tract infections (n=1423), similar estimates of systemic drug exposure were determined using a population pharmacokinetics analysis (geometric mean AUC (0-24), 8.36 μg•hr/mL; range 3.2 – 47.7 μg•hr/mL).
The pharmacokinetics of Gemifix were not significantly altered when a 320 mg dose was administered with a high-fat meal. Therefore Gemifix tablets may be administered without regard to meals.
In vitro binding of Gemifix to plasma proteins in healthy subjects is approximately 60 to 70% and is concentration independent. After repeated doses, the in vivo plasma protein binding in healthy elderly and young subjects ranged from 55% to 73% and was unaffected by age. Renal impairment does not significantly affect the protein binding of Gemifix. The blood-to-plasma concentration ratio of Gemifix was 1.2:1. The geometric mean for Vdss/F is 4.18 L/kg.
Gemifix is widely distributed throughout the body after oral administration. Concentrations of Gemifix in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid exceed those in the plasma. Gemifix penetrates well into lung tissue and fluids. After five daily doses of 320 mg Gemifix, concentrations in plasma, bronchoalveolar macrophages, epithelial lining fluid and bronchial mucosa at approximately 2 hours were as in Table 1.
Gemifix is metabolized to a limited extent by the liver. The unchanged compound is the predominant drug-related component detected in plasma (approximately 65%) up to 4 hours after dosing. All metabolites formed are minor (<10% of the administered oral dose); the principal ones are N-acetyl Gemifix, the E-isomer of Gemifix and the carbamyl glucuronide of Gemifix. Cytochrome P450 enzymes do not play an important role in Gemifix metabolism, and the metabolic activity of these enzymes is not significantly inhibited by Gemifix.
Gemifix and its metabolites are excreted via dual routes of excretion. Following oral administration of Gemifix to healthy subjects, a mean of 61 ± 9.5% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 36 ± 9.3% in the urine as unchanged drug and metabolites. The mean (± SD) renal clearance following repeat doses of 320 mg was approximately 11.6 ± 3.9 L/hr (range 4.6-17.6 L/hr), which indicates active secretion is involved in the renal excretion of Gemifix. The mean (± SD) plasma elimination half-life at steady state following 320 mg to healthy subjects was approximately 7 ± 2 hours (range 4-12 hours).
Pediatric: The pharmacokinetics of Gemifix in pediatric subjects have not been studied.
Geriatric: In adult subjects, the pharmacokinetics of Gemifix are not affected by age.Gender: There are no significant differences between Gemifix pharmacokinetics in males and females when differences in body weight are taken into account. Population pharmacokinetic studies indicated that following administration of 320 mg Gemifix, AUC values were approximately 10% higher in healthy female patients compared to males. Males and females had mean AUC values of 7.98 μg•hr/mL (range, 3.21 – 42.71 μg•hr/mL) and 8.80 μg•hr/mL (range, 3.33 – 47.73 μg•hr/mL), respectively. No Gemifix dosage adjustment based on gender is necessary.Hepatic Insufficiency: The pharmacokinetics following a single 320 mg dose of Gemifix were studied in patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) to moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) liver disease. There was a mean increase in AUC (0-inf) of 34% and a mean increase in Cmax of 25% in these patients with hepatic impairment compared to healthy volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of a single 320 mg dose of Gemifix were also studied in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C). There was a mean increase in AUC (0-inf) of 45% and a mean increase in Cmax of 41% in these subjects with hepatic impairment compared to healthy volunteers. These average pharmacokinetic increases are not considered to be clinically significant. There was no significant change in plasma elimination half-life in the mild, moderate or severe hepatic impairment patients. No dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A), moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) or severe (Child-Pugh Class C) hepatic impairment. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)Renal Insufficiency: Results from population pharmacokinetic and clinical pharmacology studies with repeated 320 mg doses indicate the clearance of Gemifix is reduced and the plasma elimination is prolonged, leading to an average increase in AUC values of approximately 70% in patients with renal insufficiency. In the pharmacokinetic studies, Gemifix Cmax was not significantly altered in subjects with renal insufficiency. Dose adjustment in patients with creatinine clearance >40 mL/min is not required. Modification of the dosage is recommended for patients with creatinine clearance ≤40 mL/min. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)Hemodialysis removes approximately 20 to 30% of an oral dose of Gemifix from plasma.
In a study of the skin response to ultraviolet and visible radiation conducted in 40 healthy volunteers, the minimum erythematous dose was assessed following administration of either Gemifix 160 mg once daily, Gemifix 320 mg once daily, ciprofloxacin 500 mg BID, or placebo for 7 days. At 5 of the 6 wavelengths tested (295-430 nm), the photosensitivity potential of Gemifix was not statistically different from placebo. At 365 nm (UVA region), Gemifix showed a photosensitivity potential similar to that of ciprofloxacin 500 mg BID and the photosensitivity potential for both drugs were statistically greater than that of placebo. Photosensitivity reactions were reported rarely in clinical trials with Gemifix (0.039%). (See ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
It is difficult to ascribe relative photosensitivity/phototoxicity among various fluoroquinolones during actual patient use because other factors play a role in determining a subject’s susceptibility to this adverse event such as: a patient’s skin pigmentation, frequency and duration of sun and artificial ultraviolet light (UV) exposure, wearing of sun screen and protective clothing, the use of other concomitant drugs and the dosage and duration of fluoroquinolone therapy. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS/Post-Marketing Adverse Reactions.)
Antacids/Di- and Trivalent Cations: The systemic availability of Gemifix is significantly reduced when an aluminum- and magnesium- containing antacid is concomitantly administered (AUC decreased 85%; Cmax decreased 87%). Administration of an aluminum- and magnesium- containing antacid or ferrous sulfate (325 mg) at 3 hours before or at 2 hours after Gemifix did not significantly alter the systemic availability of Gemifix. Therefore, aluminum- and/or magnesium- containing antacids, ferrous sulfate (iron), multivitamin preparations containing zinc or other metal cations, or Videx® (didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or the pediatric powder for oral solution should not be taken within 3 hours before or 2 hours after taking Gemifix tablets.
Calcium carbonate (1000 mg) given either 2 hr before or 2 hr after Gemifix administration showed no notable reduction in Gemifix systemic availability. Calcium carbonate administered simultaneously with Gemifix resulted in a small, not clinically significant, decrease in Gemifix exposure [AUC (0-inf) decreased 21% and Cmax decreased].Sucralfate: When sucralfate (2 g) was administered 3 hours prior to Gemifix, the oral bioavailability of Gemifix was significantly reduced (53% decrease in AUC; 69% decrease in Cmax). When sucralfate (2 g) was administered 2 hours after Gemifix, the oral bioavailability of Gemifix was not significantly affected; therefore Gemifix should be taken at least 2 hours before sucralfate. (See PRECAUTIONS.)In Vitro Metabolism: Results of in vitro inhibition studies indicate that hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes do not play an important role in Gemifix metabolism. Therefore Gemifix should not cause significant in vivo pharmacokinetic interactions with other drugs that are metabolized by CYP450 enzymes. Theophylline: Gemifix 320 mg at steady-state did not affect the repeat dose pharmacokinetics of theophylline (300 to 400 mg BID to healthy male subjects).Digoxin: Gemifix 320 mg at steady-state did not affect the repeat dose pharmacokinetics of digoxin (0.25 mg once daily to healthy elderly subjects).Oral Contraceptives: The effect of an oral estrogen/progesterone contraceptive product (once daily for 21 days) on the pharmacokinetics of Gemifix (320 mg once daily for 6 days) in healthy female subjects indicates that concomitant administration caused an average reduction in Gemifix AUC and Cmax of 19% and 12%. These changes are not considered clinically significant. Gemifix 320 mg at steady-state did not affect the repeat dose pharmacokinetics of an ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrol oral contraceptive product (30 μg/150 μg once daily for 21 days to healthy female subjects).Cimetidine: Co-administration of a single dose of 320 mg Gemifix with cimetidine 400 mg four times daily for 7 days resulted in slight average increases in Gemifix AUC(0-inf) and Cmax of 10% and 6%, respectively. These increases are not considered clinically significant. Omeprazole: Co-administration of a single dose of 320 mg Gemifix with omeprazole 40 mg once daily for 4 days resulted in slight average increases in Gemifix AUC(0-inf) and Cmax of 10% and 11%, respectively. These increases are not considered clinically significant. Warfarin: Administration of repeated doses of Gemifix (320 mg once daily for 7 days) to healthy subjects on stable warfarin therapy had no significant effect on warfarin-induced anticoagulant activity (i.e., International Normalized Ratios for Prothrombin Time). (See PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions.)Probenecid: Administration of a single dose of 320 mg Gemifix to healthy subjects who also received repeat doses of probenecid (total dose = 4.5 g) reduced the mean renal clearance of Gemifix by approximately 50%, resulting in a mean increase of 45% in Gemifix AUC (0-inf) and a prolongation of mean half-life by 1.6 hours. Mean Gemifix Cmax increased 8%.MICROBIOLOGYGemifix has in vitro activity against a wide range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive microorganisms. Gemifix is bactericidal with minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) generally within one dilution of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Gemifix acts by inhibiting DNA synthesis through the inhibition of both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV (TOPO IV), which are essential for bacterial growth. Streptococcus pneumoniae showing mutations in both DNA gyrase and TOPO IV (double mutants) are resistant to most fluoroquinolones. Gemifix has the ability to inhibit both enzyme systems at therapeutically relevant drug levels in S. pneumoniae (dual targeting), and has MIC values that are still in the susceptible range for some of these double mutants. However, the presence of double mutants was not evaluated in clinical trials; therefore, the clinical significance of these in vitro data are unknown. The mechanism of action of quinolones, including Gemifix, is different from that of macrolides, beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, or tetracyclines; therefore, microorganisms resistant to these classes of drugs may be susceptible to Gemifix and other quinolones. There is no known cross-resistance between Gemifix and the above mentioned classes of antimicrobials. The main mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance is due to mutations in DNA gyrase and/or TOPO IV. Resistance to Gemifix develops slowly via multistep mutations and efflux in a manner similar to other fluoroquinolones. The frequency of spontaneous mutation is low (10-7 to <10-10). Although cross-resistance has been observed between Gemifix and other fluoroquinolones, some microorganisms resistant to other fluoroquinolones may be susceptible to Gemifix. Gemifloxacin has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.Aerobic Gram-positive microorganismsStreptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-drug resistant strains [MDRSP])**MDRSP: multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, includes isolates previously known as PRSP (penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae), and are strains resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin (MIC ≥2 μg/mL), 2nd generation cephalosporins (e.g., cefuroxime), macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.Aerobic Gram-negative microorganismsHaemophilus influenzae
Klebsiella pneumoniae (many strains are only moderately susceptible)
Moraxella catarrhalisOther microorganismsChlamydia pneumoniae
The following data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown.Gemifix exhibits in vitro minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.25 μg/mL or less against most (≥90%) strains of the following microorganisms; however, the safety and effectiveness of Gemifix in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms has not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials:Aerobic Gram-positive microorganismsStaphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains only)
Streptococcus pyogenesAerobic Gram-negative microorganismsAcinetobacter lwoffii
Proteus vulgarisSusceptibility TestsDilution techniques: Quantitative methods are used to determine antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). These MICs provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. The MICs should be determined using a standardized procedure. Standardized procedures are based on a dilution method1 (broth or agar) or equivalent with standardized inoculum concentrations and standardized concentrations of Gemifix powder. The MICs should be interpreted according to the following criteria:For testing Klebsiella pneumoniae:
For testing Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzaea:
a This interpretive standard is applicable only to broth microdilution susceptibility testing with Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae using Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM)1.
The current absence of data on resistant strains precludes defining any results other than “Susceptible”. Strains yielding MIC results suggestive of a “nonsusceptible” category should be submitted to a reference laboratory for further testing. For testing Streptococcus pneumoniaeb:
b These interpretive standards are applicable only to broth microdilution susceptibility tests using cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with 2-5% lysed horse blood.
A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the pathogen is likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentration usually achievable. A report of “Intermediate” indicates that the result should be considered equivocal, and if the microorganism is not fully susceptible to alternative, clinically feasible drugs, the test should be repeated. This category implies possible clinical applicability in body sites where the drug is physiologically concentrated or in situations where high dosage of drug can be used. This category also provides a buffer zone, which prevents small uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of “Resistant” indicates that the pathogen is not likely to be inhibited if the antimicrobial compound in the blood reaches the concentration usually achievable; other therapy should be selected. Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory control microorganisms to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. Standard Gemifix powder should provide the following MIC values:
c This quality control range is applicable to only H. influenzae ATCC 49247 tested by a broth microdilution procedure using Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM)1.
d This quality control range is applicable to only S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 tested by a broth microdilution procedure using cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth with 2-5% lysed horse blood.Diffusion Techniques: Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters also provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure2 requires the use of standardized inoculum concentrations. This procedure uses paper disks impregnated with 5 μg Gemifix to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to Gemifix. Reports from the laboratory providing results of the standard single-disk susceptibility test with a 5 μg Gemifix disk should be interpreted according to the following criteria:For testing Klebsiella pneumoniae:
For testing Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzaee:
e This interpretive standard is applicable only to disk diffusion susceptibility testing with Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae using Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM).2
The current absence of data on resistant strains precludes defining any results other than “Susceptible”. Strains yielding zone diameter results suggestive of a “nonsusceptible” category should be submitted to a reference laboratory for further testing. For testing Streptococcus pneumoniaef:
f These zone diameter standards apply only to tests performed using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood incubated in 5% CO2.
Interpretation should be as stated above for results using dilution techniques. Interpretation involves correlation of the diameter obtained in the disk test with the MIC for Gemifix. As with standardized dilution techniques, diffusion methods require the use of laboratory control microorganisms that are used to control the technical aspects of the laboratory procedures. For the diffusion technique, the 5 μg Gemifix disk should provide the following zone diameters in these laboratory quality control strains:
g This quality control range is applicable to only H. influenzae ATCC 49247 tested by a disk diffusion procedure using Haemophilus Test Medium (HTM)2.
h This quality control range is applicable to only S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 tested by a disk diffusion procedure using Mueller-Hinton agar supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood and incubated in 5% CO2.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Gemifix is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL STUDIES.)
Acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, or Moraxella catarrhalis.Community-acquired pneumonia (of mild to moderate severity) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multi-drug resistant strains [MDRSP])*, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or Klebsiella pneumoniae.*MDRSP: multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, includes isolates previously known as PRSP (penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae), and are strains resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin (MIC ≥2 μg/mL), 2nd generation cephalosporins (e.g., cefuroxime), macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Gemifix and other antibacterial drugs, Gemifix should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Gemifix is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to Gemifix, fluoroquinolone antibiotic agents, or any of the product components.
Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture: Fluoroquinolones, including Gemifix, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This adverse reaction most frequently involves the Achilles tendon, and rupture of the Achilles tendon may require surgical repair. Tendinitis and tendon rupture in the rotator cuff (the shoulder), the hand, the biceps, the thumb, and other tendon sites have also been reported. The risk of developing fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in those taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants. Factors, in addition to age and corticosteroid use, that may independently increase the risk of tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Tendinitis and tendon rupture have also occurred in patients taking fluoroquinolones who do not have the above risk factors. Tendon rupture can occur during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after completion of therapy have been reported. Gemifix should be discontinued if the patient experiences pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture of a tendon. Patients should be advised to rest at the first sign of tendinitis or tendon rupture, and to contact their healthcare provider regarding changing to a non-quinolone antimicrobial drug.
THE SAFETY AND EFFECTIVENESS OF Gemifix IN CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS (LESS THAN 18 YEARS OF AGE), PREGNANT WOMEN, AND LACTATING WOMEN HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED. (See PRECAUTIONS: Pediatric Use, Pregnancy and Nursing Mothers subsections.)QT Effects: Fluoroquinolones may prolong the QT interval in some patients. Gemifix should be avoided in patients with a history of prolongation of the QTc interval, patients with uncorrected electrolyte disorders (hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia), and patients receiving Class IA (e.g., quinidine, procainamide) or Class III (e.g., amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents. Pharmacokinetic studies between Gemifix and drugs that prolong the QTc interval such as erythromycin, antipsychotics, and tricyclic antidepressants have not been performed. Gemifix should be used with caution when given concurrently with these drugs, as well as in patients with ongoing proarrhythmic conditions, such as clinically significant bradycardia or acute myocardial ischemia. No cardiovascular morbidity or mortality attributable to QTc prolongation occurred with Gemifix treatment in over 8119 patients, including 707 patients concurrently receiving drugs known to prolong the QTc interval and 7 patients with hypokalemia. The likelihood of QTc prolongation may increase with increasing dose of the drug; therefore, the recommended dose should not be exceeded especially in patients with renal or hepatic impairment where the Cmax and AUC are slightly higher. QTc prolongation may lead to an increased risk for ventricular arrhythmias including torsades de pointes. The maximal change in the QTc interval occurs approximately 5-10 hours following oral administration of Gemifix.Hypersensitivity Reactions: Serious hypersensitivity and/or anaphylactic reactions have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolone therapy, including Gemifix. Hypersensitivity reactions reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolone therapy have occasionally been fatal. These reactions may occur following the first dose. Some reactions have been accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, hypotension/shock, seizure, loss of consciousness, tingling, angioedema (including tongue, laryngeal, throat or facial edema/swelling), airway obstruction (including bronchospasm, shortness of breath and acute respiratory distress), dyspnea, urticaria, itching and other serious skin reactions. FACTIVE should be discontinued immediately at the appearance of any sign of an immediate type I hypersensitivity skin rash or any other manifestation of a hypersensitivity reaction; the need for continued fluoroquinolone therapy should be evaluated. As with other drugs, serious acute hypersensitivity reactions may require treatment with epinephrine and other resuscitative measures, including oxygen, intravenous fluids, antihistamines, corticosteroids, pressor amines and airway management as clinically indicated. (See PRECAUTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS.)Other serious and sometimes fatal events, some due to hypersensitivity and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported rarely in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including Gemifix. These events may be severe and generally occur following the administration of multiple doses. Clinical manifestations may include one or more of the following:
Prescribing Gemifix in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
In clinical studies, rash occurred more often with Gemifix than with therapy with comparator agents. Increasing incidence of rash was associated with younger age (especially below 40), female gender, use of hormone replacement therapy and longer durations of therapy. Urticarial reactions, some of which were not classified as rash, were more common in Gemifix patients than in comparator patients (0.6% vs. 0.2%). Gemifix should be discontinued in patients developing a rash or urticaria while on treatment. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS and CLINICAL STUDIES.)
The most common form of rash associated with Gemifix was described as maculopapular and mild to moderate in severity. Eighty percent of rashes resolved within 14 days. Approximately 10% of the rashes (0.5% of all patients) were described as of severe intensity and approximately 10% of those with rash were treated with systemic steroids. There were no documented cases in the clinical trials of more serious skin reactions known to be associated with significant morbidity or mortality.
Moderate to severe photosensitivity/phototoxicity reactions, the latter of which may manifest as exaggerated sunburn reactions (e.g., burning, erythema, exudation, vesicles, blistering, edema) involving areas exposed to light (typically the face, “V” area of the neck, extensor surfaces of the forearms, dorsa of the hands), can be associated with use of quinolones after sun or UV light exposure. Therefore excessive exposure to these sources of light should be avoided. Drug therapy should be discontinued if phototoxicity occurs. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS and ADVERSE REACTIONS/ Post-Marketing Adverse Reactions.)
Liver enzyme elevations (increased ALT and/or AST) occurred at similar rates in patients receiving Gemifix 320 mg daily relative to comparator antimicrobial agents (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, clarithromycin/cefuroxime axetil, amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium, and ofloxacin). In patients who received Gemifix at doses of 480 mg per day or greater there was an increased incidence of elevations in liver enzymes. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
There were no clinical symptoms associated with these liver enzyme elevations. The liver enzyme elevations resolved following cessation of therapy. The recommended dose of Gemifix 320 mg daily should not be exceeded and the recommended length of therapy should not be exceeded. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Alteration of the dosage regimen is necessary for patients with impairment of renal function. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Adequate hydration of patients receiving Gemifix should be maintained to prevent the formation of a highly concentrated urine.
Information for Patients
Patients should be counseled:
Administration of repeat doses of Gemifix had no effect on the repeat dose pharmacokinetics of theophylline, digoxin or an ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrol oral contraceptive product in healthy subjects.
Concomitant administration of Gemifix and calcium carbonate, cimetidine, omeprazole, or an estrogen/progesterone oral contraceptive produced minor changes in the pharmacokinetics of Gemifix, which were considered to be without clinical significance. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY.)Concomitant administration of Gemifix with probenecid resulted in a 45% increase in systemic exposure to Gemifix. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY.)FACTIVE had no significant effect on the anticoagulant effect of warfarin in healthy subjects on stable warfarin therapy. However, post-marketing reports of increases in the INR, or PT, and/or clinical episodes of bleeding in patients have been noted with the use of quinolones, including Gemifix, and warfarin, or its derivatives. In addition, infectious disease and its accompanying inflammatory process, age and general status of the patient are risk factors for increased anticoagulation activity. Therefore, the PT, INR or other suitable coagulation test should be closely monitored if a quinolone antimicrobial, including Gemifix, is administered concomitantly with warfarin or its derivatives. Quinolones form chelates with alkaline earth and transition metals. The absorption of oral Gemifix is significantly reduced by the concomitant administration of an antacid containing aluminum and magnesium. Magnesium- and/or aluminum-containing antacids, products containing ferrous sulfate (iron), multivitamin preparations containing zinc or other metal cations, or Videx® (didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or the pediatric powder for oral solution should not be taken within 3 hours before or 2 hours after Gemifix. Sucralfate should not be taken within 2 hours of Gemifix. (See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY.)
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Carcinogenesis: Long term studies in animals to determine the carcinogenic potential of Gemifix have not been conducted.
Photocarcinogenesis: Gemifix did not shorten the time to development of UVR-induced skin tumors in hairless albino (Skh-1) mice; thus, it was not photocarcinogenic in this model. These mice received oral Gemifix and concurrent irradiation with simulated sunlight 5 days per week for 40 weeks followed by a 12-week treatment-free observation period. The daily dose of UV radiation used in this study was approximately 1/3 of the minimal dose of UV radiation that would induce erythema in Caucasian humans. The median time to the development of skin tumors in the hairless mice was similar in the vehicle control group (36 weeks) and those given up to 100 mg/kg Gemifix daily (39 weeks). Following repeat doses of 100 mg/kg Gemifix per day, the mice had skin Gemifix concentrations of approximately 7.4 μg/g. Plasma levels following this dose were approximately 1.4 μg/mL in the mice around the time of irradiation. There are no data on Gemifix skin levels in humans, but the mouse plasma Gemifix levels are in the expected range of human plasma Cmax levels (0.7-2.6 μg/mL, with an overall mean of about 1.6 μg/mL) following multiple 320 mg oral doses.Mutagenesis: Gemifix was not mutagenic in 4 bacterial strains (TA 98, TA 100, TA 1535, TA 1537) used in an Ames Salmonella reversion assay. It did not induce micronuclei in the bone marrow of mice following intraperitoneal doses of up to 40 mg/kg and it did not induce unscheduled DNA synthesis in hepatocytes from rats which received oral doses of up to 1600 mg/kg. Gemifix was clastogenic in vitro in the mouse lymphoma and human lymphocyte chromosome aberration assays. It was clastogenic in vivo in the rat micronucleus assay at oral and intravenous dose levels (≥800 mg/kg and ≥40 mg/kg, respectively) that produced bone marrow toxicity. Fluoroquinolone clastogenicity is apparently due to inhibition of mammalian topoisomerase activity which has threshold implications.Impairment of Fertility: Gemifix did not affect the fertility of male or female rats at AUC levels following oral administration (216 and 600 mg/kg/day) that were approximately 3- to 4-fold higher than the AUC levels at the clinically recommended dose.
Pregnancy Category C. Gemifix treatment during organogenesis caused fetal growth retardation in mice, rats (oral dosing at 600 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (IV dosing at 40 mg/kg/day) at AUC levels which were 2-, 4- and 3-fold those in women given oral doses of 320 mg. In rats, this growth retardation appeared to be reversible in a pre- and postnatal development study (mice and rabbits were not studied for the reversibility of this effect). Treatment of pregnant rats at 8-fold clinical exposure (based upon AUC comparisons) caused fetal brain and ocular malformations in the presence of maternal toxicity. The overall no-effect exposure level in pregnant animals was approximately 0.8 to 3-fold clinical exposure.
The safety of Gemifix in pregnant women has not been established. Gemifix should not be used in pregnant women unless the potential benefit to the mother outweighs the risk to the fetus. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women.
Gemifix is excreted in the breast milk of rats. There is no information on excretion of Gemifix into human milk. Therefore, Gemifix should not be used in lactating women unless the potential benefit to the mother outweighs the risk.
Safety and effectiveness in children and adolescents less than 18 years of age have not been established. Fluoroquinolones, including Gemifix, cause arthropathy and osteochondrosis in immature animals.
Geriatric patients are at increased risk for developing severe tendon disorders including tendon rupture when being treated with a fluoroquinolone such as Gemifix. This risk is further increased in patients receiving concomitant corticosteroid therapy. Tendinitis or tendon rupture can involve the Achilles, hand, shoulder, or other tendon sites and can occur during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after fluoroquinolone treatment have been reported. Caution should be used when prescribing Gemifix to elderly patients especially those on corticosteroids. Patients should be informed of this potential side effect and advised to discontinue Gemifix and contact their healthcare provider if any symptoms of tendinitis or tendon rupture occur (See Boxed Warning, WARNINGS, and ADVERSE REACTIONS/Post-Marketing Adverse Event Reports).
Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of Gemifix, 29% (2314) were 65 and over, while 11% (865) were 75 and over. No overall difference in effectiveness was observed between these subjects and younger subjects; the adverse event rate for this group was similar to or lower than that for younger subjects with the exception that the incidence of rash was lower in geriatric patients compared to patients less than 40 years of age. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval. Therefore, Gemifix should be avoided in patients taking drugs that can result in prolongation of the QT interval (e.g., Class IA or Class III antiarrhythmics) or in patients with risk factors for torsades de pointes (e.g., known QT prolongation, uncorrected hypokalemia).
In clinical studies, 8119 patients received daily oral doses of 320 mg Gemifix. In addition, 1797 healthy volunteers and 81 patients with renal or hepatic impairment received single or repeat doses of Gemifix in clinical pharmacology studies. The majority of adverse reactions experienced by patients in clinical trials were considered to be of mild to moderate severity.
Gemifix was discontinued because of an adverse event in 2.0% of patients, primarily due to rash (0.8%), nausea (0.3%), diarrhea (0.3%), urticaria (0.2%) and vomiting (0.2%). Comparator antibiotics were discontinued because of an adverse event at an overall comparable rate of 2.1%, primarily due to diarrhea (0.5%), nausea (0.4%), vomiting (0.3%), rash (0.3%), abdominal pain (0.2%) and vertigo (0.2%).The most commonly reported adverse events with a frequency of ≥2% for patients receiving 320 mg Gemifix versus comparator drug (beta-lactam antibiotics, macrolides or other fluoroquinolones) are as follows: diarrhea 5.0% vs. 6.2%; rash 3.5% vs. 1.1%; nausea 3.7% vs. 4.5%; headache 4.2% vs. 5.2%; abdominal pain 2.2% vs. 2.2%; vomiting 1.6% vs. 2.0%; and dizziness 1.7% vs. 2.6%.Adverse Events with a Frequency of Less than 1%Additional drug-related adverse events (possibly or probably related) in the 8119 patients, with a frequency of >0.1% to ≤1% included: abdominal pain, anorexia, constipation, dermatitis, dizziness, dry mouth, dyspepsia, fatigue, flatulence, fungal infection, gastritis, genital moniliasis, genital pruritus, hyperglycemia, increased alkaline phosphatase, increased ALT, increased AST, increased creatine phosphokinase, insomnia, leukopenia, pruritus, somnolence, taste perversion, thrombocythemia, urticaria, vaginitis, and vomiting. Other adverse events reported from clinical trials which have potential clinical significance and which were considered to have a suspected relationship to the drug, that occurred in ≤0.1% of patients were: abnormal urine, abnormal vision, anemia, arthralgia, asthenia, back pain, bilirubinemia, dyspnea, eczema, eosinophilia, facial edema, flushing, gastroenteritis, granulocytopenia, hot flashes, increased GGT, increased non-protein nitrogen, leg cramps, moniliasis, myalgia, nervousness, non-specified gastrointestinal disorder, pain, pharyngitis, photosensitivity/phototoxicity reactions, pneumonia, thrombocytopenia, tremor, vertigo. (See PRECAUTIONS.)In clinical trials of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (ABECB) and community acquired pneumonia (CAP), the incidences of rash were as follows (Table 3):
The percentages of patients who received multiple doses of Gemifix and had a laboratory abnormality are listed below. It is not known whether these abnormalities were related to Gemifix or an underlying condition.
Clinical Chemistry: increased ALT (1.7%), increased AST (1.3%), increased creatine phosphokinase (0.7%), increased alkaline phosphatase (0.4%), increased total bilirubin (0.4%), increased potassium (0.3%), decreased sodium (0.2%), increased blood urea nitrogen (0.3%), decreased albumin (0.3%), increased serum creatinine (0.2%), decreased calcium (0.1%), decreased total protein (0.1%), decreased potassium (0.1%), increased sodium (0.1%), increased lactate dehydrogenase (<0.1%) and increased calcium (<0.1%).CPK elevations were noted infrequently: 0.7% in Gemifix patients vs. 0.7% in the comparator patients. Hematology: increased platelets (1.0%), decreased neutrophils (0.5%), increased neutrophils (0.5%), decreased hematocrit (0.3%), decreased hemoglobin (0.2%), decreased platelets (0.2%), decreased red blood cells (0.1%), increased hematocrit (0.1%), increased hemoglobin (0.1%), and increased red blood cells (0.1%).In clinical studies, approximately 7% of the Gemifix treated patients had elevated ALT values immediately prior to entry into the study. Of these patients, approximately 15% showed a further elevation of their ALT at the on-therapy visit and 9% showed a further elevation at the end of therapy visit. None of these patients demonstrated evidence of hepatocellular jaundice. For the pooled comparators, approximately 6% of patients had elevated ALT values immediately prior to entry into the study. Of these patients, approximately 7% showed a further elevation of their ALT at the on-therapy visit and 4% showed a further elevation at the end of therapy visit. In a clinical trial where 638 patients received either a single 640 mg dose of Gemifix or 250 mg BID of ciprofloxacin for 3 days, there was an increased incidence of ALT elevations in the Gemifix arm (3.9%) vs. the comparator arm (1.0%). In this study, two patients experienced ALT elevations of 8 to 10 times the upper limit of normal. These elevations were asymptomatic and reversible.
Post-Marketing Adverse Reactions:
The majority of the post-marketing adverse events reported were cutaneous and most of these were rash. Some of these cutaneous adverse events were considered serious. The majority of the rashes occurred in women and in patients under 40 years of age.
The following are additional adverse reactions reported during the post-marketing use of Gemifix. Since these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is impossible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to Gemifix exposure:
Any signs or symptoms of overdosage should be treated symptomatically. No specific antidote is known. In the event of acute oral overdosage, the stomach should be emptied by inducing vomiting or by gastric lavage; the patient should be carefully observed and treated symptomatically with appropriate hydration maintained. Hemodialysis removes approximately 20 to 30% of an oral dose of Gemifix from plasma.
Mortality occurred at oral Gemifix doses of 1600 mg/kg in rats and 320 mg/kg in mice. The minimum lethal intravenous doses in these species were 160 and 80 mg/kg, respectively. Toxic signs after administration of a single high oral dose (400 mg/kg) of Gemifix to rodents included ataxia, lethargy, piloerection, tremor, and clonic convulsions.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Gemifix can be taken with or without food and should be swallowed whole with a liberal amount of liquid. The recommended dose of Gemifix is 320 mg daily, according to the following table (Table 4).
The clinical decision regarding the use of a 5 or 7 day regimen should be guided by results of the initial sputum culture.
The recommended dose and duration of Gemifix should not be exceeded.
Use in Renally Impaired Patients: Dose adjustment in patients with creatinine clearance >40 mL/min is not required. Modification of the dosage is recommended for patients with creatinine clearance ≤40 mL/min. Table 5 provides dosage guidelines for use in patients with renal impairment.
Patients requiring routine hemodialysis or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) should receive 160 mg every 24 hours.
When only the serum creatinine concentration is known, the following formula may be used to estimate creatinine clearance.Women: 0.85 x the value calculated for menUse in Hepatically Impaired Patients: No dosage adjustment is recommended in patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A), moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) or severe (Child-Pugh Class C) hepatic impairment.Use in
Gemifix is available as white to off-white, oval, film-coated tablets with breaklines and GE 320 debossed on both faces. Each tablet contains Gemifix mesylate equivalent to 320 mg of Gemifix.
320 mg Unit of Use (CR*) 5's NDC 67707-320-05
320 mg Unit of Use (CR*) 7's NDC 67707-320-07*Child Resistant
Store at 25ºC (77ºF); excursions permitted to 15º-30ºC (59º-86ºF). Protect from light.
Quinolones have been shown to cause arthropathy in immature animals. Degeneration of articular cartilage occurred in juvenile dogs given at least 192 mg/kg/day Gemifix in a 28-day study (producing about 6 times the systemic exposure at the clinical dose), but not in mature dogs. There was no damage to the articular surfaces of joints in immature rats given repeated doses of up to 800 mg/kg/day.
Some quinolones have been reported to have proconvulsant properties that are potentiated by the concomitant administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Gemifix alone had effects in tests of behavior or CNS interaction typically at doses of at least 160 mg/kg. No convulsions occurred in mice given the active metabolite of the NSAID, fenbufen, followed by 80 mg/kg Gemifix. Dogs given 192 mg/kg/day (about 6 times the systemic exposure at the clinical dose) for 28 days, or 24 mg/kg/day (approximately equivalent to the systemic exposure at the clinical dose) for 13 weeks showed reversible increases in plasma ALT activities and local periportal liver changes associated with blockage of small bile ducts by crystals containing Gemifix. Quinolones have been associated with prolongation of the electrocardiographic QT interval in dogs. Gemifix produced no effect on the QT interval in dogs dosed orally to provide about 4 times human therapeutic plasma concentrations at Cmax, and transient prolongation after intravenous administration at more than 4 times human plasma levels at Cmax. Gemifix exhibited weak activity in the cardiac IKr (hERG) channel inhibition assay, having an IC50 of approximately 270 μM.Gemifloxacin, like many other quinolones, tends to crystallize at the alkaline pH of rodent urine, resulting in a nephropathy in rats that is reversible on drug withdrawal (oral no-effect dose 24 mg/kg/day).Gemifloxacin was weakly phototoxic to hairless mice given a single 200 mg/kg oral dose and exposed to UVA radiation. However, no evidence of phototoxicity was observed at 100 mg/kg/day dosed orally for 13 weeks in a standard hairless mouse model, using simulated sunlight.
Acute Bacterial Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis (ABECB)
Gemifix (320 mg once daily for 5 days) was evaluated for the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis in three pivotal double-blind, randomized, actively-controlled clinical trials (studies 068, 070, and 212). The primary efficacy parameter in these studies was the clinical response at follow-up (day 13 to 24). The results of the clinical response at follow-up for the principal ABECB studies demonstrate that Gemifix 320 mg PO once daily for 5 days was at least as good as the comparators given for 7 days. The results are shown in Table 6 below.
Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP)
5 Day Treatment RegimenTo evaluate the safety and efficacy of a 5-day course of Gemifix, 510 outpatient and hospitalized adults with clinically and radiologically determined mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia were clinically evaluated in a double-blind, randomized, prospective, multicenter study comparing Gemifix 320 mg for five days to Gemifix 320 mg for seven days (Study OP-634-001).Clinical success rates in the clinically evaluable population were 95.0% in the 5 day group and 92.1% in the 7 day group.
The microbiological efficacy of the 5-day regimen was documented for pathogens listed in Table 8 below.
7 Day Treatment Regimen
Previous clinical studies evaluated the efficacy of Gemifix in a 7-day treatment of CAP in adults. This clinical program consisted of three double-blind, randomized, actively-controlled clinical studies (studies 011, 012, and 049) and one open-label, actively-controlled study (study 185). In addition, two uncontrolled studies (studies 061 and 287) were conducted. Three of the studies, controlled study 011 and the uncontrolled studies, had a fixed 7-day duration of treatment for Gemifix. Controlled study 011 compared a 7-day course of Gemifix with a 10-day treatment course of amoxicillin/clavulanate (1g/125 mg TID) and clinical success rates were similar between treatment arms. The results of comparative studies 049, 185, and 012 were supportive although treatment duration could have been 7 to 14 days. The results of the clinical studies with a fixed 7-day duration of Gemifix are shown in Table 9.
The combined bacterial eradication rates for patients treated with a fixed 7-day treatment regimen of Gemifix are shown in Table 10.
7 Day Treatment Regimen of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Due to Multi-Drug Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MDRSP)
Gemifix was also effective in the treatment of CAP due to multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MDRSP*). Of 35 patients with MDRSP treated for 7 days, 29 (82.9%) achieved clinical and bacteriological success at follow-up. The clinical and bacteriological success for the 35 patients with MDRSP isolates are shown in Table 11.*MDRSP: multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, includes isolates previously known as PRSP (penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae), and are strains resistant to two or more of the following antibiotics: penicillin (MIC ≥2 μg/mL), 2nd generation cephalosporins (e.g., cefuroxime), macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.
Not all isolates were resistant to all antimicrobial classes tested. Success and eradication rates are summarized in Table 12 below.
Clinical Safety Study of Rash
To further characterize gemifloxacin-associated rash, which in early clinical studies appeared to be associated with age less than 40 and female gender, a clinical pharmacology study was conducted. The study enrolled 1,011 healthy female volunteers less than 40 years of age. Subjects were randomized in a 5:1 ratio to receive either Gemifix 320 mg PO daily (819 subjects) or ciprofloxacin 500 mg PO twice daily for 10 days (164 subjects). This study was designed to enroll subjects at a high risk for rash (women <40 years of age and dosing beyond the recommended duration of therapy for Gemifix [10 days]) and over estimates the risk to patients taking Gemifix as prescribed. Subjects who received Gemifix were 7 times more likely to develop rash than those who received ciprofloxacin. Of the 260 rashes in subjects receiving Gemifix, the majority of rashes were maculopapular and of mild to moderate severity; 7% of the rashes were reported as severe, and severity appeared to correlate with the extent of the rash. In 68% of the subjects reporting a severe rash and approximately 25% of all those reporting rash, >60% of the body surface area was involved; the characteristics of the rash were otherwise indistinguishable from those subjects reporting a mild rash. The histopathology was consistent with the clinical observation of uncomplicated exanthematous morbilliform eruption. Approximately 11% of the rashes were described as being “urticaria-like”. There were no documented cases of hypersensitivity syndrome or findings suggestive of angioedema or other serious cutaneous reactions. The majority of rashes (81.9%) occurred on days 8 through 10 of the planned 10 day course of Gemifix; 2.7% of rash events occurred within one day of the start of dosing. The median duration of rash was 6 days. The rash resolved without treatment in the majority of subjects. Approximately 19% received antihistamines and 5% received steroids, although the therapeutic benefit of these therapies is uncertain. In the second part of this study after a 4 to 6 week wash out period, subjects developing a rash on Gemifix were treated with ciprofloxacin (n=136) or placebo (n=50); 5.9% developed rash when treated with ciprofloxacin and 2.0% developed rash when treated with placebo. The cross sensitization rate to other fluoroquinolones was not evaluated in this clinical study. There was no evidence of sub-clinical sensitization to Gemifix on a second exposure (i.e., subjects who had not developed a rash to Gemifix in the first part of the study were not at higher risk of developing a rash to Gemifix with a second exposure).There was no relationship between the incidence of rash and systemic exposure (Cmax and AUC) to either Gemifix or its major metabolite, N-acetyl Gemifix.
1. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria that Grow Aerobically-Seventh Edition. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document M7-A7, Vol. 26, No. 2, CLSI, Wayne, PA, January 2006.
2. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests-Ninth Edition. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document M2-A9, Vol. 26, No. 1, CLSI, Wayne, PA, January 2006.DATE OF REVISION October 2008
© Oscient Pharmaceuticals Corporation 2008
Gemifix is a registered trademark of LG Life Sciences.
Rx onlyManufactured for:
Waltham, MA 02451-1478 USALicensed from LG Life Sciences, Ltd. Seoul, KoreaMEDICATION GUIDE
320mg TabletsRead the Medication Guide that comes with Gemifix before you start taking it and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This Medication Guide does not take the place of talking to your healthcare provider about your medical condition or your treatment.
What is the most important information I should know about Gemifix?
Gemifix belongs to a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. Gemifix can cause side effects that may be serious or even cause death. If you get any of the following serious side effects, get medical help right away. Talk with your healthcare provider about whether you should continue to take Gemifix.
What is Gemifix?
Gemifix is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic medicine used to treat certain types of infections caused by certain germs called bacteria. It is not known if Gemifix is safe and works in children under 18 years of age. Children have a higher chance of getting bone, joint, or tendon problems such as pain or swelling while taking Gemifix.
Sometimes infections are caused by viruses rather than by bacteria. Examples include viral infections in the sinuses and lungs, such as the common cold or flu. Antibiotics including Gemifix do not kill viruses. Call your healthcare provider if you think your condition is not getting better while you are taking Gemifix.
Who should not take Gemifix?
Do not take Gemifix if you have ever had a severe allergic reaction to an antibiotic known as a fluoroquinolone, or are allergic to any of the ingredients in Gemifix. Ask your healthcare provider if you are not sure. See the list of ingredients in Gemifix at the end of this Medication Guide.
What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking Gemifix?
See “What is the most important information I should know about Gemifix?”
Tell your healthcare provider about all your medical conditions, including if you:
How should I take Gemifix?
What should I avoid while taking Gemifix?
What are the possible side effects of Gemifix?
Gemifix can cause side effects that may be serious or even cause death. See “What is the most important information I should know about Gemifix?”
Other serious side effects of Gemifix include:
Keep Gemifix away from light.Keep Gemifix and all medicines out of the reach of children.
General Information about Gemifix
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use Gemifix for a condition for which it is not prescribed. Do not give Gemifix to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them.
This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about Gemifix. If you would like more information about Gemifix, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist for information about Gemifix that is written for healthcare professionals. For more information go to www. FACTIVE.com or call 1-866-432-2848.What are the ingredients in Gemifix?Active ingredient: gemifloxacinInactive ingredients: crospovidone, hydroxypropyl methycellulose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, titanium dioxide. Revised October 2008
© Oscient Pharmaceuticals Corporation 2008
Gemifix is a registered trademark of LG Life Sciences. Manufactured for:
Waltham, MA 02451-1478 USALicensed from LG Life Sciences, Ltd. Seoul, KoreaThis Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Gemifix pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Gemifix available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Gemifix destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Gemifix Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Gemifix pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Gemifix?
Depending on the reaction of the Gemifix after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Gemifix not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Gemifix addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
ReviewsDrugs.com conducted a study on Gemifix, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Gemifix consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology