Fertilan

advertisement
How is the drug helping you?

Fertilan uses


DESCRIPTION

Fertilan tablets, USP is an orally administered, nonsteroidal, ovulatory stimulant designated chemically as 2-[p-(2chloro-1,2-diphenylvinyl)phenoxy] triethylamine citrate (1:1). It has the molecular formula of C26H28CINO - C6H8O7 and a molecular weight of 598.10. It is represented structurally as:

Fertilan is a white to pale yellow, essentially odorless, crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in methanol; soluble in ethanol; slightly soluble in acetone, water, and chloroform; and insoluble in ether.

Fertilan is a mixture of two geometric isomers [cis (zuclomiphene) and trans (enclomiphene)] containing between 30% and 50% of the cis-isomer.

Each off-white debossed tablet contains 50 mg Fertilan USP. The tablet also contains the following inactive ingredients: corn starch, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, pregelatinized corn starch, and sucrose.

This is the structural formula

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Action

Fertilan is a drug of considerable pharmacologic potency. With careful selection and proper management of the patient, Fertilan has been demonstrated to be a useful therapy for the anovulatory patient desiring pregnancy.

Fertilan is capable of interacting with estrogen-receptor-containing tissues, including the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, endometrium, vagina, and cervix. It may compete with estrogen for estrogen-receptor-binding sites and may delay replenishment of intracellular estrogen receptors. Fertilan initiates a series of endocrine events culminating in a preovulatory gonadotropin surge and subsequent follicular rupture. The first endocrine event in response to a course of clomiphene therapy is an increase in the release of pituitary gonadotropins. This initiates steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis, resulting in growth of the ovarian follicle and an increase in the circulating level of estradiol. Following ovulation, plasma progesterone and estradiol rise and fall as they would in a normal ovulatory cycle.

Available data suggest that both the estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties of clomiphene may participate in the initiation of ovulation. The two clomiphene isomers have been found to have mixed estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects, which may vary from one species to another. Some data suggest that zuclomiphene has greater estrogenic activity than enclomiphene.

Fertilan has no apparent progestational, androgenic, or antiandrogenic effects and does not appear to interfere with pituitary-adrenal or pituitary-thyroid function.

Although there is no evidence of a “carryover effect” of Fertilan, spontaneous ovulatory menses have been noted in some patients after Fertilan therapy.

Pharmacokinetics

Based on early studies with 14C-labeled Fertilan, the drug was shown to be readily absorbed orally in humans and excreted principally in the feces. Cumulative urinary and fecal excretion of the 14C averaged about 50% of the oral dose and 37% of an intravenous dose after 5 days. Mean urinary excretion was approximately 8% with fecal excretion of about 42%.

Some 14C label was still present in the feces 6 weeks after administration. Subsequent single-dose studies in normal volunteers showed that zuclomiphene (cis) has a longer half-life than enclomiphene (trans). Detectable levels of zuclomiphene persisted for longer than a month in these subjects. This may be suggestive of stereo-specific enterohepatic recycling or sequestering of the zuclomiphene. Thus, it is possible that some active drug may remain in the body during early pregnancy in women who conceive in the menstrual cycle during Fertilan therapy.

advertisement

CLINICAL STUDIES

During clinical investigations, 7578 patients received Fertilan, some of whom had impediments to ovulation other than ovulatory dysfunction. In those clinical trials, successful therapy characterized by pregnancy occurred in approximately 30% of these patients.

There were a total of 2635 pregnancies reported during the clinical trial period. Of those pregnancies, information on outcome was only available for 2369 of the cases. Table 1 summarizes the outcome of these cases.

Of the reported pregnancies, the incidence of multiple pregnancies was 7.98%: 6.9% twin, 0.5% triplet, 0.3% quadruplet, 0.1% quintuplet. Of the 165 twin pregnancies for which sufficient information was available, the ratio of monozygotic to dizygotic twins was about 1:5. Table 1 reports the survival rate of the live multiple births.

A sextuplet birth was reported after completion of original clinical studies; none of the sextuplets survived (each weighed less than 400 g), although each appeared grossly normal.

* Includes 28 ectopic pregnancies, 4 hydatiform moles, and 1 fetus papyraceous.
† Indicates percentage of surviving infants from these pregnancies.

Outcome


Total Number of Pregnancies


Survival Rate


Pregnancy Wastage


Spontaneous Abortions


483*


Stillbirths


24


Live Births


Single Births


1697


98.16%†


Multiple Births


165


83.26%†


The overall survival of infants from multiple pregnancies including spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and neonatal deaths is 73%.

Fetal/Neonatal Anomalies and Mortality The following fetal abnormalities have been reported subsequent to pregnancies following ovulation induction therapy with Fertilan during clinical trials. Each of the following fetal abnormalities were reported at a rate of <1% (experiences are listed in order of decreasing frequency): Congenital heart lesions, Down syndrome, club foot, congenital gut lesions, hypospadias, microcephaly, harelip, and cleft palate, congenital hip, hemangioma, undescended testicles, polydactyly, conjoined twins and teratomatous malformation, patent ductus arteriosus, amaurosis, arteriovenous fistula, inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia, syndactyly, pectus excavatum, myopathy, dermoid cyst of scalp, omphalocele, spina bifida occulta, ichthyosis, and persistent lingual frenulum. Neonatal death and fetal death/stillbirth in infants with birth defects have also been reported at a rate of <1%. The overall incidence of reported congenital anomalies from pregnancies associated with maternal Fertilan ingestion during clinical studies was within the range of that reported for the general population.

In addition, reports of congenital anomalies have been received during postmarketing surveillance of Fertilan (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

advertisement

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Fertilan is indicated for the treatment of ovulatory dysfunction in women desiring pregnancy. Impediments to achieving pregnancy must be excluded or adequately treated before beginning Fertilan therapy. Those patients most likely to achieve success with clomiphene therapy include patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (see WARNINGS: Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome), amenorrhea-galactorrhea syndrome, psychogenic amenorrhea, post-oral-contraceptive amenorrhea, and certain cases of secondary amenorrhea of undetermined etiology.

Properly timed coitus in relationship to ovulation is important. A basal body temperature graph or other appropriate tests may help the patient and her physician determine if ovulation occurred. Once ovulation has been established, each course of Fertilan should be started on or about the 5th day of the cycle. Long-term cyclic therapy is not recommended beyond a total of about six cycles (including three ovulatory cycles). (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and PRECAUTIONS.)

Fertilan is indicated only in patients with demonstrated ovulatory dysfunction who meet the conditions described below (see CONTRAINDICATIONS):

  • Patients who are not pregnant.
  • Patients without ovarian cysts. Fertilan should not be used in patients with ovarian enlargement except those with polycystic ovary syndrome. Pelvic examination is necessary prior to the first and each subsequent course of Fertilan treatment.
  • Patients without abnormal vaginal bleeding. If abnormal vaginal bleeding is present, the patient should be carefully evaluated to ensure that neoplastic lesions are not present.
  • Patients with normal liver function.

In addition, patients selected for Fertilan therapy should be evaluated in regard to the following:

  • Estrogen Levels. Patients should have adequate levels of endogenous estrogen (as estimated from vaginal smears, endometrial biopsy, assay of urinary estrogen, or from bleeding in response to progesterone). Reduced estrogen levels, while less favorable, do not preclude successful therapy.
  • Primary Pituitary or Ovarian Failure. Fertilan therapy cannot be expected to substitute for specific treatment of other causes of ovulatory failure.
  • Endometriosis and Endometrial Carcinoma. The incidence of endometriosis and endometrial carcinoma increases with age as does the incidence of ovulatory disorders. Endometrial biopsy should always be performed prior to Fertilan therapy in this population.
  • Other Impediments to Pregnancy. Impediments to pregnancy can include thyroid disorders, adrenal disorders, hyperprolactinemia, and male factor infertility.
  • Uterine Fibroids. Caution should be exercised when using Fertilan in patients with uterine fibroids due to the potential for further enlargement of the fibroids.

There are no adequate or well-controlled studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of Fertilan in the treatment of male infertility. In addition, testicular tumors and gynecomastia have been reported in males using clomiphene. The cause and effect relationship between reports of testicular tumors and the administration of Fertilan is not known.

Although the medical literature suggests various methods, there is no universally accepted standard regimen for combined therapy (i.e., Fertilan in conjunction with other ovulation-inducing drugs). Similarly, there is no standard Fertilan regimen for ovulation induction in vitro fertilization programs to produce ova for fertilization and reintroduction. Therefore, Fertilan is not recommended for these uses.

advertisement

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Hypersensitivity

Fertilan is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity or allergy to Fertilan or to any of its ingredients.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category X. Fertilan use in pregnant women is contraindicated, as Fertilan does not offer benefit in this population.

Available human data do not suggest an increased risk for congenital anomalies above the background population risk when used as indicated. However, animal reproductive toxicology studies showed increased embryo-fetal loss and structural malformations in offspring. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential risks to the fetus. (See PRECAUTIONS: Pregnancy).

Liver Disease. Fertilan therapy is contraindicated in patients with liver disease or a history of liver dysfunction (see also INDICATIONS AND USAGE and ADVERSE REACTIONS).

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Fertilan is contraindicated in patients with abnormal uterine bleeding of undetermined origin (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE).

Ovarian Cysts. Fertilan is contraindicated in patients with ovarian cysts or enlargement not due to polycystic ovarian syndrome (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE and WARNINGS).

Other. Fertilan is contraindicated in patients with uncontrolled thyroid or adrenal dysfunction or in the presence of an organic intracranial lesion such as pituitary tumor (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE).

advertisement

WARNINGS

Visual Symptons

Patients should be advised that blurring or other visual symptoms such as spots or flashes may occasionally occur during therapy with Fertilan. These visual symptoms increase in incidence with increasing total dose or therapy duration. These visual disturbances are usually reversible; however, cases of prolonged visual disturbance have been reported with some occurring after Fertilan discontinuation. The visual disturbances may be irreversible, especially with increased dosage or duration of therapy. Patients should be warned that these visual symptoms may render such activities as driving a car or operating machinery more hazardous than usual, particularly under conditions of variable lighting.

These visual symptoms appear to be due to intensification and prolongation of after-images. Symptoms often first appear or are accentuated with exposure to a brightly lit environment. While measured visual acuity usually has not been affected, a study patient taking 200 mg Fertilan daily developed visual blurring on the 7th day of treatment, which progressed to severe diminution of visual acuity by the 10th day. No other abnormality was found, and the visual acuity returned to normal on the 3rd day after treatment was stopped.

Ophthalmologically definable scotomata and retinal cell function (electroretinographic) changes have also been reported. A patient treated during clinical studies developed phosphenes and scotomata during prolonged Fertilan administration, which disappeared by the 32nd day after stopping therapy.

Postmarketing surveillance of adverse events has also revealed other visual signs and symptoms during Fertilan therapy (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

While the etiology of these visual symptoms is not yet understood, patients with any visual symptoms should discontinue treatment and have a complete ophthalmological evaluation carried out promptly.

OvarianHyperstimulationSyndrome

The ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) has been reported to occur in patients receiving Fertilan therapy for ovulation induction. OHSS may progress rapidly (within 24 hours to several days) and become a serious medical disorder. In some cases, OHSS occurred following cyclic use of Fertilan therapy or when Fertilan was used in combination with gonadotropins. Transient liver function test abnormalities suggestive of hepatic dysfunction, which may be accompanied by morphologic changes on liver biopsy, have been reported in association with OHSS.

OHSS is a medical event distinct from uncomplicated ovarian enlargement. The clinical signs of this syndrome in severe cases can include gross ovarian enlargement, gastrointestinal symptoms, ascites, dyspnea, oliguria, and pleural effusion. In addition, the following symptoms have been reported in association with this syndrome: pericardial effusion, anasarca, hydrothorax, acute abdomen, hypotension, renal failure, pulmonary edema, intraperitoneal and ovarian hemorrhage, deep venous thrombosis, torsion of the ovary, and acute respiratory distress. The early warning signs of OHSS are abdominal pain and distention, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight gain. Elevated urinary steroid levels, varying degrees of electrolyte imbalance, hypovolemia, hemoconcentration, and hypoproteinemia may occur. Death due to hypovolemic shock, hemoconcentration, or thromboembolism has occurred. Due to fragility of enlarged ovaries in severe cases, abdominal and pelvic examination should be performed very cautiously. If conception results, rapid progression to the severe form of the syndrome may occur.

To minimize the hazard associated with occasional abnormal ovarian enlargement associated with Fertilan therapy, the lowest dose consistent with expected clinical results should be used. Maximal enlargement of the ovary, whether physiologic or abnormal, may not occur until several days after discontinuation of the recommended dose of Fertilan. Some patients with polycystic ovary syndrome who are unusually sensitive to gonadotropin may have an exaggerated response to usual doses of Fertilan. Therefore, patients with polycystic ovary syndrome should be started on the lowest recommended dose and shortest treatment duration for the first course of therapy (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

If enlargement of the ovary occurs, additional Fertilan therapy should not be given until the ovaries have returned to pretreatment size, and the dosage or duration of the next course should be reduced. Ovarian enlargement and cyst formation associated with Fertilan therapy usually regress spontaneously within a few days or weeks after discontinuing treatment. The potential benefit of subsequent Fertilan therapy in these cases should exceed the risk. Unless surgical indication for laparotomy exists, such cystic enlargement should always be managed conservatively.

A causal relationship between ovarian hyperstimulation and ovarian cancer has not been determined. However, because a correlation between ovarian cancer and nulliparity, infertility, and age has been suggested, if ovarian cysts do not regress spontaneously, a thorough evaluation should be performed to rule out the presence of ovarian neoplasia.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Careful attention should be given to the selection of candidates for Fertilan therapy. Pelvic examination is necessary prior to Fertilan treatment and before each subsequent course.

Information for Patients

The purpose and risks of Fertilan therapy should be presented to the patient before starting treatment. It should be emphasized that the goal of Fertilan therapy is ovulation for subsequent pregnancy. The physician should counsel the patient with special regard to the following potential risks:

Visual Symptoms: Advise that blurring or other visual symptoms occasionally may occur during or shortly after Fertilan therapy. Warn that visual symptoms may render such activities as driving a car or operating machinery more hazardous than usual, particularly under conditions of variable lighting (see WARNINGS).

The patient should be instructed to inform the physician whenever any unusual visual symptoms occur. If the patient has any visual symptoms, treatment should be discontinued and complete ophthalmologic evaluation performed.

Abdominal/Pelvic Pain or Distention: Ovarian enlargement may occur during or shortly after therapy with Fertilan. To minimize the risks associated with ovarian enlargement, the patient should be instructed to inform the physician of any abdominal or pelvic pain, weight gain, discomfort, or distention after taking Fertilan (see WARNINGS).

Multiple Pregnancy: Inform the patient that there is an increased chance of multiple pregnancy, including bilateral tubal pregnancy and coexisting tubal and intrauterine pregnancy, when conception occurs in relation to Fertilan therapy. The potential complications and hazards of multiple pregnancy should be explained.

Spontaneous Abortion and Congenital Anomalies: Inform the patient that the available data suggest no increase in the rates of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage) or congenital anomalies with maternal Fertilan use compared to rates in the general population.

During clinical investigation, the experience from patients with known pregnancy outcome (Table 1) shows a spontaneous abortion rate of 20.4% and stillbirth rate of 1.0%. (See CLINICAL STUDIES). Among the birth anomalies spontaneously reported as individual cases since commercial availability of Fertilan, the proportion of neural tube defects has been high among pregnancies associated with ovulation induced by Fertilan, but this has not been supported by data from population-based studies.

Drug Interactions

Drug interactions with Fertilan have not been documented.

Carcinogenesisand Mutagenesis andImpairment of Fertility

Long-term toxicity studies in animals have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic or mutagenic potential of Fertilan.

Oral administration of Fertilan to male rats at doses of 0.3 or 1 mg/kg/day caused decreased fertility, while higher doses caused temporary infertility. Oral doses of 0.1 mg/kg/day in female rats temporarily interrupted the normal cyclic vaginal smear pattern and prevented conception. Doses of 0.3 mg/kg/day slightly reduced the number of ovulated ova and corpora lutea, while 3 mg/kg/day inhibited ovulation.

Pregnancy

Fetal Risk Summary

Pregnancy Category X. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS.) Fertilan use in pregnant women is contraindicated, as Fertilan treatment does not offer benefit in this population.

Available human data do not suggest an increased risk for congenital anomalies above the background population risk. However, animal reproductive toxicology studies showed increased embryo-fetal loss and structural malformations in offspring. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential risks to the fetus.

Clinical Considerations

To avoid inadvertent Fertilan administration during early pregnancy, appropriate tests should be utilized during each treatment cycle to determine whether ovulation and/or pregnancy occurs. Patients should be evaluated carefully to exclude ovarian enlargement or ovarian cyst formation between each treatment cycle. The next course of Fertilan therapy should be delayed until these conditions have been excluded.

Human Data

The available human data from epidemiologic studies do not show any apparent cause and effect relationship between Fertilan periconceptual exposure and an increased risk of overall birth defects, or any specific anomaly. However, due to the small number of cases of congenital anomalies occurring in Fertilan treated women, these epidemiologic studies were only able to rule out large differences in risk. The studies did not consider factors associated with female subfertility and were unable to adjust for other important confounders.

In addition, available data do not support an increase rate of spontaneous abortion among subfertile women treated with clomiphene for ovulation induction.

Animal Data

Oral administration of Fertilan to pregnant rats during organogenesis at doses of 1 to 2 mg/kg/day resulted in hydramnion and weak, edematous fetuses with wavy ribs and other temporary bone changes. Doses of 8 mg/kg/day or more also caused increased resorptions and dead fetuses, dystocia, and delayed parturition, and 40 mg/kg/day resulted in increased maternal mortality. Single doses of 50 mg/kg caused fetal cataracts, while 200 mg/kg caused cleft palate.

Following injection of Fertilan 2 mg/kg to mice and rats during pregnancy, the offspring exhibited metaplastic changes of the reproductive tract. Newborn mice and rats injected during the first few days of life also developed metaplastic changes in uterine and vaginal mucosa, as well as premature vaginal opening and anovulatory ovaries. These findings are similar to the abnormal reproductive behavior and sterility described with other estrogens and antiestrogens.

In rabbits, some temporary bone alterations were seen in fetuses from dams given oral doses of 20 or 40 mg/kg/day during pregnancy, but not following 8 mg/kg/day. No permanent malformations were observed in those studies. Also, rhesus monkeys given oral doses of 1.5 to 4.5 mg/kg/day for various periods during pregnancy did not have any abnormal offspring.

Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether Fertilan is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised if Fertilan is administered to a nursing woman. In some patients, Fertilan may reduce lactation.

Ovarian Cancer

Prolonged use of Fertilan tablets USP may increase the risk of a borderline or invasive ovarian tumor (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Clinical Trial Adverse Events. Fertilan, at recommended dosages, is generally well tolerated. Adverse reactions usually have been mild and transient and most have disappeared promptly after treatment has been discontinued. Adverse experiences reported in patients treated with Fertilan during clinical studies are shown in Table 2.

*Includes 498 patients whose reports may have been duplicated in the event totals and could not be distinguished as such. Also, excludes 47 patients who did not report symptom data.

Adverse Event


%


Ovarian Enlargement


13.6


Vasomotor Flushes


10.4


Abdominal-Pelvic Discomfort/Distention/Bloating


5.5


Nausea and Vomiting


2.2


Breast Discomfort


2.1


Visual Symptoms


1.5


Blurred vision, lights, floaters, waves, unspecified visual


complaints, photophobia, diplopia, scotomata, phosphenes


Headache


1.3


Abnormal Uterine Bleeding


1.3


Intermenstrual spotting, menorrhagia


The following adverse events have been reported in fewer than 1% of patients in clinical trials: Acute abdomen, appetite increase, constipation, dermatitis or rash, depression, diarrhea, dizziness, fatigue, hair loss/dry hair, increased urinary frequency/volume, insomnia, light-headedness, nervous tension, vaginal dryness, vertigo, weight gain/loss.

Patients on prolonged Fertilan therapy may show elevated serum levels of desmosterol. This is most likely due to a direct interference with cholesterol synthesis. However, the serum sterols in patients receiving the recommended dose of Fertilan are not significantly altered. Ovarian cancer has been infrequently reported in patients who have received fertility drugs. Infertility is a primary risk factor for ovarian cancer; however, epidemiology data suggest that prolonged use of clomiphene may increase the risk of a borderline or invasive ovarian tumor.

POST MARKETING ADVERSE EVENTS

Postmarketing Adverse Events

The following adverse reactions have been identified during the post approval use of Fertilan. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Body as a Whole: Fever, tinnitus, weakness

Cardiovascular: Arrhythmia, chest pain, edema, hypertension, palpitation, phlebitis, pulmonary embolism, shortness of breath, tachycardia, thrombophlebitis

Central Nervous System: Migraine headache, paresthesia, seizure, stroke, syncope

Dermatologic: Acne, allergic reaction, erythema, erythema multiforme, erythema nodosum, hypertrichosis, pruritus, urticaria

Fetal/Neonatal Anomalies:

  • Abnormal bone development: skeletal malformations of the skull, face, nasal passages, jaw, hand, limb,foot (clubfoot), spine and joints
  • Cardiac abnormalities: septal heart defects, muscular ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, tetralogy of Fallot, and coarctation of the aorta
  • Chromosomal disorders:Downs syndrome
  • Ear abnormalities and deafness
  • Gastrointestinal tract abnormalities: cleft lip and palate, imperforate anus, tracheoesophageal fistula, diaphragmatic hernia, omphalocele
  • Genitalia abnormalities: hypospadias, cloacal exstrophy
  • Lung tissue malformations
  • Malformations of the eye and lens (cataract)
  • Neoplasms: neuroectodermal tumor, thyroid tumor, hepatoblastoma, lymphocytic, leukemia
  • Nervous system abnormalities: neural tube defects (anencephaly, meningomyelocele),microcephaly, and hydrocephalus
  • Renal abnormalities: renal agenesis and renal dysgenesis
  • Others: dwarfism, mental retardation

Genitourinary: Endometriosis, ovarian cyst (ovarian enlargement or cysts could, as such, be complicated by adnexal torsion), ovarian hemorrhage, tubal pregnancy, uterine hemorrhage.

Hepatic: Transaminases increased, hepatitis.

Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, back pain, myalgia.

Neoplasms: Liver (hepatic hemangiosarcoma, liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma); breast (fibrocystic disease, breast carcinoma); endometrium (endometrial carcinoma); nervous system (astrocytoma, pituitary tumor, prolactinoma, neurofibromatosis, glioblastoma multiforme, brain abcess); ovary (luteoma of pregnancy, dermoid cyst of the ovary, ovarian carcinoma); trophoblastic (hydatiform mole, choriocarcinoma); miscellaneous (melanoma, myeloma, perianal cysts, renal cell carcinoma, Hodgkin’s lymphoma, tongue carcinoma, bladder carcinoma);

Psychiatric: Anxiety, irritability, mood changes, psychosis.

Visual Disorders: Abnormal accommodation, cataract, eye pain, macular edema, optic neuritis, photopsia, posterior vitreous detachment, retinal hemorrhage, retinal thrombosis, retinal vascular spasm, temporary or prolonged loss of vision, possibly irreversible.

Other: Leukocytosis, thyroid disorder.

DRUGABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

Tolerance, abuse, or dependence with Fertilan has not been reported.

OVERDOSAGE

Signs and Symptoms

Toxic effects accompanying acute overdosage of Fertilan have not been reported. Signs and symptoms of overdosage as a result of the use of more than the recommended dose during Fertilan therapy include nausea, vomiting, vasomotor flushes, visual blurring, spots or flashes, scotomata, ovarian enlargement with pelvic or abdominal pain. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS: Ovarian Cyst.)

Oral LD50. The acute oral LD50 of Fertilan is 1700 mg/kg in mice and 5750 mg/kg in rats. The toxic dose in humans is not known.

Dialysis. It is not known if Fertilan is dialyzable.

Treatment

In the event of overdose, appropriate supportive measures should be employed in addition to gastrointestinal decontamination.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

GeneralConsiderations

The workup and treatment of candidates for Fertilan therapy should be supervised by physicians experienced in management of gynecologic or endocrine disorders. Patients should be chosen for therapy with Fertilan only after careful diagnostic evaluation. The plan of therapy should be outlined in advance. Impediments to achieving the goal of therapy must be excluded or adequately treated before beginning Fertilan. The therapeutic objective should be balanced with potential risks and discussed with the patient and others involved in the achievement of a pregnancy.

Ovulation most often occurs from 5 to 10 days after a course of Fertilan. Coitus should be timed to coincide with the expected time of ovulation. Appropriate tests to determine ovulation may be useful during this time.

RecommendedDosage

Treatment of the selected patient should begin with a low dose, 50 mg daily (1 tablet) for 5 days. The dose should be increased only in those patients who do not ovulate in response to cyclic 50 mg Fertilan. A low dosage or duration of treatment course is particularly recommended if unusual sensitivity to pituitary gonadotropin is suspected, such as in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (see WARNINGS; Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome).

The patient should be evaluated carefully to exclude pregnancy, ovarian enlargement, or ovarian cyst formation between each treatment cycle.

If progestin-induced bleeding is planned, or if spontaneous uterine bleeding occurs prior to therapy, the regimen of 50 mg daily for 5 days should be started on or about the 5th day of the cycle. Therapy may be started at any time in the patient who has had no recent uterine bleeding. When ovulation occurs at this dosage, there is no advantage to increasing the dose in subsequent cycles of treatment.

If ovulation does not appear to occur after the first course of therapy, a second course of 100 mg daily (two 50 mg tablets given as a single daily dose) for 5 days should be given. This course may be started as early as 30 days after the previous one after precautions are taken to exclude the presence of pregnancy. Increasing the dosage or duration of therapy beyond 100 mg/day for 5 days is not recommended.

The majority of patients who are going to ovulate will do so after the first course of therapy. If ovulation does not occur after three courses of therapy, further treatment with Fertilan is not recommended and the patient should be reevaluated. If three ovulatory responses occur, but pregnancy has not been achieved, further treatment is not recommended. If menses does not occur after an ovulatory response, the patient should be reevaluated. Long-term cyclic therapy is not recommended beyond a total of about six cycles (see PRECAUTIONS).

HOW SUPPLIED

Fertilan tablets, USP, 50 mg are round, off-white, debossed “Par 701” with bisect on one side and plain on the other. They are supplied in cartons of 10 (NDC 49884-701-54) and cartons of 30 (NDC 49884-701-55).

Storage - Store at controlled room temperature 15°-30°C (59°-86°F). Protect from heat, light, and excessive humidity, and store in closed containers.

Manufactured by:

PAR PHARMACEUTICAL COMPANIES, INC.

Spring Valley, N Y 10977

Revised: 03/2013

Fertilan pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Fertilan available forms, composition, doses:

Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Fertilan destination | category:

Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Fertilan Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Fertilan pharmaceutical companies:

Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


advertisement

References

  1. Dailymed."CLOMIPHENE CITRATE TABLET [PAR PHARMACEUTICAL INC]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. "clomiphene". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "clomiphene". http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB0088... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Fertilan?

Depending on the reaction of the Fertilan after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Fertilan not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Fertilan addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

advertisement

Review

sdrugs.com conducted a study on Fertilan, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Fertilan consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

Visitor reports

Visitor reported useful

No survey data has been collected yet

Visitor reported side effects

No survey data has been collected yet

Visitor reported price estimates

No survey data has been collected yet

Visitor reported frequency of use

No survey data has been collected yet

One visitor reported doses

What is the dose of Fertilan drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sdrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 11-50mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
Visitors%
11-50mg1
100.0%

Visitor reported time for results

No survey data has been collected yet

Visitor reported administration

No survey data has been collected yet

Three visitors reported age

Visitors%
30-452
66.7%
16-291
33.3%

Visitor reviews


There are no reviews yet. Be the first to write one!


Your name: 
Email: 
Spam protection:  < Type 23 here

The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

© 2002 - 2020 "sdrugs.com". All Rights Reserved