DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
Indications and Usage
Epocelin (ceftizoxime for injection, USP) is indicated in the treatment of infections due to susceptible strains of the microorganisms listed below.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infections caused by Klebsiella spp.; Proteus mirabilis; Escherichia coli; Haemophilus influenzae including ampicillinresistant strains; Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase and nonpenicillinaseproducing); Serratia spp.; Enterobacter spp.; Bacteroides spp.; and Streptococcus spp. including S. pneumoniae, but excluding enterococci. Urinary Tract Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase and nonpenicillinaseproducing); Escherichia coli; Pseudomonas spp. including P.aeruginosa; Proteus mirabilis; P. vulgaris; Providencia rettgeri (formerly Proteus rettgeri) and Morganella morganii (formerly Proteus morganii); Klebsiella spp.; Serratia spp. including S. marcescens; and Enterobacter spp. Gonorrhea including uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli or Streptococcus agalactiae. NOTE: Ceftizoxime, like other cephalosporins, has no activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. Therefore, when cephalosporins are used in the treatment of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease and C. trachomatis is one of the suspected pathogens, appropriate antichlamydial coverage should be added. IntraAbdominal Infections caused by Escherichia coli; Staphylococcusepidermidis; Streptococcus spp. (excluding enterococci); Enterobacter spp.; Klebsiella spp.; Bacteroides spp. including B. fragilis; and anaerobic cocci, including Peptococcus spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. Septicemia caused by Streptococcus spp. including S. pneumoniae (but excluding enterococci); Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase and nonpenicillinaseproducing); Escherichia coli; Bacteroides spp. including B. fragilis; Klebsiella spp.; and Serratia spp. Skin and Skin Structure Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase and nonpenicillinaseproducing); Staphylococcus epidermidis; Escherichia coli; Klebsiella spp.; Streptococcus spp. including Streptococcus pyogenes (but excluding enterococci); Proteus mirabilis; Serratia spp.; Enterobacter spp.; Bacteroides spp. including B. fragilis; and anaerobic cocci, including Peptococcus spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. Bone and Joint Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (penicillinase and nonpenicillinaseproducing); Streptococcus spp. (excluding enterococci); Proteusmirabilis; Bacteroides spp.; and anaerobic cocci, including Peptococcus spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. Meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae. Epocelin has also been used successfully in the treatment of a limited number of pediatric and adult cases of meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.Cefizox has been effective in the treatment of seriously ill, compromised patients, including those who were debilitated, immunosuppressed, or neutropenic. Infections caused by aerobic gramnegative and by mixtures of organisms resistant to other cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, or penicillins have responded to treatment with Epocelin. Because of the serious nature of some urinary tract infections due to P. aeruginosa and because many strains of Pseudomonas species are only moderately susceptible to Epocelin, higher dosage is recommended. Other therapy should be instituted if the response is not prompt. Susceptibility studies on specimens obtained prior to therapy should be used to determine the response of causative organisms to Epocelin. Therapy with Epocelin may be initiated pending results of the studies; however, treatment should be adjusted according to study findings. In serious infections, Epocelin has been used concomitantly with aminoglycosides. Before using Epocelin concomitantly with other antibiotics, the prescribing information for those agents should be reviewed for contraindications, warnings, precautions, and adverse reactions. Renal function should be carefully monitored. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Epocelin and other antibacterial drugs, Epocelin should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Epocelin (ceftizoxime for injection, USP) is contraindicated in patients who have known allergy to the drug.
BEFORE THERAPY WITH Epocelin IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO Epocelin, OTHER CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS, OR OTHER DRUGS. IF THIS PRODUCT IS TO BE GIVEN TO PENICILLINSENSITIVE PATIENTS, CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED BECAUSE CROSS HYPERSENSITIVITY AMONG BETALACTAM ANTIBIOTICS HAS BEEN CLEARLY DOCUMENTED AND MAY OCCUR IN UP TO 10% OF PATIENTS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN ALLERGY. IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION TO Epocelin OCCURS, DISCONTINUE THE DRUG. SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES, INCLUDING OXYGEN, IV FLUIDS, IV ANTIHISTAMINES, CORTICOSTEROIDS, PRESSOR AMINES, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, AS CLINICALLY INDICATED.
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including ceftizoxime, and may range in severity from mild to life threatening. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of antibacterial agents.Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile is a primary cause of “antibioticassociated” colitis. After the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis has been established, appropriate therapeutic measures should be initiated. Mild cases of pseudomembranous colitis usually respond to drug discontinuation alone. In moderate to severe cases, consideration should be given to management with fluids and electrolytes, protein supplementation, and treatment with an antibacterial drug clinically effective against Clostridium difficile colitis.
As with all broadspectrum antibiotics, Epocelin should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, particularly colitis.
Although Epocelin has not been shown to produce an alteration in renal function, renal status should be evaluated, especially in seriously ill patients receiving maximum dose therapy. As with any antibiotic, prolonged use may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Careful observation is essential; appropriate measures should be taken if superinfection occurs. Cephalosporins may be associated with a fall in prothrombin activity. Those at risk include patients with renal or hepatic impairment, or poor nutritional state, as well as patients receiving a protracted course of antimicrobial therapy, and patients previously stabilized on anticoagulant therapy. Prothrombin time should be monitored in patients at risk and exogenous vitamin K administered as indicated. Prescribing Epocelin in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Although the occurrence has not been reported with Epocelin, nephrotoxicity has been reported following concomitant administration of other cephalosporins and aminoglycosides.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Longterm studies in animals to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of ceftizoxime have not been conducted.
In an in vitro bacterial cell assay, there was no evidence of mutagenicity at ceftizoxime concentrations of 0.0010.5 mcg/plate. Ceftizoxime did not produce increases in micronuclei in the in vivo mouse micronucleus test when given to animals at doses up to 7500 mg/kg, approximately six times greater than the maximum human daily dose on a mg/M2 basis. Ceftizoxime had no effect on fertility when administered subcutaneously to rats at daily doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, approximately two times the maximum human daily dose on a mg/M2 basis. Ceftizoxime produced no histological changes in the sexual organs of male and female dogs when given intravenously for thirteen weeks at a dose of 1000 mg/kg/day, approximately five times greater than the maximum human daily dose on a mg/M2 basis.
Teratogenic Effects: Pregnancy Category B.
Reproduction studies performed in rats and rabbits have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to Epocelin. There are, however, no adequate and wellcontrolled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human effects, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Labor and Delivery
Safety of Epocelin use during labor and delivery has not been established.
Epocelin is excreted in human milk in low concentrations. Caution should be exercised when Epocelin is administered to a nursing woman.
Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients from birth to six months of age have not been established. In pediatric patients six months of age and older, treatment with Epocelin has been associated with transient elevated levels of eosinophils, AST, ALT (SGPT), and CPK (creatine phosphokinase). The CPK elevation may be related to IM administration.
The potential for the toxic effect in pediatric patients from chemicals that may leach from the singledose IV preparation in plastic has not been determined.
Clinical studies of ceftizoxime did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
Information for Patients
Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs including Epocelin should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When Epocelin is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by Epocelin or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Epocelin® (ceftizoxime for injection, USP) is generally well tolerated. The most frequent adverse reactions (greater than 1% but less than 5%) are:
Hypersensitivity--Rash, pruritus, fever. Hepatic--Transient elevation in AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT), and alkaline phosphatase. Hematologic--Transient eosinophilia, thrombocytosis. Some individuals have developed a positive Coombs test. Local--Injection site--Burning, cellulitis, phlebitis with IV administration, pain, induration, tenderness, paresthesia. The less frequent adverse reactions (less than 1%) are:Hypersensitivity--Numbness and anaphylaxis have been reported rarely. Hepatic--Elevation of bilirubin has been reported rarely. Renal--Transient elevations of BUN and creatinine have been occasionally observed with Epocelin. Hematologic--Anemia, including hemolytic anemia with occasional fatal outcome, leukopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia have been reported rarely. Urogenital--Vaginitis has occurred rarely. Gastrointestinal--Diarrhea; nausea and vomiting have been reported occasionally. Symptoms of pseudomembranous colitis can appear during or after antibiotic treatment (see WARNINGS).In addition to the adverse reactions listed above which have been observed in patients treated with ceftizoxime, the following adverse reactions and altered laboratory tests have been reported for cephalosporinclass antibiotics:StevensJohnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, serumsickness like reaction, toxic nephropathy, aplastic anemia, hemorrhage, prolonged prothrombin time, elevated LDH, pancytopenia, and agranulocytosis. Several cephalosporins have been implicated in triggering seizures, particularly in patients with renal impairment, when the dosage was not reduced. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) If seizures associated with drug therapy occur, the drug should be discontinued. Anticonvulsant therapy can be given if clinically indicated.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The usual adult dosage is 1 or 2 grams of Epocelin every 8 to 12 hours. Proper dosage and route of administration should be determined by the condition of the patient, severity of the infection, and susceptibility of the causative organisms.
Because of the serious nature of urinary tract infections due to P. aeruginosa and because many strains of Pseudomonas species are only moderately susceptible to Epocelin, higher dosage is recommended. Other therapy should be instituted if the response is not prompt. A single, 1 gram IM dose is the usual dose for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea. The IV route may be preferable for patients with bacterial septicemia, localized parenchymal abscesses (such as intraabdominal abscess), peritonitis, or other severe or lifethreatening infections. In those with normal renal function, the IV dosage for such infections is 2 to 12 grams of Epocelin (ceftizoxime for injection, USP) daily. In conditions such as bacterial septicemia, 6 to 12 grams/day may be given initially by the IV route for several days, and the dosage may then be gradually reduced according to clinical response and laboratory findings.
Dosage may be increased to a total daily dose of 200 mg/kg (not to exceed the maximum adult dose for serious infection).
Impaired Renal Function
Modification of Epocelin dosage is necessary in patients with impaired renal function. Following an initial loading dose of 500 mg-1 gram IM or IV, the maintenance dosing schedule shown below should be followed. Further dosing should be determined by therapeutic monitoring, severity of the infection, and susceptibility of the causative organisms.
When only the serum creatinine level is available, creatinine clearance may be calculated from the following formula. The serum creatinine level should represent current renal function at the steady state. Males Clcr =Weight (kg) x (140 age) 72 x serum creatinine (mg/100 mL)Females are 0.85 of the calculated clearance values for males. In patients undergoing hemodialysis, no additional supplemental dosing is required following hemodialysis; however, dosing should be timed so that the patient receives the dose (according to the table below) at the end of the dialysis.
Preparation of Parenteral Solution
IM Administration: Reconstitute with Sterile Water for Injection. SHAKE WELL.
IV Administration: Reconstitute with Sterile Water for Injection. SHAKE WELL.
These solutions of Epocelin are stable 24 hours at room temperature or 96 hours if refrigerated (5ºC).
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter prior to administration. If particulate matter is evident in reconstituted fluids, then the drug solution should be discarded. Reconstituted solutions may range from yellow to amber without changes in potency. Piggyback Vials: Reconstitute with 50 to 100 mL of Sodium Chloride Injection or any other IV solution listed below. SHAKE WELL.Administer with primary IV fluids, as a single dose. These Piggyback vial solutions of Epocelin are stable 24 hours at room temperature or 96 hours if refrigerated (5ºC).A solution of 1 gram Epocelin in 13 mL Sterile Water for Injection is isotonic. IM InjectionInject well within the body of a relatively large muscle. Aspiration is necessary to avoid inadvertent injection into a blood vessel. When administering 2 gram IM doses, the dose should be divided and given in different large muscle masses. IV AdministrationDirect (bolus) injection, slowly over 3 to 5 minutes, directly or through tubing for patients receiving parenteral fluids. Intermittent or continuous infusion, dilute reconstituted Epocelin in 50 to 100 mL of one of the following solutions:
Epocelin® (ceftizoxime for injection, USP)
NDC 0469725001 Product No. 725001 Equivalent to 500 mg ceftizoxime in 10 mL, singledose, fliptop vials, individually packagedNDC 0469725101 Product No. 725101 Equivalent to 1 gram ceftizoxime in 20 mL, singledose, fliptop vials, individually packagedNDC 0469725201 Product No. 725201 Equivalent to 1 gram ceftizoxime in 100 mL, singledose, Piggyback, fliptop vials, packaged in tensNDC 0469725302 Product No. 725302 Equivalent to 2 grams ceftizoxime in 20 mL, singledose, fliptop vials, individually packagedNDC 0469725402 Product No. 725402 Equivalent to 2 grams ceftizoxime in 100 mL, singledose, Piggyback, fliptop vials, packaged in tensUnreconstituted Epocelin should be protected from excessive light, and stored at controlled room temperature (59º86ºF) in the original package until used.Rx only
Product of Japan
Manufactured for:Fujisawa Healthcare, Inc.Deerfield, IL 60015-2548
Epocelin pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Epocelin available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Epocelin destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Epocelin Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Epocelin pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Epocelin?
Depending on the reaction of the Epocelin after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Epocelin not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Epocelin addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Epocelin, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Epocelin consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
Visitor reported usefulNo survey data has been collected yet
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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology