DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Donezel tablets USP are indicated for the treatment of dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Efficacy has been demonstrated in patients with mild, moderate, and severe Alzheimer’s disease.
Donezel Tablets USP are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors indicated for the treatment of dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Efficacy has been demonstrated in patients with mild, moderate, and severe Alzheimer's disease ( 1 ).
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
Donezel tablets should be taken in the evening, just prior to retiring.
Donezel tablets can be taken with or without food.
A dose of 10 mg once daily can be administered once patients have been on a daily dose of 5 mg for 4 to 6 weeks ( 2.3 ).
2.1 Mild to Moderate Alzheimer’s Disease
The dosages of Donezel tablets shown to be effective in controlled clinical trials are 5 mg and 10 mg administered once per day.
The higher dose of 10 mg did not provide a statistically significantly greater clinical benefit than 5 mg. There is a suggestion, however, based upon order of group mean scores and dose trend analyses of data from these clinical trials, that a daily dose of 10 mg of Donezel tablets might provide additional benefit for some patients. Accordingly, whether or not to employ a dose of 10 mg is a matter of prescriber and patient preference.
2.2 Severe Alzheimer’s Disease
Donezel tablets have been shown to be effective in controlled clinical trials at a dose of 10 mg administered once daily.
The recommended starting dose of Donezel tablets is 5 mg once daily. Evidence from the controlled trials in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease indicates that the 10 mg dose, with a one week titration, is likely to be associated with a higher incidence of cholinergic adverse events compared to the 5 mg dose. In open-label trials using a 6 week titration, the type and frequency of these same adverse events were similar between the 5 mg and 10 mg dose groups. Therefore, because Donezel tablets steady state is achieved about 15 days after it is started and because the incidence of untoward effects may be influenced by the rate of dose escalation, a dose of 10 mg should not be administered until patients have been on a daily dose of 5 mg for 4 to 6 weeks.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Donezel tablets are supplied as tablets containing either 5 mg or 10 mg of Donezel.
The 5 mg tablets are white, round, biconvex, film-coated, unscored tablets, with beveled edges and debossed "TEVA" on one side and 738 on the other side.
The 10 mg tablets are yellow, round, biconvex film-coated, unscored tablets, with beveled edges and debossed "TEVA" on one side and 739 on the other side.
Donezel is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to Donezel or to piperidine derivatives.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Donezel, as a cholinesterase inhibitor, is likely to exaggerate succinylcholine-type muscle relaxation during anesthesia.
5.2 Cardiovascular Conditions
Because of their pharmacological action, cholinesterase inhibitors may have vagotonic effects on the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes. This effect may manifest as bradycardia or heart block in patients both with and without known underlying cardiac conduction abnormalities. Syncopal episodes have been reported in association with the use of Donezel.
5.3 Nausea and Vomiting
Donezel, as a predictable consequence of its pharmacological properties, has been shown to produce diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. These effects, when they occur, appear more frequently with the 10 mg/day dose than with the 5 mg/day dose.
Although in most cases, these effects have been mild and transient, sometimes lasting one to three weeks, and have resolved during continued use of Donezel, patients should be observed closely at the initiation of treatment and after dose increases.
5.4 Peptic Ulcer Disease and GI Bleeding
Through their primary action, cholinesterase inhibitors may be expected to increase gastric acid secretion due to increased cholinergic activity. Therefore, patients should be monitored closely for symptoms of active or occult gastrointestinal bleeding, especially those at increased risk for developing ulcers, e.g., those with a history of ulcer disease or those receiving concurrent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Clinical studies of Donezel in a dose of 5 mg/day to 10 mg/day have shown no increase, relative to placebo, in the incidence of either peptic ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding.
5.6 Genitourinary Conditions
Although not observed in clinical trials of Donezel, cholinomimetics may cause bladder outflow obstruction.
5.7 Neurological Conditions: Seizures
Cholinomimetics are believed to have some potential to cause generalized convulsions. However, seizure activity also may be a manifestation of Alzheimer's disease.
5.8 Pulmonary Conditions
Because of their cholinomimetic actions, cholinesterase inhibitors should be prescribed with care to patients with a history of asthma or obstructive pulmonary disease.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
The most common adverse reactions in clinical studies of Donezel are nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, vomiting, muscle cramps, fatigue, and anorexia.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact TEVA USA, PHARMACOVIGILANCE at 1-866-832-8537 or drug.safetyDonezeltevapharm.com; or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
6.1 Clinical Studies Experience
Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease
Adverse Events Leading to Discontinuation
The rates of discontinuation from controlled clinical trials of Donezel due to adverse events for the Donezel 5 mg/day treatment groups were comparable to those of placebo treatment groups at approximately 5%. The rate of discontinuation of patients who received 7 day escalations from 5 mg/day to 10 mg/day was higher at 13%.
The most common adverse events leading to discontinuation, defined as those occurring in at least 2% of patients and at twice or more the incidence seen in placebo patients, are shown in Table 1.
Most Frequent Adverse Events Seen in Association with the Use of Donezel
The most common adverse events, defined as those occurring at a frequency of at least 5% in patients receiving 10 mg/day and twice the placebo rate, are largely predicted by donepezil hydrochloride’s cholinomimetic effects. These include nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, vomiting, muscle cramp, fatigue and anorexia. These adverse events were often of mild intensity and transient, resolving during continued Donezel treatment without the need for dose modification.
There is evidence to suggest that the frequency of these common adverse events may be affected by the rate of titration. An open-label study was conducted with 269 patients who received placebo in the 15 and 30 week studies. These patients were titrated to a dose of 10 mg/day over a 6 week period. The rates of common adverse events were lower than those seen in patients titrated to 10 mg/day over one week in the controlled clinical trials and were comparable to those seen in patients on 5 mg/day.
See Table 2 for a comparison of the most common adverse events following one and six week titration regimens.
Adverse Events Reported in Controlled Trials
The events cited reflect experience gained under closely monitored conditions of clinical trials in a highly selected patient population. In actual clinical practice or in other clinical trials, these frequency estimates may not apply, as the conditions of use, reporting behavior, and the kinds of patients treated may differ. Table 3 lists treatment emergent signs and symptoms that were reported in at least 2% of patients in placebo-controlled trials who received Donezel and for which the rate of occurrence was greater for patients treated with Donezel than with placebo. In general, adverse events occurred more frequently in female patients and with advancing age.
Other Adverse Events Observed During Clinical Trials
Donezel has been administered to over 1700 individuals during clinical trials worldwide. Approximately 1200 of these patients have been treated for at least 3 months and more than 1000 patients have been treated for at least 6 months. Controlled and uncontrolled trials in the United States included approximately 900 patients. In regards to the highest dose of 10 mg/day, this population includes 650 patients treated for 3 months, 475 patients treated for 6 months and 116 patients treated for over 1 year. The range of patient exposure is from 1 to 1214 days.
Treatment emergent signs and symptoms that occurred during three controlled clinical trials and two open-label trials in the United States were recorded as adverse events by the clinical investigators using terminology of their own choosing. To provide an overall estimate of the proportion of individuals having similar types of events, the events were grouped into a smaller number of standardized categories using a modified COSTART dictionary, and event frequencies were calculated across all studies. These categories are used in the listing below. The frequencies represent the proportion of 900 patients from these trials who experienced that event while receiving Donezel. All adverse events occurring at least twice are included, except for those already listed in Tables 2 or 3, COSTART terms too general to be informative, or events less likely to be drug related. Events are classified by body system and listed using the following definitions: Frequent adverse events - those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; Infrequent adverse events - those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients. These adverse events are not necessarily related to Donezel treatment and in most cases were observed at a similar frequency in placebo treated patients in the controlled studies. No important additional adverse events were seen in studies conducted outside the United States.
Body as a Whole: Frequent: influenza, chest pain, toothache; Infrequent: fever, edema face, periorbital edema, hernia hiatal, abscess, cellulitis, chills, generalized coldness, head fullness, listlessness.
Cardiovascular System: Frequent: hypertension, vasodilation, atrial fibrillation, hot flashes, hypotension; Infrequent: angina pectoris, postural hypotension, myocardial infarction, AV block (first degree), congestive heart failure, arteritis, bradycardia, peripheral vascular disease, supraventricular tachycardia, deep vein thrombosis.
Digestive System: Frequent: fecal incontinence, gastrointestinal bleeding, bloating, epigastric pain; Infrequent: eructation, gingivitis, increased appetite, flatulence, periodontal abscess, cholelithiasis, diverticulitis, drooling, dry mouth, fever sore, gastritis, irritable colon, tongue edema, epigastric distress, gastroenteritis, increased transaminases, hemorrhoids, ileus, increased thirst, jaundice, melena, polydipsia, duodenal ulcer, stomach ulcer.
Endocrine System: Infrequent: diabetes mellitus, goiter.
Hemic and Lymphatic System: Infrequent: anemia, thrombocythemia, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, erythrocytopenia.
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Frequent: dehydration; Infrequent: gout, hypokalemia, increased creatine kinase, hyperglycemia, weight increase, increased lactate dehydrogenase.
Musculoskeletal System: Frequent: bone fracture; Infrequent: muscle weakness, muscle fasciculation.
Nervous System: Frequent: delusions, tremor, irritability, paresthesia, aggression, vertigo, ataxia, increased libido, restlessness, abnormal crying, nervousness, aphasia; Infrequent: cerebrovascular accident, intracranial hemorrhage, transient ischemic attack, emotional lability, neuralgia, coldness (localized), muscle spasm, dysphoria, gait abnormality, hypertonia, hypokinesia, neurodermatitis, numbness (localized), paranoia, dysarthria, dysphasia, hostility, decreased libido, melancholia, emotional withdrawal, nystagmus, pacing.
Respiratory System: Frequent: dyspnea, sore throat, bronchitis; Infrequent: epistaxis, post nasal drip, pneumonia, hyperventilation, pulmonary congestion, wheezing, hypoxia, pharyngitis, pleurisy, pulmonary collapse, sleep apnea, snoring.
Skin and Appendages: Frequent: pruritus, diaphoresis, urticaria; Infrequent: dermatitis, erythema, skin discoloration, hyperkeratosis, alopecia, fungal dermatitis, herpes zoster, hirsutism, skin striae, night sweats, skin ulcer.
Special Senses: Frequent: cataract, eye irritation, vision blurred; Infrequent: dry eyes, glaucoma, earache, tinnitus, blepharitis, decreased hearing, retinal hemorrhage, otitis externa, otitis media, bad taste, conjunctival hemorrhage, ear buzzing, motion sickness, spots before eyes.
Urogenital System: Frequent: urinary incontinence, nocturia; Infrequent: dysuria, hematuria, urinary urgency, metrorrhagia, cystitis, enuresis, prostate hypertrophy, pyelonephritis, inability to empty bladder, breast fibroadenosis, fibrocystic breast, mastitis, pyuria, renal failure, vaginitis.
Severe Alzheimer's Disease
Adverse Events Leading to Discontinuation
The rates of discontinuation from controlled clinical trials of Donezel due to adverse events for the Donezel patients were approximately 12% compared to 7% for placebo patients. The most common adverse events leading to discontinuation, defined as those occurring in at least 2% of Donezel patients and at twice or more the incidence seen in placebo, were anorexia (2% vs. 1% placebo), nausea (2% vs. < 1% placebo), diarrhea (2% vs. 0% placebo) and urinary tract infection (2% vs. 1% placebo).
Most Frequent Adverse Events Seen in Association with the Use of Donezel
The most common adverse events, defined as those occurring at a frequency of at least 5% in patients receiving Donezel and at twice or more the placebo rate, are largely predicted by donepezil hydrochloride’s cholinomimetic effects. These include diarrhea, anorexia, vomiting, nausea, and ecchymosis. These adverse events were often of mild intensity and transient, resolving during continued Donezel treatment without the need for dose modification.
Adverse Events Reported in Controlled Trials
Table 4 lists adverse events that were reported in at least 2% of patients in placebo-controlled trials who received Donezel and for which the rate of occurrence was greater for patients treated with Donezel than with placebo.
Other Adverse Events Observed During Clinical Trials
Donezel has been administered to over 600 patients with severe Alzheimer’s disease during clinical trials of at least 6 months duration, including three double-blind placebo-controlled trials, two of which had an open label extension. All adverse events occurring at least twice are included, except for those already listed in Table 4, COSTART terms too general to be informative, or events less likely to be drug related. Events are classified by body system using the COSTART dictionary and listed using the following definitions: Frequent adverse events - those occurring in at least 1/100 patients; Infrequent adverse events - those occurring in 1/100 to 1/1000 patients. These adverse events are not necessarily related to Donezel treatment and in most cases were observed at a similar frequency in placebo treated patients in the controlled studies.
Body as a Whole: Frequent: abdominal pain, asthenia, fungal infection, flu syndrome; Infrequent: allergic reaction, cellulitis, malaise, sepsis, face edema, hernia.
Cardiovascular System: Frequent: hypotension, bradycardia, ECG abnormal, heart failure; Infrequent: myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disorder, supraventricular extrasystoles, ventricular extrasystoles, cardiomegaly.
Digestive System: Frequent: constipation, gastroenteritis, fecal incontinence, dyspepsia; Infrequent: gamma glutamyl transpeptidase increase, gastritis, dysphagia, periodontitis, stomach ulcer, periodontal abscess, flatulence, liver function tests abnormal, eructation, esophagitis, rectal hemorrhage.
Endocrine System: Infrequent: diabetes mellitus.
Hemic and Lymphatic System: Frequent: anemia; Infrequent: leukocytosis.
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Frequent: weight loss, peripheral edema, edema, lactic dehydrogenase increased, alkaline phosphatase increased; Infrequent: hypercholesteremia, hypokalemia, hypoglycemia, weight gain, bilirubinemia, BUN increased, B12 deficiency anemia, cachexia, creatinine increased, gout, hyponatremia, hypoproteinemia, iron deficiency anemia, SGOT increased, SGPT increased.
Musculoskeletal System: Frequent: arthritis; Infrequent: arthrosis, bone fracture, arthralgia, leg cramps, osteoporosis, myalgia.
Nervous System: Frequent: agitation, anxiety, tremor, convulsion, wandering, abnormal gait; Infrequent: apathy, vertigo, delusions, abnormal dreams, cerebrovascular accident, increased salivation, ataxia, euphoria, vasodilatation, cerebral hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, cerebral ischemia, dementia, extrapyramidal syndrome, grand mal convulsion, hemiplegia, hypertonia, hypokinesia.
Respiratory System: Frequent: pharyngitis, pneumonia, cough increased, bronchitis; Infrequent: dyspnea, rhinitis, asthma.
Skin and Appendages: Frequent: rash, skin ulcer, pruritus; Infrequent: psoriasis, skin discoloration, herpes zoster, dry skin, sweating, urticaria, vesiculobullous rash.
Special Senses: Infrequent: conjunctivitis, glaucoma, abnormal vision, ear pain, lacrimation disorder.
Urogenital System: Frequent: urinary tract infection, cystitis, hematuria, glycosuria; Infrequent: vaginitis, dysuria, urinary frequency, albuminuria.
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
Voluntary reports of adverse events temporally associated with Donezel that have been received since market introduction that are not listed above, and for which there are inadequate data to determine the causal relationship with the drug include the following: abdominal pain, agitation, cholecystitis, confusion, convulsions, hallucinations, heart block (all types), hemolytic anemia, hepatitis, hyponatremia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, pancreatitis, and rash.
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Effect of Other Drugs on the Metabolism of Donezel
Ketoconazole and quinidine, inhibitors of CYP450, 3A4 and 2D6, respectively, inhibit donepezil metabolism in vitro. Whether there is a clinical effect of quinidine is not known. In a 7 day crossover study in 18 healthy volunteers, ketoconazole (200 mg q.d.) increased mean donepezil (5 mg q.d.) concentrations (AUC0-24 and Cmax) by 36%. The clinical relevance of this increase in concentration is unknown.
Inducers of CYP 3A4 (e.g., phenytoin, carbamazepine, dexamethasone, rifampin, and phenobarbital) could increase the rate of elimination of Donezel.
7.2 Use with Anticholinergics
Because of their mechanism of action, cholinesterase inhibitors have the potential to interfere with the activity of anticholinergic medications.
7.3 Use with Cholinomimetics and Other Cholinesterase Inhibitors
A synergistic effect may be expected when cholinesterase inhibitors are given concurrently with succinylcholine, similar neuromuscular blocking agents or cholinergic agonists such as bethanechol.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy Category C
There are no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Donezel should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Oral administration of donepezil to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis did not produce any teratogenic effects at doses up to 16 mg/kg/day (approximately 16 times the maximum recommended human dose [MRHD] of 10 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis) and 10 mg/kg/day (approximately 20 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis), respectively. Oral administration of donepezil (1, 3, 10 mg/kg/day) to rats during late gestation and throughout lactation to weaning produced an increase in stillbirths and reduced offspring survival through postpartum day 4 at the highest dose. The no-effect dose of 3 mg/kg/day is approximately 3 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis.
8.2 Nursing Mothers
It is not known whether donepezil is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when Donezel is administered to a nursing woman.
8.3 Pediatric Use
The safety and effectiveness of Donezel in children have not been established.
8.4 Geriatric Use
Alzheimer’s disease is a disorder occurring primarily in individuals over 55 years of age. The mean age of patients enrolled in the clinical studies with Donezel was 73 years; 80% of these patients were between 65 and 84 years old, and 49% of patients were at or above the age of 75. The efficacy and safety data presented in the clinical trials section were obtained from these patients. There were no clinically significant differences in most adverse events reported by patient groups ≥ 65 years old and < 65 years old.
Because strategies for the management of overdose are continually evolving, it is advisable to contact a Poison Control Center to determine the latest recommendations for the management of an overdose of any drug.
As in any case of overdose, general supportive measures should be utilized. Overdosage with cholinesterase inhibitors can result in cholinergic crisis characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, salivation, sweating, bradycardia, hypotension, respiratory depression, collapse and convulsions. Increasing muscle weakness is a possibility and may result in death if respiratory muscles are involved. Tertiary anticholinergics such as atropine may be used as an antidote for Donezel overdosage. Intravenous atropine sulfate titrated to effect is recommended: an initial dose of 1 to 2 mg IV with subsequent doses based upon clinical response. Atypical responses in blood pressure and heart rate have been reported with other cholinomimetics when coadministered with quaternary anticholinergics such as glycopyrrolate. It is not known whether Donezel and/or its metabolites can be removed by dialysis (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or hemofiltration).
Dose-related signs of toxicity in animals included reduced spontaneous movement, prone position, staggering gait, lacrimation, clonic convulsions, depressed respiration, salivation, miosis, tremors, fasciculation and lower body surface temperature.
Donezel Tablets USP are a reversible inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, known chemically as (±)-2,3-dihydro-5,6-dimethoxy-2-[[1- (phenylmethyl)-4-piperidinyl]methyl]-1H-inden-1-one hydrochloride. Donezel, USP is commonly referred to in the pharmacological literature as E2020. Donezel, USP is a white crystalline powder and is freely soluble in chloroform, soluble in water and in glacial acetic acid, slightly soluble in ethanol and in acetonitrile and practically insoluble in ethyl acetate and in n-hexane.
Donezel Tablets USP are available for oral administration in film-coated tablets containing 5 or 10 mg of Donezel, USP and contain the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, corn starch, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, sodium starch glycolate and titanium dioxide. The 10 mg also contains iron oxide yellow.
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
Current theories on the pathogenesis of the cognitive signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease attribute some of them to a deficiency of cholinergic neurotransmission.
Donezel is postulated to exert its therapeutic effect by enhancing cholinergic function. This is accomplished by increasing the concentration of acetylcholine through reversible inhibition of its hydrolysis by acetylcholinesterase. There is no evidence that donepezil alters the course of the underlying dementing process.
Pharmacokinetics of donepezil are linear over a dose range of 1 to 10 mg given once daily. The rate and extent of absorption of Donezel tablets are not influenced by food.
Donezel orally disintegrating tablets 5 mg and 10 mg are bioequivalent to Donezel 5 mg and 10 mg tablets, respectively. A food effect study has not been conducted with Donezel orally disintegrating tablets; however, the effect of food with Donezel orally disintegrating tablet is expected to be minimal. Donezel orally disintegrating tablets can be taken without regard to meals.
The elimination half life of donepezil is about 70 hours, and the mean apparent plasma clearance (Cl/F) is 0.13 to 0.19 L/hr/kg. Following multiple dose administration, donepezil accumulates in plasma by 4 to 7 fold, and steady state is reached within 15 days. The steady state volume of distribution is 12 to 16 L/kg. Donepezil is approximately 96% bound to human plasma proteins, mainly to albumins (about 75%) and alpha1-acid glycoprotein (about 21%) over the concentration range of 2 to 1000 ng/mL.
Donepezil is both excreted in the urine intact and extensively metabolized to four major metabolites, two of which are known to be active, and a number of minor metabolites, not all of which have been identified. Donepezil is metabolized by CYP 450 isoenzymes 2D6 and 3A4 and undergoes glucuronidation. Following administration of 14C-labeled donepezil, plasma radioactivity, expressed as a percent of the administered dose, was present primarily as intact donepezil (53%) and as 6-O-desmethyl donepezil (11%), which has been reported to inhibit AChE to the same extent as donepezil in vitro and was found in plasma at concentrations equal to about 20% of donepezil. Approximately 57% and 15% of the total radioactivity was recovered in urine and feces, respectively, over a period of 10 days, while 28% remained unrecovered, with about 17% of the donepezil dose recovered in the urine as unchanged drug. Examination of the effect of CYP2D6 genotype in Alzheimer’s patients showed differences in clearance values among CYP2D6 genotype subgroups. When compared to the extensive metabolizers, poor metabolizers had a 31.5% slower clearance and ultra-rapid metabolizers had a 24% faster clearance. These results suggest CYP2D6 has a minor role in the metabolism of donepezil.
Hepatic Disease: In a study of 10 patients with stable alcoholic cirrhosis, the clearance of Donezel was decreased by 20% relative to 10 healthy age- and sex-matched subjects.
Renal Disease: In a study of 11 patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (ClC < 18 mL/min/1.73 m2) the clearance of Donezel did not differ from 11 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects.
Age: No formal pharmacokinetic study was conducted to examine age-related differences in the pharmacokinetics of Donezel. Population pharmacokinetic analysis suggested that the clearance of donepezil in patients decreases with increasing age. When compared with 65-year-old subjects, 90-year-old subjects have a 17% decrease in clearance, while 40-year-old subjects have a 33% increase in clearance. The effect of age on donepezil clearance may not be clinically significant.
Gender and Race: No specific pharmacokinetic study was conducted to investigate the effects of gender and race on the disposition of Donezel. However, retrospective pharmacokinetic analysis and population pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma donepezil concentrations measured in patients with Alzheimer’s disease indicates that gender and race (Japanese and Caucasians) did not affect the clearance of Donezel to an important degree.
Effect of Donezel on the Metabolism of Other Drugs
No in vivo clinical trials have investigated the effect of Donezel on the clearance of drugs metabolized by CYP 3A4 (e.g., cisapride, terfenadine) or by CYP 2D6 (e.g., imipramine). However, in vitro studies show a low rate of binding to these enzymes (mean Ki about 50 to 130 μM), that, given the therapeutic plasma concentrations of donepezil (164 nM), indicates little likelihood of interference. Based on in vitro studies, donepezil shows little or no evidence of direct inhibition of CYP2B6, CYP2C8 and CYP2C19 at clinically relevant concentrations.
Whether Donezel has any potential for enzyme induction is not known. Formal pharmacokinetic studies evaluated the potential of Donezel for interaction with theophylline, cimetidine, warfarin, digoxin and ketoconazole. No effects of Donezel on the pharmacokinetics of these drugs were observed.
Effect of Other Drugs on the Metabolism of Donezel
A small effect of CYP2D6 inhibitors was identified in a population pharmacokinetic analysis of plasma donepezil concentrations measured in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Donepezil clearance was reduced by approximately 17% in patients taking 10 mg in combination with a known CYP2D6 inhibitor. This result is consistent with the conclusion that CYP2D6 is a minor metabolic pathway of donepezil.
Formal pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that the metabolism of Donezel is not significantly affected by concurrent administration of digoxin or cimetidine.
An in vitro study showed that donepezil was not a substrate of P-glycoprotein.
Drugs Highly Bound to Plasma Proteins
Drug displacement studies have been performed in vitro between this highly bound drug (96%) and other drugs such as furosemide, digoxin, and warfarin. Donezel at concentrations of 0.3 to 10 mcg/mL did not affect the binding of furosemide (5 mcg/mL), digoxin (2 ng/mL), and warfarin (3 mcg/mL) to human albumin. Similarly, the binding of Donezel to human albumin was not affected by furosemide, digoxin and warfarin.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
No evidence of carcinogenic potential was obtained in an 88 week carcinogenicity study of donepezil conducted in mice at oral doses up to 180 mg/kg/day, or in a 104 week carcinogenicity study in rats at oral doses up to 30 mg/kg/day (approximately 29 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis).
Donepezil was negative in a battery of genotoxicity assays (in vitro bacterial reverse mutation, in vitro mouse lymphoma tk, in vitro chromosomal aberration, and in vivo mouse micronucleus).
Donepezil had no effect on fertility in rats at oral doses up to 10 mg/kg/day (approximately 10 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) when administered to males and females prior to and during mating and continuing in females through implantation.
13.2 Animal Toxicology
In an acute dose neurotoxicity study in female rats, oral administration of donepezil and memantine in combination resulted in increased incidence, severity, and distribution of neurodegeneration compared with memantine alone. The no-effect levels of the combination were associated with clinically relevant plasma donepezil and memantine levels.
The relevance of this finding to humans is unknown.
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
The effectiveness of Donezel as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease is demonstrated by the results of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical investigations.
14.1 Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease
The effectiveness of Donezel as a treatment for mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease is demonstrated by the results of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical investigations in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. The mean age of patients participating in Donezel trials was 73 years with a range of 50 to 94. Approximately 62% of patients were women and 38% were men. The racial distribution was white 95%, black 3% and other races 2%.
Study Outcome Measures: In each study, the effectiveness of treatment with Donezel was evaluated using a dual outcome assessment strategy.
The ability of Donezel to improve cognitive performance was assessed with the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog), a multi-item instrument that has been extensively validated in longitudinal cohorts of Alzheimer’s disease patients. The ADAS-cog examines selected aspects of cognitive performance including elements of memory, orientation, attention, reasoning, language and praxis. The ADAS-cog scoring range is from 0 to 70, with higher scores indicating greater cognitive impairment. Elderly normal adults may score as low as 0 or 1, but it is not unusual for non-demented adults to score slightly higher.
The patients recruited as participants in each study had mean scores on the ADAS-cog of approximately 26 points, with a range from 4 to 61. Experience based on longitudinal studies of ambulatory patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease suggest that scores on the ADAS-cog increase (worsen) by 6 to 12 points per year. However, smaller changes may be seen in patients with very mild or very advanced disease since the ADAS-cog is not uniformly sensitive to change over the course of the disease. The annualized rate of decline in the placebo patients participating in Donezel trials was approximately 2 to 4 points per year.
The ability of Donezel to produce an overall clinical effect was assessed using a Clinician’s Interview-Based Impression of Change that required the use of caregiver information, the CIBIC-plus. The CIBIC-plus is not a single instrument and is not a standardized instrument like the ADAS-cog. Clinical trials for investigational drugs have used a variety of CIBIC formats, each different in terms of depth and structure.
As such, results from a CIBIC-plus reflect clinical experience from the trial or trials in which it was used and cannot be compared directly with the results of CIBIC-plus evaluations from other clinical trials. The CIBIC-plus used in Donezel trials was a semi-structured instrument that was intended to examine four major areas of patient function: General, Cognitive, Behavioral and Activities of Daily Living. It represents the assessment of a skilled clinician based upon his/her observations at an interview with the patient, in combination with information supplied by a caregiver familiar with the behavior of the patient over the interval rated. The CIBIC-plus is scored as a seven point categorical rating, ranging from a score of 1, indicating “markedly improved,” to a score of 4, indicating “no change” to a score of 7, indicating “markedly worse.” The CIBIC-plus has not been systematically compared directly to assessments not using information from caregivers (CIBIC) or other global methods.
In a study of 30 weeks duration, 473 patients were randomized to receive single daily doses of placebo, 5 mg/day or 10 mg/day of Donezel. The 30 week study was divided into a 24 week double-blind active treatment phase followed by a 6 week single-blind placebo washout period. The study was designed to compare 5 mg/day or 10 mg/day fixed doses of Donezel to placebo. However, to reduce the likelihood of cholinergic effects, the 10 mg/day treatment was started following an initial 7 day treatment with 5 mg/day doses.
Effects on the ADAS-cog: Figure 1 illustrates the time course for the change from baseline in ADAS-cog scores for all three dose groups over the 30 weeks of the study. After 24 weeks of treatment, the mean differences in the ADAS-cog change scores for Donezel treated patients compared to the patients on placebo were 2.8 and 3.1 points for the 5 mg/day and 10 mg/day treatments, respectively. These differences were statistically significant. While the treatment effect size may appear to be slightly greater for the 10 mg/day treatment, there was no statistically significant difference between the two active treatments.
Following 6 weeks of placebo washout, scores on the ADAS-cog for both the Donezel treatment groups were indistinguishable from those patients who had received only placebo for 30 weeks. This suggests that the beneficial effects of Donezel abate over 6 weeks following discontinuation of treatment and do not represent a change in the underlying disease. There was no evidence of a rebound effect 6 weeks after abrupt discontinuation of therapy.
Figure 2 illustrates the cumulative percentages of patients from each of the three treatment groups who had attained the measure of improvement in ADAS-cog score shown on the X axis. Three change scores, (7 point and 4 point reductions from baseline or no change in score) have been identified for illustrative purposes, and the percent of patients in each group achieving that result is shown in the inset table.
The curves demonstrate that both patients assigned to placebo and Donezel have a wide range of responses, but that the active treatment groups are more likely to show greater improvements. A curve for an effective treatment would be shifted to the left of the curve for placebo, while an ineffective or deleterious treatment would be superimposed upon or shifted to the right of the curve for placebo.
Effects on the CIBIC-plus: Figure 3 is a histogram of the frequency distribution of CIBIC-plus scores attained by patients assigned to each of the three treatment groups who completed 24 weeks of treatment. The mean drug-placebo differences for these groups of patients were 0.35 points and 0.39 points for 5 mg/day and 10 mg/day of Donezel, respectively. These differences were statistically significant. There was no statistically significant difference between the two active treatments.
In a study of 15 weeks duration, patients were randomized to receive single daily doses of placebo or either 5 mg/day or 10 mg/day of Donezel for 12 weeks, followed by a 3 week placebo washout period. As in the 30 week study, to avoid acute cholinergic effects, the 10 mg/day treatment followed an initial 7 day treatment with 5 mg/day doses.
Effects on the ADAS-Cog: Figure 4 illustrates the time course of the change from baseline in ADAS-cog scores for all three dose groups over the 15 weeks of the study. After 12 weeks of treatment, the differences in mean ADAS-cog change scores for the Donezel treated patients compared to the patients on placebo were 2.7 and 3 points each, for the 5 and 10 mg/day Donezel treatment groups, respectively. These differences were statistically significant. The effect size for the 10 mg/day group may appear to be slightly larger than that for 5 mg/day. However, the differences between active treatments were not statistically significant.
Following 3 weeks of placebo washout, scores on the ADAS-cog for both the Donezel treatment groups increased, indicating that discontinuation of Donezel resulted in a loss of its treatment effect. The duration of this placebo washout period was not sufficient to characterize the rate of loss of the treatment effect, but, the 30 week study demonstrated that treatment effects associated with the use of Donezel abate within 6 weeks of treatment discontinuation.
Figure 5 illustrates the cumulative percentages of patients from each of the three treatment groups who attained the measure of improvement in ADAS-cog score shown on the X axis. The same three change scores, (7 point and 4 point reductions from baseline or no change in score) as selected for the 30 week study have been used for this illustration. The percentages of patients achieving those results are shown in the inset table.
As observed in the 30 week study, the curves demonstrate that patients assigned to either placebo or to Donezel have a wide range of responses, but that the Donezel treated patients are more likely to show greater improvements in cognitive performance.
Effects on the CIBIC-plus: Figure 6 is a histogram of the frequency distribution of CIBIC-plus scores attained by patients assigned to each of the three treatment groups who completed 12 weeks of treatment. The differences in mean scores for Donezel treated patients compared to the patients on placebo at Week 12 were 0.36 and 0.38 points for the 5 mg/day and 10 mg/day treatment groups, respectively. These differences were statistically significant.
In both studies, patient age, sex and race were not found to predict the clinical outcome of Donezel treatment.
14.2 Severe Alzheimer's Disease
Studies of 10 mg/day
Swedish 6 Month Study
The effectiveness of Donezel as a treatment for severe Alzheimer’s disease is demonstrated by the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study conducted in Sweden (6 month study) in patients with probable or possible Alzheimer’s disease diagnosed by NINCDS-ADRDA and DSM-IV criteria, MMSE: range of 1 to 10. Two hundred and forty-eight (248) patients with severe Alzheimer’s disease were randomized to Donezel or placebo. For patients randomized to Donezel, treatment was initiated at 5 mg once daily for 28 days and then increased to 10 mg once daily. At the end of the 6 month treatment period, 90.5% of the Donezel treated patients were receiving the 10 mg/day dose. The mean age of patients was 84.9 years, with a range of 59 to 99. Approximately 77% of patients were women, and 23% were men. Almost all patients were Caucasian. Probable AD was diagnosed in the majority of the patients (83.6% of Donezel treated patients and 84.2% of placebo treated patients).
Study Outcome Measures: The effectiveness of treatment with Donezel was determined using a dual outcome assessment strategy that evaluated cognitive function using an instrument designed for more impaired patients and overall function through caregiver-rated assessment. This study showed that patients on Donezel experienced significant improvement on both measures compared to placebo.
The ability of Donezel to improve cognitive performance was assessed with the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB). The SIB, a multi-item instrument, has been validated for the evaluation of cognitive function in patients with moderate to severe dementia. The SIB evaluates selective aspects of cognitive performance, including elements of memory, language, orientation, attention, praxis, visuospatial ability, construction, and social interaction. The SIB scoring range is from 0 to 100, with lower scores indicating greater cognitive impairment.
Daily function was assessed using the Modified Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory for Severe Alzheimer’s Disease (ADCS-ADL-severe). The ADCS-ADL-severe is derived from the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory, which is a comprehensive battery of ADL questions used to measure the functional capabilities of patients. Each ADL item is rated from the highest level of independent performance to complete loss. The ADCS-ADL-severe is a subset of 19 items, including ratings of the patient’s ability to eat, dress, bathe, use the telephone, get around (or travel), and perform other activities of daily living; it has been validated for the assessment of patients with moderate to severe dementia. The ADCS-ADL-severe has a scoring range of 0 to 54, with the lower scores indicating greater functional impairment. The investigator performs the inventory by interviewing a caregiver, in this study a nurse staff member, familiar with the functioning of the patient.
Effects on the SIB
Figure 7 shows the time course for the change from baseline in SIB score for the two treatment groups over the 6 months of the study. At 6 months of treatment, the mean difference in the SIB change scores for Donezel treated patients compared to patients on placebo was 5.9 points. Donezel treatment was statistically significantly superior to placebo.
Figure 8 illustrates the cumulative percentages of patients from each of the two treatment groups who attained the measure of improvement in SIB score shown on the X-axis. While patients assigned both to Donezel and to placebo have a wide range of responses, the curves show that the Donezel group is more likely to show a greater improvement in cognitive performance.
Effects on the ADCS-ADL-severe: Figure 9 illustrates the time course for the change from baseline in ADCS-ADL-severe scores for patients in the two treatment groups over the 6 months of the study. After 6 months of treatment, the mean difference in the ADCS-ADL-severe change scores for Donezel treated patients compared to patients on placebo was 1.8 points. Donezel treatment was statistically significantly superior to placebo.
Figure 10 shows the cumulative percentages of patients from each treatment group with specified changes from baseline ADCS-ADL-severe scores. While both patients assigned to Donezel and placebo have a wide range of responses, the curves demonstrate that the Donezel group is more likely to show a smaller decline or an improvement.
Japanese 24 Week Study
In a study of 24 weeks duration conducted in Japan, 325 patients with severe Alzheimer's disease were randomized to doses of 5 mg/day or 10 mg/day of donepezil, administered once daily, or placebo. Patients randomized to treatment with donepezil were to achieve their assigned doses by titration, beginning at 3 mg/day, and extending over a maximum of 6 weeks. Two hundred and forty-eight (248) patients completed the study, with similar proportions of patients completing the study in each treatment group. The primary efficacy measures for this study were the SIB and CIBIC-plus.
At 24 weeks of treatment, statistically significant treatment differences were observed between the 10 mg/day dose of donepezil and placebo on both the SIB and CIBIC-plus. The 5 mg/day dose of donepezil showed a statistically significant superiority to placebo on the SIB, but not on the CIBIC-plus.
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING
Donezel Tablets USP are supplied as tablets containing either 5 mg or 10 mg of Donezel, USP.
5 mg: White, round, biconvex film-coated, unscored tablets, with beveled edges and debossed "TEVA" on one side and 738 on the other side. Available in bottles of 30, 90 and 500.
10 mg: Yellow, round, biconvex film-coated, unscored tablets, with beveled edges and debossed "TEVA" on one side and 739 on the other side. Available in bottles of 30, 90 and 500.
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).
17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION
To assure safe and effective use of Donezel, the information and instructions provided in the attached Patient Package Insert should be discussed with patients and caregivers.
Patients and caregivers should be instructed to take Donezel only once per day, as prescribed.
Patients and caregivers should be instructed that Donezel can be taken with or without food.
Patients and caregivers should be advised that the product may cause nausea, diarrhea, insomnia, vomiting, muscle cramps, fatigue and decreased appetite.
Manufactured in Croatia By:
PLIVA HRVATSKA d.o.o.
TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA
Sellersville, PA 18960
Rev. F 9/2013
Patient Package Insert
Donepezil (doe NEP e zil) Hydrochloride Tablets USP
Read the Patient Information that comes with Donezel tablets before the patient starts taking them and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This leaflet does not take the place of talking with the doctor about Alzheimer’s disease or treatment for it. If you have questions, ask the doctor or pharmacist.
What are Donezel tablets?
Donezel tablets come as Donezel film-coated tablets in dosage strengths of 5 mg and 10 mg.
Donezel tablets are a prescription medicine to treat mild, moderate and severe Alzheimer’s disease. Donezel tablets can help with mental function and with doing daily tasks. Donezel tablets do not work the same in all people. Some people may:
Donezel tablets do not cure Alzheimer’s disease. All patients with Alzheimer’s disease get worse over time, even if they take Donezel tablets.
Donezel tablets have not been approved as a treatment for any medical condition in children.
Who should not take Donezel tablets?
The patient should not take Donezel tablets if allergic to any of the ingredients in Donezel tablets or to medicines that contain piperidines. Ask the patient’s doctor if you are not sure. See the end of this leaflet for a list of ingredients in Donezel tablets.
What should I tell the doctor before the patient takes Donezel tablets?
Tell the doctor about all the patient's present or past health problems.
Tell the doctor about all the medicines the patient takes, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Donezel tablets and other medicines may affect each other.
Be particularly sure to tell the doctor if the patient takes aspirin or medicines called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). There are many NSAID medicines, both prescription and non-prescription. Ask the doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure if any of the patient's medicines are NSAIDs. Taking NSAIDs and Donezel tablets together may make the patient more likely to get stomach ulcers.
Donezel tablets taken with certain medicines used for anesthesia may cause side effects. Tell the responsible doctor or dentist that the patient takes Donezel tablets before the patient has:
Know the medicines that the patient takes. Keep a list of all the patient's medicines. Show it to the doctor or pharmacist before the patient starts a new medicine.
How should the patient take Donezel tablets?
What are the possible side effects of Donezel tablets?
Donezel tablets may cause the following serious side effects:
Call the doctor right away if the patient has:
The most common side effects of Donezel tablets are:
These side effects may get better after the patient takes Donezel tablets for a while. This is not a complete list of side effects with Donezel tablets. For more information, ask the doctor or pharmacist.
Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
How should Donezel tablets be stored?
Store Donezel tablets at room temperature between 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F).
Keep Donezel tablets and all medicines out of the reach of children.
General information about Donezel tablets
Medicines are sometimes prescribed for conditions that are not mentioned in this Patient Information Leaflet. Do not use Donezel tablets for a condition for which they were not prescribed. Do not give Donezel tablets to people other than the patient, even if they have the same symptoms as the patient, as they may harm them.
This leaflet summarizes the most important information about Donezel tablets. If you would like more information talk with the patient's doctor. You can ask your pharmacist or doctor for information about Donezel tablets that is written for health professionals. For more information, call Teva Pharmaceuticals at 1-888-838-2872.
What are the ingredients in Donezel tablets?
Active ingredient: Donezel
Inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, corn starch, hypromellose, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, sodium starch glycolate and titanium dioxide. The 10 mg tablet also contains iron oxide yellow.
Manufactured in Croatia By:
PLIVA HRVATSKA d.o.o.
TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA
Sellersville, PA 18960
Rev. D 9/2013
Donepezil Hcl 10mg Tablet
structural Donezel Figure 1 Donezel Figure 2 Donezel Figure 3 Donezel Figure 4 Donezel Figure 5 Donezel Figure 6 Donezel Figure 7 Donezel Figure 8 Donezel Figure 9 Donezel Figure 10
Donezel pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Donezel available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Donezel destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Donezel Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Donezel pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Donezel?
Depending on the reaction of the Donezel after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Donezel not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Donezel addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
ReviewsDrugs.com conducted a study on Donezel, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Donezel consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology