DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
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Indication: Used in treatment of cholera, as it destroys the vibrios and decreases the diarrhea. It is effective against tetracycline-resistant vibrios. It is also used in eye drops or ointment to treat bacterial conjunctivitis.
Dexanicol (Chloramphenicol) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that was derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae and is now produced synthetically. Dexanicol (Chloramphenicol) is effective against a wide variety of microorganisms, but due to serious side-effects (e.g., damage to the bone marrow, including aplastic anemia) in humans, it is usually reserved for the treatment of serious and life-threatening infections (e.g., typhoid fever). Dexanicol (Chloramphenicol) is bacteriostatic but may be bactericidal in high concentrations or when used against highly susceptible organisms. Dexanicol (Chloramphenicol) stops bacterial growth by binding to the bacterial ribosome (blocking peptidyl transferase) and inhibiting protein synthesis.
Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate:
Dexanicol is a glucocorticosteroid. This medication Inhibits the function of leukocytes and tissue macrophages. Dexanicol (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate) restricts the migration of leukocytes in the area of inflammation. This drug violates the ability of macrophages to phagocytosis and the formation of interleukin-1. Dexanicol (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate) decreases capillary permeability caused by histamine release. This medicine inhibits the activity of fibroblasts and collagen formation.
Dexanicol (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate) inhibits the activity of phospholipase A2, which leads to suppression of the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
With direct application to the vessels this drug has a vasoconstrictor effect.
Dexanicol (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate) has a pronounced dose-dependent effect on the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
In high doses Dexanicol (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate) may increase the excitability of brain tissue and contributes to lowering the threshold of convulsive readiness.
With systemic use of therapeutic activity of Dexanicol (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate) is due to anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, immunosuppressive and antiproliferative action.
For external and local use of therapeutic activity of Dexanicol (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate) is due to anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and antiexudative (due to vasoconstrictor effect) effect.
The plasma protein binding is 60-70%. This medication penetrates histohematic barriers. In a small amount it is excreted in breast milk. Dexanicol (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate) metabolized in a liver. T1/2 is 2-3 hours. This drug is excreted by kidneys.
When Dexanicol (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate) applied topically in ophthalmology it absorbed through the cornea with intact epithelium in moisture anterior chamber. When inflammation of the tissues of the eye or mucosal damage and corneal absorption rate of Dexanicol (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate) significantly increased.
For oral administration: Biermer's disease; acute and subacute thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, progressive ophthalmopathy associated with thyrotoxicosis; bronchial asthma; rheumatoid arthritis in the acute phase; ulcerative colitis; connective tissue disease; autoimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, aplasia and hypoplasia of hematopoiesis, agranulocytosis, serum sickness; acute erythroderma, pemphigus (normal), acute eczema (early treatment); malignant tumor (as a palliative therapy); congenital adrenogenital syndrome; cerebral edema (usually after a preliminary parenteral corticosteroids).
For parenteral administration: shock of various origins; swelling of the brain (with brain tumors, head injury, neurosurgical intervention, brain hemorrhage, encephalitis, meningitis, radiation damage); asthmatic status; severe allergic reactions (angioedema, bronchospasm, dermatosis, acute anaphylactic reaction to medication, transfusion serum, pyrogenic reactions); acute hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, agranulocytosis; serious infectious diseases (in combination with antibiotics); acute adrenal insufficiency, acute croup; arthropathy (scapulohumeral periarthritis, epicondylitis, styloiditis, bursitis, tenosynovitis, compression neuropathy, osteochondrosis, arthritis of various etiologies, osteoarthritis).
For use in ophthalmic practice: not purulent and allergic conjunctivitis, keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis without damaging the epithelium, iritis, iridocyclitis, blefaroconjuntivitis, blepharitis, episcleritis, scleritis, inflammation of injuries and eye surgeries, sympathetic ophthalmia.
The dosing regimen is individual. Orally for severe disease at the beginning of treatment it is prescribed to 10-15 mg / day, maintenance dose may be 2-4.5 mg / day or more. The daily dose divided into 2-3 doses. In small doses Dexanicol is taken 1 time in the morning.
For parenteral administration this medication is administered IV slowly bolus or infusion (acute and urgent conditions); IM; it is possible also periarticular and intraarticular injection. During the day it can be administered from 4 to 20 mg of Dexanicol (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate) 3-4 times / day. The duration of parenteral administration is usually 3-4 days, then move on to maintenance therapy of oral form. In the acute period in various diseases and early treatment Dexanicol (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate) used in higher doses. Upon reaching the effect the dose is decreased within a few days before reaching the maintenance dose or until discontinuation of treatment.
When used in ophthalmology for acute conditions this drug instilled into conjunctival sac 1-2 drops every 1-2 hours, then with a decrease in inflammation after every 4-6 hours. The duration of treatment is from 1-2 days to several weeks depending on the clinical course of disease.
Endocrine system: impaired glucose tolerance, steroid diabetes mellitus or manifestation of latent diabetes mellitus, suppression of adrenal function, Itsenko-Cushing syndrome (including moon face, obesity, pituitary type, hirsutism, increased blood pressure, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, myasthenia gravis, striae), delayed sexual development in children.
Metabolism: increased excretion of calcium, hypocalcemia, weight gain, negative nitrogen balance (increased protein breakdown), increased sweating, hypernatremia, hypokalemia.
CNS: delirium, disorientation, euphoria, hallucinations, manic-depressive psychosis, depression, paranoia, increased intracranial pressure, nervousness or anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, vertigo, pseudotumor cerebellum, headache, convulsions.
Cardio-vascular system: arrhythmia, bradycardia (up to cardiac arrest); development (in predisposed patients) or increased severity of chronic heart failure, ECG changes typical of hypokalemia, increased blood pressure, hypercoagulability, thrombosis. In patients with acute and subacute myocardial infarction - spread necrosis, slowing the formation of scar tissue that can lead to rupture of the heart muscle; with intracranial introduction - nosebleeds.
Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, pancreatitis, steroid gastric and duodenal ulcers, erosive esophagitis, bleeding and perforation of the gastrointestinal tract, increase or decrease in appetite, flatulence, hiccups; rarely - increased activity of hepatic transaminases and alkaline phosphatase.
Sensory organs: posterior subcapsular cataracts, increased intraocular pressure with possible damage to the optic nerve, propensity to develop secondary bacterial, fungal or viral infections of the eye, trophic changes of the cornea, exophthalmos.
Musculoskeletal system: growth retardation and ossification processes in children (premature closure of epiphyseal growth zones), osteoporosis (very rare - a pathological bone fractures, aseptic necrosis of head of humerus and femur), rupture of tendons of muscles, steroid myopathy, reduced muscle mass (atrophy).
Dermatological reactions: delayed wound healing, petechiae, ecchymosis, skin thinning, hyper or hypopigmentation, steroid acne, stretch marks, susceptibility to the development of pyoderma and candidiasis.
Allergic reactions: generalized (including skin rash, itching, anaphylactic shock) and when applied topically.
Effects associated with immunosuppressive action: development or worsening of infection (the appearance of this side effect contribute jointly used immunosuppressive drugs, and vaccinations).
Local reactions: when Dexanicol (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate) administered parenteral - tissue necrosis.
For external use: rarely - itching, redness, burning, dryness, folliculitis, acne, hypopigmentation, perioral dermatitis, allergic dermatitis, maceration of the skin, secondary infection, skin atrophy, striae, miliaria. With prolonged use or application to large areas of skin may develop systemic side effects characteristic of SCS.
For short-term use for health reasons - increased sensitivity to Dexanicol (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate).
For intra-articular injection and injection directly into the lesion: previous arthroplasty, abnormal bleeding (endogenous or caused by the use of anticoagulants), intra-articular fracture, infection (sepsis) inflammation in the joints and periarticular infections (including in history), as well as general infectious disease, pronounced juxta-articular osteoporosis, no signs of inflammation in the joints ("dry" joint, such as osteoarthritis without synovitis), severe bone destruction and deformity of the joint (a sharp narrowing of joint space, ankylosis), instability of the joint as a result of arthritis, aseptic necrosis of the epiphyses of bones forming the joint.
For external use: bacterial, viral, fungal skin diseases, tuberculosis, skin, cutaneous manifestations of syphilis, skin tumors, post-vaccination period, violation of the integrity of the skin (ulcers, wounds), children's age (up to 2 years, with itching in the anal area - up to 12 years), rosacea, acne vulgaris, perioral dermatitis.
For use in ophthalmology: bacterial, viral, fungal eye diseases, tuberculosis eye damage, tampering with the ocular epithelium, acute form of purulent eye infection in the absence of specific therapy, diseases of the cornea, combined with defects in the epithelium, trachoma, glaucoma.
During pregnancy and lactating Dexanicol (Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate) is used taking into account the expected therapeutic effect and adverse effect on the fetus. Long-term therapy during pregnancy does not exclude the possibility of violations of fetal growth. In the case of the end of pregnancy there is a danger of atrophy of the adrenal cortex of the fetus, which may require replacement therapy in the newborn.
Category effects on the fetus by FDA - C.
Symptoms: increased side effects.
Treatment: the development of adverse reactions - symptomatic therapy, the Itsenko-Cushing syndrome - the prescription of aminoglutethimide.
Depending on the reaction of the Dexanicol after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Dexanicol not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Dexanicol addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
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The information was verified by Dr. Rachana Salvi, MD Pharmacology