DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Indication: Injection: for the treatment of endocrine disorders, rheumatic D=disorders, collagen diseases, dermatologic diseases, allergic statesc, ophthalmic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, respiratory diseases, hematologic disorders, neoplastic diseases, edematous states, cerebral edema. Ophthalmic ointment and solution: for the treatment of steroid responsive inflammatory conditions of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, and anterior segment of the globe. Ophthalmic solution only: for the treatment of steroid responsive inflammatory conditions of the external auditory meatusTopic cream: for relief of the inflammatory and pruritic manifestations of corticosteroid-responsive dermatosesOral aerosol: for the treatment of bronchial asthma and related corticosteroid responsive bronchospastic states intractable to adequate trial of conventional therapyIntranasal aerosol: for the treatment of allergic ot inflammatory nasal conditions, and nasal polyps
Dexamethasone and its derivatives, Dexamethasone sodium phosphate and Dexamethasone acetate, are synthetic glucocorticoids. Used for its antiinflammatory or immunosuppressive properties and ability to penetrate the CNS, Dexamethasone is used alone to manage cerebral edema and with tobramycin to treat corticosteroid-responsive inflammatory ocular conditions.
Dexamethasone is a glucocorticosteroid. This medication Inhibits the function of leukocytes and tissue macrophages. Dexamethasone restricts the migration of leukocytes in the area of inflammation. This drug violates the ability of macrophages to phagocytosis and the formation of interleukin-1. Dexamethasone decreases capillary permeability caused by histamine release. This medicine inhibits the activity of fibroblasts and collagen formation.
Dexamethasone inhibits the activity of phospholipase A2, which leads to suppression of the synthesis of prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
With direct application to the vessels this drug has a vasoconstrictor effect.
Dexamethasone has a pronounced dose-dependent effect on the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
In high doses Dexamethasone may increase the excitability of brain tissue and contributes to lowering the threshold of convulsive readiness.
With systemic use of therapeutic activity of Dexamethasone is due to anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, immunosuppressive and antiproliferative action.
For external and local use of therapeutic activity of Dexamethasone is due to anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and antiexudative effect.
The plasma protein binding is 60-70%. This medication penetrates histohematic barriers. In a small amount it is excreted in breast milk. Dexamethasone metabolized in a liver. T1/2 is 2-3 hours. This drug is excreted by kidneys.
When Dexamethasone applied topically in ophthalmology it absorbed through the cornea with intact epithelium in moisture anterior chamber. When inflammation of the tissues of the eye or mucosal damage and corneal absorption rate of Dexamethasone significantly increased.
Why is Dexamethasone prescribed?
For oral administration: Biermer's disease; acute and subacute thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, progressive ophthalmopathy associated with thyrotoxicosis; bronchial asthma; rheumatoid arthritis in the acute phase; ulcerative colitis; connective tissue disease; autoimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, aplasia and hypoplasia of hematopoiesis, agranulocytosis, serum sickness; acute erythroderma, pemphigus, acute eczema (early treatment); malignant tumor (as a palliative therapy); congenital adrenogenital syndrome; cerebral edema (usually after a preliminary parenteral corticosteroids).
For parenteral administration: shock of various origins; swelling of the brain (with brain tumors, head injury, neurosurgical intervention, brain hemorrhage, encephalitis, meningitis, radiation damage); asthmatic status; severe allergic reactions (angioedema, bronchospasm, dermatosis, acute anaphylactic reaction to medication, transfusion serum, pyrogenic reactions); acute hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, agranulocytosis; serious infectious diseases (in combination with antibiotics); acute adrenal insufficiency, acute croup; arthropathy (scapulohumeral periarthritis, epicondylitis, styloiditis, bursitis, tenosynovitis, compression neuropathy, osteochondrosis, arthritis of various etiologies, osteoarthritis).
For use in ophthalmic practice: not purulent and allergic conjunctivitis, keratitis, keratoconjunctivitis without damaging the epithelium, iritis, iridocyclitis, blefaroconjuntivitis, blepharitis, episcleritis, scleritis, inflammation of injuries and eye surgeries, sympathetic ophthalmia.
Dosage and administration
The dosing regimen is individual. Orally for severe disease at the beginning of treatment it is prescribed to 10-15 mg / day, maintenance dose may be 2-4.5 mg / day or more. The daily dose divided into 2-3 doses. In small doses Dexamethasone is taken 1 time in the morning.
For parenteral administration this medication is administered IV slowly bolus or infusion (acute and urgent conditions); IM; it is possible also periarticular and intraarticular injection. During the day it can be administered from 4 to 20 mg of Dexamethasone 3-4 times / day. The duration of parenteral administration is usually 3-4 days, then move on to maintenance therapy of oral form. In the acute period in various diseases and early treatment Dexamethasone used in higher doses. Upon reaching the effect the dose is decreased within a few days before reaching the maintenance dose or until discontinuation of treatment.
When used in ophthalmology for acute conditions this drug instilled into conjunctival sac 1-2 drops every 1-2 hours, then with a decrease in inflammation after every 4-6 hours. The duration of treatment is from 1-2 days to several weeks depending on the clinical course of disease.
Dexamethasone side effects, adverse reactions
Endocrine system: impaired glucose tolerance, steroid diabetes mellitus or manifestation of latent diabetes mellitus, suppression of adrenal function, Itsenko-Cushing syndrome, delayed sexual development in children.
Metabolism: increased excretion of calcium, hypocalcemia, weight gain, negative nitrogen balance (increased protein breakdown), increased sweating, hypernatremia, hypokalemia.
CNS: delirium, disorientation, euphoria, hallucinations, manic-depressive psychosis, depression, paranoia, increased intracranial pressure, nervousness or anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, vertigo, pseudotumor cerebellum, headache, convulsions.
Cardio-vascular system: arrhythmia, bradycardia (up to cardiac arrest); development (in predisposed patients) or increased severity of chronic heart failure, ECG changes typical of hypokalemia, increased blood pressure, hypercoagulability, thrombosis. In patients with acute and subacute myocardial infarction - spread necrosis, slowing the formation of scar tissue that can lead to rupture of the heart muscle; with intracranial introduction - nosebleeds.
Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, pancreatitis, steroid gastric and duodenal ulcers, erosive esophagitis, bleeding and perforation of the gastrointestinal tract, increase or decrease in appetite, flatulence, hiccups; rarely - increased activity of hepatic transaminases and alkaline phosphatase.
Sensory organs: posterior subcapsular cataracts, increased intraocular pressure with possible damage to the optic nerve, propensity to develop secondary bacterial, fungal or viral infections of the eye, trophic changes of the cornea, exophthalmos.
Musculoskeletal system: growth retardation and ossification processes in children (premature closure of epiphyseal growth zones), osteoporosis (very rare - a pathological bone fractures, aseptic necrosis of head of humerus and femur), rupture of tendons of muscles, steroid myopathy, reduced muscle mass (atrophy).
Dermatological reactions: delayed wound healing, petechiae, ecchymosis, skin thinning, hyper or hypopigmentation, steroid acne, stretch marks, susceptibility to the development of pyoderma and candidiasis.
Allergic reactions: generalized (including skin rash, itching, anaphylactic shock) and when applied topically.
Effects associated with immunosuppressive action: development or worsening of infection (the appearance of this side effect contribute jointly used immunosuppressive drugs, and vaccinations).
Local reactions: when Dexamethasone administered parenteral - tissue necrosis.
For external use: rarely - itching, redness, burning, dryness, folliculitis, acne, hypopigmentation, perioral dermatitis, allergic dermatitis, maceration of the skin, secondary infection, skin atrophy, striae, miliaria. With prolonged use or application to large areas of skin may develop systemic side effects characteristic of SCS.
For short-term use for health reasons - increased sensitivity to Dexamethasone.
For intra-articular injection and injection directly into the lesion: previous arthroplasty, abnormal bleeding (endogenous or caused by the use of anticoagulants), intra-articular fracture, infection (sepsis) inflammation in the joints and periarticular infections (including in history), as well as general infectious disease, pronounced juxta-articular osteoporosis, no signs of inflammation in the joints ("dry" joint, such as osteoarthritis without synovitis), severe bone destruction and deformity of the joint (a sharp narrowing of joint space, ankylosis), instability of the joint as a result of arthritis, aseptic necrosis of the epiphyses of bones forming the joint.
For external use: bacterial, viral, fungal skin diseases, tuberculosis, skin, cutaneous manifestations of syphilis, skin tumors, post-vaccination period, violation of the integrity of the skin (ulcers, wounds), children's age (up to 2 years, with itching in the anal area - up to 12 years), rosacea, acne vulgaris, perioral dermatitis.
For use in ophthalmology: bacterial, viral, fungal eye diseases, tuberculosis eye damage, tampering with the ocular epithelium, acute form of purulent eye infection in the absence of specific therapy, diseases of the cornea, combined with defects in the epithelium, trachoma, glaucoma.
Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding
During pregnancy and lactating Dexamethasone is used taking into account the expected therapeutic effect and adverse effect on the fetus. Long-term therapy during pregnancy does not exclude the possibility of violations of fetal growth. In the case of the end of pregnancy there is a danger of atrophy of the adrenal cortex of the fetus, which may require replacement therapy in the newborn.
Category effects on the fetus by FDA - C.
Dexamethasone in case of emergency / overdose
Symptoms: increased side effects.
Treatment: the development of adverse reactions - symptomatic therapy, the Itsenko-Cushing syndrome - the prescription of aminoglutethimide.
Dexamethasone pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Dexamethasone available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Dexamethasone destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Dexamethasone Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Dexamethasone pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Dexamethasone?
Depending on the reaction of the Dexamethasone after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Dexamethasone not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Dexamethasone addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
Reviewsdrugs.com conducted a study on Dexamethasone, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Dexamethasone consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
Visitor reported usefulNo survey data has been collected yet
One visitor reported side effectsDid you get side effects while taking the Dexamethasone drug, or were there no side effects?
According to the survey conducted by website sdrugs.com users, the below-mentioned percentages indicate the number of people experiencing the side effects and the number of people not experiencing the side effects when taking Dexamethasone medicine. Every drug produces minimal side effects, and they are negligible most times, when compared to the desired effect [use] of the medicine. Side effects depend on the dose you are taking, any drug interactions that happen when you are on other medications, if the patient is sensitive, and other associated conditions. If you cannot tolerate the side effects, consult your doctor immediately, so he can either adjust the dose or change the medication.
One visitor reported price estimatesWhat is your opinion about drug cost? Did you feel the cost is apt, or did you feel it is expensive?
The report given by the sdrugs.com website users shows the following figures about several people who felt the medicine Dexamethasone is expensive, and the medicine is not expensive. The results are mixed. The perception of the cost of the medicine to be expensive or not depends on the brand name of the medicine, country, and place where it is sold, and the affordability of the patient. You can choose a generic drug in the place of the branded drug to save the cost. The efficiency of the medicine will not vary if it is generic or a branded one.
Visitor reported frequency of useNo survey data has been collected yet
Four visitors reported dosesWhat is the dose of Dexamethasone drug you are taking?
According to the survey conducted among sdrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 1-5mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
One visitor reported time for resultsWhat is the time duration Dexamethasone drug must be taken for it to be effective or for it to reduce the symptoms?
Most chronic conditions need at least some time so the dose and the drug action gets adjusted to the body to get the desired effect. The stastistics say sdrugs.com website users needed 5 days to notice the result from using Dexamethasone drug. The time needed to show improvement in health condition after using the medicine Dexamethasone need not be same for all the users. It varies based on other factors.
Visitor reported administrationNo survey data has been collected yet
Three visitors reported age
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology