DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
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Crisinor (auranofin) is indicated in the management of adults with active classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis (ARA criteria) who have had an insufficient therapeutic response to, or are intolerant of, an adequate trial of full doses of one or more nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Crisinor should be added to a comprehensive baseline program, including non-drug therapies.
Unlike anti-inflammatory drugs, Crisinor does not produce an immediate response. Therapeutic effects may be seen after three to four months of treatment, although improvement has not been seen in some patients before six months.
When cartilage and bone damage has already occurred, gold cannot reverse structural damage to joints caused by previous disease. The greatest potential benefit occurs in patients with active synovitis, particularly in its early stage.
In controlled clinical trials comparing Crisinor with injectable gold, Crisinor was associated with fewer dropouts due to adverse reactions, while injectable gold was associated with fewer dropouts for inadequate or poor therapeutic effect. Physicians should consider these findings when deciding on the use of Crisinor in patients who are candidates for chrysotherapy.
Crisinor (auranofin) is contraindicated in patients with a history of any of the following gold-induced disorders: anaphylactic reactions, necrotizing enterocolitis, pulmonary fibrosis, exfoliative dermatitis, bone marrow aplasia or other severe hematologic disorders.
Danger signs of possible gold toxicity include fall in hemoglobin, leukopenia below 4,000 WBC/cu mm, granulocytes below 1,500/cu mm, decrease in platelets below 150,000/cu mm, proteinuria, hematuria, pruritus, rash, stomatitis or persistent diarrhea.
Thrombocytopenia has occurred in 1–3% of patients treated with Crisinor (auranofin), some of whom developed bleeding. The thrombocytopenia usually appears to be peripheral in origin and is usually reversible upon withdrawal of Crisinor. Its onset bears no relationship to the duration of Crisinor therapy and its course may be rapid. While patients' platelet counts should normally be monitored at least monthly, the occurrence of a precipitous decline in platelets or a platelet count less than 100,000/cu mm or signs and symptoms (e.g., purpura, ecchymoses or petechiae) suggestive of thrombocytopenia indicates a need to immediately withdraw Crisinor and other therapies with the potential to cause thrombocytopenia, and to obtain additional platelet counts. No additional Crisinor should be given unless the thrombocytopenia resolves and further studies show it was not due to gold therapy.
Proteinuria has developed in 3-9% of patients treated with Crisinor. If clinically significant proteinuria or microscopic hematuria is found, Crisinor and other therapies with the potential to cause proteinuria or microscopic hematuria should be stopped immediately.
General: The safety of concomitant use of Crisinor (auranofin) with injectable gold, hydroxychloroquine, penicillamine, immunosuppressive agents (e.g., cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, or methotrexate) or high doses of corticosteroids has not been established.
Medical problems that might affect the signs or symptoms used to detect Crisinor toxicity should be under control before starting Crisinor (auranofin).
The potential benefits of using Crisinor in patients with progressive renal disease, significant hepatocellular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, skin rash or history of bone marrow depression should be weighed against 1) the potential risks of gold toxicity on organ systems previously compromised or with decreased reserve, and 2) the difficulty in quickly detecting and correctly attributing the toxic effect.
The following adverse reactions have been reported with the use of gold preparations and require modification of Crisinor treatment or additional monitoring. See ADVERSE REACTIONS for the approximate incidence of those reactions specifically reported with Crisinor.
Gastrointestinal Reactions: Gastrointestinal reactions reported with gold therapy include diarrhea/loose stools, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and abdominal cramps. The most common reaction to Crisinor is diarrhea/ loose stools reported in approximately 50% of the patients. This is generally manageable by reducing the dosage (e.g., from 6 mg daily to 3 mg) and in only 6% of the patients is it necessary to discontinue Crisinor (auranofin) permanently. Ulcerative enterocolitis is a rare serious gold reaction. Therefore, patients with gastrointestinal symptoms should be monitored for the appearance of gastrointestinal bleeding.
Cutaneous Reactions: Dermatitis is the most common reaction to injectable gold therapy and the second most common reaction to Crisinor. Any eruption, especially if pruritic, that develops during treatment should be considered a gold reaction until proven otherwise. Pruritus often exists before dermatitis becomes apparent, and therefore should be considered to be a warning signal of a cutaneous reaction. Gold dermatitis may be aggravated by exposure to sunlight or an actinic rash may develop. The most serious form of cutaneous reaction reported with injectable gold is generalized exfoliative dermatitis.
Mucous Membrane Reactions: Stomatitis, another common gold reaction, may be manifested by shallow ulcers on the buccal membranes, on the borders of the tongue, and on the palate or in the pharynx. Stomatitis may occur as the only adverse reaction or with a dermatitis. Sometimes diffuse glossitis or gingivitis develops. A metallic taste may precede these oral mucous membrane reactions and should be considered a warning signal.
Renal Reactions: Gold can produce a nephrotic syndrome or glomerulitis with proteinuria and hematuria. These renal reactions are usually relatively mild and subside completely if recognized early and treatment is discontinued. They may become severe and chronic if treatment is continued after the onset of the reaction. Therefore it is important to perform urinalyses regularly and to discontinue treatment promptly if proteinuria or hematuria develops.
Hematologic Reactions: Blood dyscrasias including leukopenia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and aplastic anemia have all been reported as reactions to injectable gold and Crisinor. These reactions may occur separately or in combination at anytime during treatment. Because they have potentially serious consequences, blood dyscrasias should be constantly watched for through regular monitoring (at least monthly) of the formed elements of the blood throughout treatment.
Miscellaneous Reactions: Rare reactions attributed to gold include cholestatic jaundice; gold bronchitis and interstitial pneumonitis and fibrosis; peripheral neuropathy; partial or complete hair loss; fever.
Information for Patients: Patients should be advised of the possibility of toxicity from Crisinor and of the signs and symptoms that they should report promptly. (Patient information sheets are available.)
Women of childbearing potential should be warned of the potential risks of Crisinor therapy during pregnancy.
Laboratory Tests: CBC with differential, platelet count, urinalysis, and renal and liver function tests should be performed prior to Crisinor (auranofin) therapy to establish a baseline and to identify any preexisting conditions.
CBC with differential, platelet count and urinalysis should then be monitored at least monthly; other parameters should be monitored as appropriate.
Drug Interactions: In a single patient-report, there is the suggestion that concurrent administration of Crisinor and phenytoin may have increased phenytoin blood levels.
Carcinogenesis/Mutagenesis: In a 24-month study in rats, animals treated with Crisinor at 0.4, 1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg/day orally (3, 8 or 21 times the human dose) or gold sodium thiomalate at 2 or 6 mg/kg injected twice weekly (4 or 12 times the human dose) were compared to untreated control animals.
There was a significant increase in the frequency of renal tubular cell karyomegaly and cytomegaly and renal adenoma in the animals treated with 1.0 or 2.5 mg/kg/day of Crisinor and 2 or 6 mg/kg twice weekly of gold sodium thiomalate. Malignant renal epithelial tumors were seen in the 1.0 mg/kg/day and the 2.5 mg/kg/day Crisinor and in the 6 mg/kg twice weekly gold sodium thiomalate–treated animals.
In a 12-month study, rats treated with Crisinor at 23 mg/kg/day (192 times the human dose) developed tumors of the renal tubular epithelium, whereas those treated with 3.6 mg/ kg/day (30 times the human dose) did not.
In an 18-month study in mice given oral Crisinor at doses of 1, 3 and 9 mg/kg/day (8, 24 and 72 times the human dose), there was no statistically significant increase above controls in the instances of tumors.
In the mouse lymphoma forward mutation assay, Crisinor at high concentrations (313 to 700 ng/mL) induced increases in the mutation frequencies in the presence of a rat liver microsomal preparation. Crisinor produced no mutation effects in the Ames test (Salmonella), in the in vitro assay (Forward and Reverse Mutation Inducement Assay with Saccharomyces), in the in vitro transformation of BALB/T3 cell mouse assay or in the Dominant Lethal Assay.
Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects- Pregnancy Category C. Use of Crisinor (auranofin) by pregnant women is not recommended. Furthermore, women of childbearing potential should be warned of the potential risks of Crisinor therapy during pregnancy.
Pregnant rabbits given Crisinor at doses of 0.5, 3 or 6 mg/kg/day (4.2 to 50 times the human dose) had impaired food intake, decreased maternal weights, decreased fetal weights and an increase above controls in the incidence of resorptions, abortions and congenital abnormalities, mainly abdominal defects such as gastroschisis and umbilical hernia. Pregnant rats given Crisinor at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day (42 times the human dose) had an increase above controls in the incidence of resorptions and a decrease in litter size and weight linked to maternal toxicity. No such effects were found in rats given 2.5 mg/kg/day (21 times the human dose).
Pregnant mice given Crisinor at a dose of 5 mg/kg/day (42 times the human dose) had no teratogenic effects.
There are no adequate and well-controlled Crisinor studies in pregnant women.
Nursing Mothers: Nursing during Crisinor therapy is not recommended.
Following Crisinor administration to rats and mice, gold is excreted in milk. Following the administration of injectable gold, gold appears in the milk of nursing women; human data on Crisinor are not available.
Pediatric Use: Crisinor (auranofin) is not recommended for use in pediatric patients because its safety and effectiveness have not been established.
The adverse reactions incidences listed below are based on observations of 1) 4,784 Crisinor treated patients in clinical trials, of whom 2,729 were treated more than one year and 573 for more than three years; and 2) postmarketing experience. The highest incidence is during the first six months of treatment; however, reactions can occur after many months of therapy. With rare exceptions, all patients were on concomitant nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory therapy; some of them were also taking low dosages of corticosteroids.
Gastrointestinal: loose stools or diarrhea (47%); abdominal pain (14%); nausea with or without vomiting (10%); constipation; anorexia*; flatulence*; dyspepsia*; dysgeusia.
Dermatological: rash (24%); pruritus (17%); hair loss; urticaria.
Mucous Membrane: stomatitis (13%); conjunctivitis*; glossitis.
Hematological: anemia; leukopenia; thrombocytopenia; eosinophilia.
Renal: proteinuria*; hematuria.
Hepatic: elevated liver enzymes.
*Reactions marked with an asterisk occurred in 3-9% of the patients. The other reactions listed occurred in 1-3%.
Gastrointestinal: dysphagia; gastrointestinal bleeding†; melena†; positive stool for occult blood†; ulcerative enterocolitis.
Mucous Membrane: gingivitis†.
Hematological: aplastic anemia; neutropenia†; agranulocytosis; pure red cell aplasia; pancytopenia.
Respiratory: interstitial pneumonitis.
Neurological: peripheral neuropathy.
Ocular: gold deposits in the lens or cornea unassociated clinically with eye disorders or visual impairment.
† Reactions marked with a dagger occurred in 0.1-1% of the patients. The other reactions listed occurred in less than 0.1%.
Cutaneous Reactions: generalized exfoliative dermatitis.
|Injectable Gold |
The acute oral LD50 for Crisinor is 310 mg/kg in adult mice and 265 mg/ kg in adult rats. The minimum lethal dose in rats is 30 mg/kg.
In case of acute overdosage, immediate induction of emesis or gastric lavage and appropriate supportive therapy are recommended.
RIDAURA overdosage experience is limited. A 50-year-old female, previously on 6 mg Crisinor daily, took 27 mg (9 capsules) daily for 10 days and developed an encephalopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Crisinor was discontinued and she eventually recovered.
There has been no experience with treating Crisinor overdosage with modalities such as chelating agents. However, they have been used with injectable gold and may be considered for Crisinor overdosage.
Dosage: The usual adult dosage of Crisinor is 6 mg daily, given either as 3 mg twice daily or 6 mg once daily. Initiation of therapy at dosages exceeding 6 mg daily is not recommended because it is associated with an increased incidence of diarrhea. If response is inadequate after six months, an increase to 9 mg (3 mg three times daily) may be tolerated. If response remains inadequate after a three-month trial of 9 mg daily, Crisinor therapy should be discontinued. Safety at dosages exceeding 9 mg daily has not been studied.
In controlled clinical studies, patients on injectable gold have been transferred to Crisinor (auranofin) by discontinuing the injectable agent and starting oral therapy with Crisinor, 6 mg daily. When patients are transferred to Crisinor, they should be informed of its adverse reaction profile, in particular the gastrointestinal reactions. At six months, control of disease activity of patients transferred to Crisinor and those maintained on the injectable agent was not different. Data beyond six months are not available.
Capsules, containing 3 mg Crisinor, in bottles of 60.
Store between 15° and 30°C (59° and 86°F). Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container.
REVISED January 2011
©2007 Prometheus Laboratories Inc.
All rights reserved.
Crisinor is a registered trademark of Prometheus Laboratories Inc.
Prometheus Laboratories Inc.
San Diego, CA 92121-4203
Principal Display Panel – 3 mg Bottle Label
3 mg NDC 65483-093-06
Depending on the reaction of the Crisinor after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Crisinor not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Crisinor addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
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The information was verified by Dr. Rachana Salvi, MD Pharmacology