DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS
INDICATIONS AND USAGECoviogal is indicated in the management of hypertension. It may be used alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents.
CONTRAINDICATIONSCoviogal is contraindicated in patients with cardiogenic shock, overt cardiac failure, second or third degree AV block, and marked sinus bradycardia.
Cardiac FailureSympathetic stimulation is a vital component supporting circulatory function in the setting of congestive heart failure, and beta-blockade may result in further depression of myocardial contractility and precipitate more severe failure. In general, beta-blocking agents should be avoided in patients with overt congestive failure. However, in some patients with compensated cardiac failure it may be necessary to utilize them. In such a situation, they must be used cautiously.
In Patients Without a History of Cardiac FailureContinued depression of the myocardium with beta-blockers can, in some patients, precipitate cardiac failure. At the first signs or symptoms of heart failure, discontinuation of Coviogal should be considered. In some cases, beta-blocker therapy can be continued while heart failure is treated with other drugs.
Abrupt Cessation of TherapyExacerbation of angina pectoris, and, in some instances, myocardial infarction or ventricular arrhythmia, have been observed in patients with coronary artery disease following abrupt cessation of therapy with beta-blockers. Such patients should, therefore, be cautioned against interruption or discontinuation of therapy without the physician's advice. Even in patients without overt coronary artery disease, it may be advisable to taper therapy with Coviogal over approximately one week with the patient under careful observation. If withdrawal symptoms occur, Coviogal therapy should be reinstituted, at least temporarily.
Peripheral Vascular DiseaseBeta-blockers can precipitate or aggravate symptoms of arterial insufficiency in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Caution should be exercised in such individuals.
Bronchospastic DiseasePATIENTS WITH BRONCHOSPASTIC DISEASE SHOULD, IN GENERAL, NOT RECEIVE BETA-BLOCKERS. Because of its relative beta1-selectivity, however, Coviogal may be used with caution in patients with bronchospastic disease who do not respond to, or who cannot tolerate other antihypertensive treatment. Since beta1-selectivity is not absolute, the lowest possible dose of Coviogal should be used, with therapy starting at 2.5 mg. A beta2 agonist should be made available.
Major SurgeryChronically administered beta-blocking therapy should not be routinely withdrawn prior to major surgery; however, the impaired ability of the heart to respond to reflex adrenergic stimuli may augment the risk of general anesthesia and surgical procedures.
Diabetes and HypoglycemiaBeta-blockers may mask some of the manifestations of hypoglycemia, particularly tachycardia. Nonselective beta-blockers may potentiate insulin-induced hypoglycemia and delay recovery of serum glucose levels. Because of its beta1-selectivity, this is less likely with Coviogal. However, patients subject to spontaneous hypoglycemia, or diabetic patients receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, should be cautioned about these possibilities and Coviogal should be used with caution.
ThyrotoxicosisBeta-adrenergic blockade may mask clinical signs of hyperthyroidism, such as tachycardia. Abrupt withdrawal of beta-blockade may be followed by an exacerbation of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism or may precipitate thyroid storm.
Impaired Renal or Hepatic FunctionUse caution in adjusting the dose of Coviogal in patients with renal or hepatic impairment.
Drug InteractionsCoviogal should not be combined with other beta-blocking agents. Patients receiving catecholamine-depleting drugs, such as reserpine or guanethidine, should be closely monitored, because the added beta-adrenergic blocking action of Coviogal may produce excessive reduction of sympathetic activity. In patients receiving concurrent therapy with clonidine, if therapy is to be discontinued, it is suggested that Coviogal be discontinued for several days before the withdrawal of clonidine.
Coviogal should be used with care when myocardial depressants or inhibitors of AV conduction, such as certain calcium antagonists (particularly of the phenylalkylamine [verapamil] and benzothiazepine [diltiazem] classes), or antiarrhythmic agents, such as disopyramide, are used concurrently.
Both digitalis glycosides and beta-blockers slow atrioventricular conduction and decrease heart rate. Concomitant use can increase the risk of bradycardia.
Concurrent use of rifampin increases the metabolic clearance of Coviogal, resulting in a shortened elimination half-life of Coviogal. However, initial dose modification is generally not necessary. Pharmacokinetic studies document no clinically relevant interactions with other agents given concomitantly, including thiazide diuretics and cimetidine. There was no effect of Coviogal on prothrombin time in patients on stable doses of warfarin.
Risk of Anaphylactic Reaction: While taking beta-blockers, patients with a history of severe anaphylactic reaction to a variety of allergens may be more reactive to repeated challenge, either accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic. Such patients may be unresponsive to the usual doses of epinephrine used to treat allergic reactions.
Information for PatientsPatients, especially those with coronary artery disease, should be warned about discontinuing use of Coviogal without a physician's supervision. Patients should also be advised to consult a physician if any difficulty in breathing occurs, or if they develop signs or symptoms of congestive heart failure or excessive bradycardia.
Patients subject to spontaneous hypoglycemia, or diabetic patients receiving insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents, should be cautioned that beta-blockers may mask some of the manifestations of hypoglycemia, particularly tachycardia, and Coviogal should be used with caution.
Patients should know how they react to this medicine before they operate automobiles and machinery or engage in other tasks requiring alertness.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of FertilityLong-term studies were conducted with oral Coviogal administered in the feed of mice and rats (26 months). No evidence of carcinogenic potential was seen in mice dosed up to 250 mg/kg/day or rats dosed up to 125 mg/kg/day. On a body weight basis, these doses are 625 and 312 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 20 mg, (or 0.4 mg/kg/day based on a 50 kg individual); on a body surface area basis, these doses are 59 times (mice) and 64 times (rats) the MRHD. The mutagenic potential of Coviogal was evaluated in the microbial mutagenicity (Ames) test, the point mutation and chromosome aberration assays in Chinese hamster V79 cells, the unscheduled DNA synthesis test, the micronucleus test in mice, and the cytogenetics assay in rats. There was no evidence of mutagenic potential in these in vitro and in vivo assays.
Reproduction studies in rats did not show any impairment of fertility at doses up to 150 mg/kg/day of Coviogal, or 375 and 77 times the MRHD on the basis of body weight and body surface area, respectively.
Pregnancy Category CIn rats, Coviogal was not teratogenic at doses up to 150 mg/kg/day which is 375 and 77 times the MRHD on the basis of body weight and body surface area, respectively. Coviogal was fetotoxic (increased late resorptions) at 50 mg/kg/day and maternotoxic (decreased food intake and body weight gain) at 150 mg/kg/day. The fetotoxicity in rats occurred at 125 times the MRHD on a body weight basis and 26 times the MRHD on the basis of body surface area. The maternotoxicity occurred at 375 times the MRHD on a body weight basis and 77 times the MRHD on the basis of body surface area. In rabbits, Coviogal was not teratogenic at doses up to 12.5 mg/kg/day, which is 31 and 12 times the MRHD based on body weight and body surface area, respectively, but was embryolethal (increased early resorptions) at 12.5 mg/kg/day.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Coviogal should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Nursing MothersSmall amounts of Coviogal have been detected in the milk of lactating rats. It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk caution should be exercised when Coviogal is administered to nursing women.
Pediatric UseSafety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Geriatric UseCoviogal has been used in elderly patients with hypertension. Response rates and mean decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar to the decreases in younger patients in the U.S. clinical studies. Although no dose response study was conducted in elderly patients, there was a tendency for older patients to be maintained on higher doses of Coviogal.
Observed reductions in heart rate were slightly greater in the elderly than in the young and tended to increase with increasing dose. In general, no disparity in adverse experience reports or dropouts for safety reasons was observed between older and younger patients. Dose adjustment based on age is not necessary.
ADVERSE REACTIONSSafety data are available in more than 30,000 patients or volunteers. Frequency estimates and rates of withdrawal of therapy for adverse events were derived from two U.S. placebo-controlled studies.
In Study A, doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg Coviogal were administered for 4 weeks. In Study B, doses of 2.5, 10, and 40 mg of Coviogal were administered for 12 weeks. A total of 273 patients were treated with 5 to 20 mg of Coviogal; 132 received placebo.
Withdrawal of therapy for adverse events was 3.3% for patients receiving Coviogal and 6.8% for patients on placebo. Withdrawals were less than 1% for either bradycardia or fatigue/lack of energy.
The following table presents adverse experiences, whether or not considered drug related, reported in at least 1% of patients in these studies, for all patients studied in placebo-controlled clinical trials, as well as for a subgroup that was treated with doses within the recommended dosage range (5 to 20 mg). Of the adverse events listed in the table, bradycardia, diarrhea, asthenia, fatigue, and sinusitis appear to be dose related.
Central Nervous SystemDizziness, unsteadiness, vertigo, syncope, headache, paresthesia, hypoesthesia, hyperesthesia, somnolence, sleep disturbances, anxiety/restlessness, decreased concentration/memory.
Autonomic Nervous SystemDry mouth
CardiovascularBradycardia, palpitations and other rhythm disturbances, cold extremities, claudication, hypotension, orthostatic hypotension, chest pain, congestive heart failure, dyspnea on exertion
PsychiatricVivid dreams, insomnia, depression.
GastrointestinalGastric/epigastric/abdominal pain, gastritis, dyspepsia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, peptic ulcer
MusculoskeletalMuscle/joint pain, arthralgia, back/neck pain, muscle cramps, twitching/tremor.
SkinRash, acne, eczema, psoriasis, skin irritation, pruritus, flushing, sweating, alopecia, dermatitis, angioedema, exfoliative dermatitis, cutaneous vasculitis
Special SensesVisual disturbances, ocular pain/pressure, abnormal lacrimation, tinnitus, decreased hearing, earache, taste abnormalities.
RespiratoryAsthma/bronchospasm, bronchitis, coughing, dyspnea, pharyngitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, URI.
GenitourinaryDecreased libido/impotence, Peyronie's disease, cystitis, renal colic, polyuria.
GeneralFatigue, asthenia, chest pain, malaise, edema, weight gain, angioedema.
In addition, a variety of adverse effects have been reported with other beta-adrenergic blocking agents and should be considered potential adverse effects of Coviogal:
Central Nervous System
Reversible mental depression progressing to catatonia, hallucinations, an acute reversible syndrome characterized by disorientation to time and place, emotional lability, slightly clouded sensorium.
Fever, combined with aching and sore throat, laryngospasm, respiratory distress.
Agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, thrombocytopenic purpura.
Mesenteric arterial thrombosis, ischemic colitis.
The oculomucocutaneous syndrome associated with the beta-blocker practolol has not been reported with Coviogal during investigational use or extensive foreign marketing experience.
Laboratory AbnormalitiesIn clinical trials, the most frequently reported laboratory change was an increase in serum triglycerides, but this was not a consistent finding.
Sporadic liver test abnormalities have been reported. In the U.S. controlled trials experience with Coviogal treatment for 4-12 weeks, the incidence of concomitant elevations in SGOT and SGPT from 1 to 2 times normal was 3.9%, compared to 2.5% for placebo. No patient had concomitant elevations greater than twice normal.
In the long-term, uncontrolled experience with Coviogal treatment for 6-18 months, the incidence of one or more concomitant elevations in SGOT and SGPT from 1 to 2 times normal was 6.2%. The incidence of multiple occurrences was 1.9%. For concomitant elevations in SGOT and SGPT of greater than twice normal, the incidence was 1.5%. The incidence of multiple occurrences was 0.3%. In many cases these elevations were attributed to underlying disorders, or resolved during continued treatment with Coviogal.
Other laboratory changes included small increases in uric acid, creatinine, BUN, serum potassium, glucose, and phosphorus and decreases in WBC and platelets. These were generally not of clinical importance and rarely resulted in discontinuation of Coviogal.
As with other beta-blockers, ANA conversions have also been reported on Coviogal. About 15% of patients in long-term studies converted to a positive titer, although about one-third of these patients subsequently reconverted to a negative titer while on continued therapy.
OVERDOSAGEThe most common signs expected with overdosage of a beta-blocker are bradycardia, hypotension, congestive heart failure, bronchospasm, and hypoglycemia. To date, a few cases of overdose (maximum: 2000 mg) with Coviogal have been reported. Bradycardia and/or hypotension were noted. Sympathomimetic agents were given in some cases, and all patients recovered.
In general, if overdose occurs, Coviogal therapy should be stopped and supportive and symptomatic treatment should be provided. Limited data suggest that Coviogal is not dialyzable. Based on the expected pharmacologic actions and recommendations for other beta-blockers, the following general measures should be considered when clinically warranted:
Administer IV atropine. If the response is inadequate, isoproterenol or another agent with positive chronotropic properties may be given cautiously. Under some circumstances, transvenous pacemaker insertion may be necessary.
IV fluids and vasopressors should be administered. Intravenous glucagon may be useful.
Heart Block (second or third degree)
Patients should be carefully monitored and treated with isoproterenol infusion or transvenous cardiac pacemaker insertion, as appropriate.
Congestive Heart Failure
Initiate conventional therapy (i.e., digitalis, diuretics, inotropic agents, vasodilating agents).
Administer bronchodilator therapy such as isoproterenol and/or aminophylline.
Administer IV glucose.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATIONThe dose of Coviogal must be individualized to the needs of the patient. The usual starting dose is 5 mg once daily. In some patients, 2.5 mg may be an appropriate starting dose. If the antihypertensive effect of 5 mg is inadequate, the dose may be increased to 10 mg and then, if necessary, to 20 mg once daily.
Patients with Renal or Hepatic ImpairmentIn patients with hepatic impairment (hepatitis or cirrhosis) or renal dysfunction (creatinine clearance less than 40 mL/min), the initial daily dose should be 2.5 mg and caution should be used in dose-titration. Since limited data suggest that Coviogal is not dialyzable, drug replacement is not necessary in patients undergoing dialysis.
Geriatric PatientsIt is not necessary to adjust the dose in the elderly, unless there is also significant renal or hepatic dysfunction .
Pediatric PatientsThere is no pediatric experience with Coviogal.
NDC: 63629-5173-1 30 TABLET in a BOTTLE
NDC: 63629-5173-2 100 TABLET in a BOTTLE
NDC: 63629-5173-3 90 TABLET in a BOTTLE
UNICHEM LABORATORIES LTD.
Pilerne Ind. Estate, Pilerne, Bardez,
Goa 403 511, India.
Hasbrouck Heights, NJ 07604.
Coviogal 5mg Tablet
Coviogal pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:
Active ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.
Coviogal available forms, composition, doses:
Form of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.
Coviogal destination | category:
Destination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.
Coviogal Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:
A medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.
Coviogal pharmaceutical companies:
Pharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.
Frequently asked QuestionsCan i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Coviogal?
Depending on the reaction of the Coviogal after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Coviogal not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.Is Coviogal addictive or habit forming?
Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.
Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.
ReviewsDrugs.com conducted a study on Coviogal, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Coviogal consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.
The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology