DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS

Cotrim D.S.

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Cotrim D.S. uses


Pharmacological action

Cotrim D.S. Pharmaniaga is a synthetic antimicrobial drug with broad spectrum bactericidal action. Cotrim D.S. has a bacteriostatic action, which is associated with inhibition of recycling process of PABA and a violation dihydrofolic acid's synthesis in bacterial cells. Trimethoprim inhibits the enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of folic acid converting dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate. Thus it is blocked two successive stages of the biosynthesis of purines and therefore nucleic acids that are essential for growth and reproduction of bacteria. High concentrations created in the tissues of the lung, kidney, prostate, cerebrospinal fluid, bile, bones.

Cotrim D.S. is active against gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. (including Streptococcus pneumoniae), Corynebacterium diphtheriae; gram-negative bacteria: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Escherichia coli, Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., Enterobacter spp., Klebsiella spp., Yersinia spp., Vibrio cholerae, Haemophilus influenzae; anaerobic asporogenous bacteria - Bacteroides spp. Cotrim D.S. is active also against Chlamydia spp.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Treponema spp., Mycoplasma spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis and also viruses and fungi are resistant to Cotrim D.S..

Pharmacokinetics

After oral administration Cotrim D.S. Pharmaniaga is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Meal slows their absorption. Widely distributed in tissues and body fluids. The binding of trimethoprim to plasma proteins is 50%, Cotrim D.S. - 66%. T1/2 of trimethoprim is 8.6-17 hours, Cotrim D.S. - 9-11 hours. Trimethoprim is excreted in the urine in unchanged form (50%) and as metabolites. Cotrim D.S. also excreted in the urine, mainly unchanged.

Why is Cotrim D.S. Pharmaniaga prescribed?

Infectious-inflammatory diseases caused by sensitive to Cotrim D.S. microorganisms: respiratory tract infections ; urinary tract infections (including gonococcal urethritis), cystitis, pyelonephritis, prostatitis; gastrointestinal infections (including enteritis, typhoid, paratyphoid, dysentery, cholecystitis, cholangitis); infections of skin and soft tissue (including pyoderma, furunculosis, wound infection), septicemia, brucellosis.

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Dosage and administration

Individual. Doses of Cotrim D.S. Pharmaniaga are given on the basis of Cotrim D.S.. For oral administration for adults and children older than 12 years the average dose is 0.4-2 g every 12 hours (2 times / day), course of treatment - 5-14 days. Orally for children aged 2-5 months - 100 mg 2 times / day; 1-2 years - 100 mg 2 times / day; 3-6 years - 200 mg 2 times / day; 6-12 years at 200-400 mg 2 times / day.

Parenterally administered only in the absence of the possibility of oral administration. IM for adults and children over 12 years - 800 mg every 12 hours; for children aged 6-12 years - 30 mg / kg / day, interval between each dose - 12 hours.

If necessary prescribed IV as drops at 0.8-1.6 g every 12 hours (2 times / day) within 5 days. For children aged 6-12 years are prescribed at 15 mg / kg every 12 hours. Average duration of Cotrim D.S. Pharmaniaga injection - 30-60 minutes but no more than 1.5 hours. The course of treatment is average 5 days, then if necessary go to oral administration. The maximum oral daily dose for adults is 3.6 g.

Cotrim D.S. Pharmaniaga side effects, adverse reactions

Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, pseudomembranous colitis, cholestatic hepatitis.

Allergic reactions: skin rash, angioedema, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Lyell's syndrome.

Hemopoietic system: leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis, megaloblastic anemia.

Urinary system: crystalluria, hematuria, interstitial nephritis.

Local reactions: phlebitis.

Other: purpura, impaired thyroid function.

Cotrim D.S. Pharmaniaga contraindications

Expressed disorders of liver and kidney function, blood diseases, deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pregnancy, lactation (breastfeeding), hypersensitivity to sulfonamides and trimethoprim.

Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

Sulfonamides and trimethoprim cross the placenta and excreted in breast milk. They can cause the development of kernicterus and hemolytic anemia in the fetus and newborn. In addition increases the risk of fatty liver in pregnant women. Therefore the use of Cotrim D.S. in pregnancy is contraindicated. If necessary using of Cotrim D.S. during lactation breastfeeding should be discontinued.

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Special instructions

With careful use of Cotrim D.S. in patients with a possible deficiency of folic acid, in allergic reactions in anamnesis, bronchial asthma, disorders of liver, kidney, thyroid gland. When long treatment should be systematically study the peripheral blood, the functional state of liver and kidney.

Elderly patients are recommended the appointment of additional folic acid. During Cotrim D.S. treatment should be ensured adequate water pressure.

If the kidney function disorders the dose should be reduced and the intervals between doses increased.

The risk of adverse reactions is increased in elderly patients and patients with AIDS.

When parenteral administration of Cotrim D.S. Pharmaniaga in patients with renal insufficiency should determine the concentration of Cotrim D.S. in blood plasma every 2-3 days before the regular IM injection. In concentration of 150 ug / ml the treatment should be discontinued until the concentration drops to 120 mcg / ml.

Cotrim D.S. Pharmaniaga drug interactions

With the simultaneous application of Cotrim D.S. effect of anticoagulants of indirect action is greatly enhanced due to slow inactivation of the latter, as well as their release from binding with plasma proteins.

In an application with some sulfonylureas may increase hypoglycemic effect which is associated with an increased concentration of free fraction of Cotrim D.S..

The simultaneous use of Cotrim D.S. and methotrexate may increase the toxicity of the latter (in particular to the appearance of pancytopenia) due to its release from binding to plasma proteins.

Influenced butadion, indomethacin, naproxen, salicylates and other NSAIDs may increase the action Cotrim D.S. with the development of undesirable effects, since there release of active substances from binding with blood proteins and increase their concentration.

Simultaneous treatment with diuretics and Cotrim D.S. increases the risk of thrombocytopenia caused by the latter especially in elderly patients.

In the case of co-administration chloridine with Cotrim D.S. Pharmaniaga antimicrobial effect is enhanced because chloridine inhibits the formation of tetrahydrofolic acid required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. In turn sulfonamides inhibit the formation of dihydrofolic acid, a precursor of tetrahydrofolic acid. This combination is widely used in the treatment of toxoplasmosis.

Absorption of Cotrim D.S. at their joint reception with cholestyramine decreases the formation of insoluble complexes, which leads to a decrease in their concentration in the blood.

Cotrim D.S. Pharmaniaga in case of emergency / overdose

Symptoms: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, weakness, abdominal pain, headache, drowsiness, hematuria and crystalluria.

Treatment: gastric lavage, fluid management, correction of electrolyte imbalance. If necessary - hemodialysis.

For chronic overdosage is characterized bone marrow suppression (pancytopenia). Treatment and prevention: the appointment of folic acid (5-15 mg daily).

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Cotrim D.S. pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

infoActive ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Cotrim D.S. available forms, composition, doses:

infoForm of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Cotrim D.S. destination | category:

infoDestination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Cotrim D.S. Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

infoA medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Cotrim D.S. pharmaceutical companies:

infoPharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."TRIMETHOPRIM TABLET [TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA, INC.]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."SULFAMETHOXAZOLE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. Dailymed."POLYMYXIN B SULFATE; TRIMETHOPRIM SULFATE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Cotrim D.S.?

Depending on the reaction of the Cotrim D.S. after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Cotrim D.S. not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Cotrim D.S. addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sDrugs.com conducted a study on Cotrim D.S., and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Cotrim D.S. consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

Visitor reports

One visitor reported useful

How is the drug Cotrim D.S. useful in reducing or relieving the symptoms? How useful is it?
According to the survey conducted by the website sDrugs.com, there are variable results and below are the percentages of the users that say the medicine is useful to them and that say it is not helping them much. It is not ideal to continue taking the medication if you feel it is not helping you much. Contact your healthcare provider to check if there is a need to change the medicine or if there is a need to re-evaluate your condition. The usefulness of the medicine may vary from patient to patient, depending on the other diseases he is suffering from and slightly depends on the brand name.
Visitors%
Useful1
100.0%

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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