DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS

Contramal

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Contramal uses


Pharmacological action

Contramal is an opioid analgesic, a derivative of cyclohexanol. It is non-selective agonist of mu-, delta- and kappa-receptors in the CNS. Tramadol is a racemate and (-) of isomers (50% / 50%) which in various ways are involved in analgesic effects. The isomer (+) is a pure agonist opioid receptors, it has low tropism and has a pronounced selectivity for different subtypes of receptors. The isomer (-) inhibiting neuronal capture of noradrenaline activates the descending noradrenergic influence. Thats why it is broken transmission of pain impulses in the gelatinous substance of spinal cord.

Contramal causes sedation. At therapeutic doses this medication almost not get respiratory depression. Tramadol has also an antitussive effect.

Pharmacokinetics

After oral administration Contramal quickly and almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (90%). Cmax in plasma obtained in 2 h after taking this medication. Bioavailability in single dose is 68% and increases with repeated use.

Plasma protein binding is 20%. Tramadol is widely distributed in tissues. Vd after oral administration and intravenous injection is 306 l and 203 l respectively. This drug crosses the placental barrier in a concentration equal to the concentration of the active substance in the plasma. 0.1% is excreted in breast milk.

Tramadol metabolised by demethylation and conjugation to 11 metabolites, of which only 1 is active.

This medicine excreted by the kidneys - 90% and through the intestines - 10%.

Why is Contramal prescribed?

Moderate and severe pain of various origins. Conducting painful diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.

Dosage and administration

A single oral dose for adults and children over 14 years is 50 mg, rectally - 100 mg, IV slowly or IM - 50-100 mg. If for parenteral injection efficiency is not enough, it is possible oral taking in a dose of 50 mg after 20-30 minutes.

For children aged 1 to 14 years set the dose rate of 1-2 mg / kg.

The duration of treatment is determined individually.

The maximum dose for adults and children over 14 years regardless of method of administration is 400 mg / day.

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Contramal side effects, adverse reactions

CNS: dizziness, weakness, drowsiness, confusion, and in some cases - seizures and convulsions of cerebral origin.

Cardio-vascular system: tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, collapse.

Digestive system: dry mouth, nausea, vomiting.

Metabolism: increased sweating.

Musculoskeletal system: miosis.

Contramal contraindications

  • acute intoxication with alcohol and drugs, providing a depressing effect on the CNS
  • children up to age 1 year
  • hypersensitivity to Contramal

    Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

    During pregnancy patients should avoid prolonged use of Contramal because the risk of addiction in the fetus and the occurrence of withdrawal in the neonatal period.

    If necessary using in lactation should be aware that tramadol in small amounts excreted in breast milk. In the case of long-term treatment can not been excluded the possibility of drug dependence.

    Contramal is not recommended for treatment of withdrawal syndrome drugs.

    Patients need to avoid combination with MAO inhibitors.

    During the period of treatment with Contramal you should avoid to take alcohol.

    Tramadol in the form of long-acting formulations should not be used in children under the age of 14 years.

    During the period of tramadol using is not recommended to engage in activities that require special attention, speed of psychomotor reactions.

    Special instructions

    With caution Contramal should be used in convulsions of central genesis of drug dependence, confusion, patients with impaired renal function and liver, as well as increased sensitivity to other opioid receptor agonists.

    Tramadol should not be used beyond the period justified from a therapeutic point of view.

    Contramal drug interactions

    Simultaneous administration of Contramal with:

  • drugs providing a depressing effect on the CNS or with ethanol may increase the CNS depressant effects of tramadol;
  • MAO inhibitors are likely development of serotonin syndrome;
  • serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, antipsychotics, other means of reducing the threshold of convulsive readiness, increases the risk of seizures;
  • warfarin and phenprocoumon increase anticoagulant effect;
  • carbamazepine reduced the concentration of tramadol in plasma and its analgesic effect;
  • paroxetine describes cases of serotonin syndrome, seizures;
  • sertraline, fluoxetine describes cases of serotonin syndrome;
  • opioid analgesics is likely to reduce the analgesic action. Prolonged use of opioid analgesics or barbiturates stimulates the development of cross-tolerance;
  • naloxone activates respiration, eliminating analgesia after opioid analgesics.

    Contramal in case of emergency / overdose

    Symptoms: respiratory depression, until apnea, seizures, Pupillary, anuria, coma.

    Treatment: IV injection of naloxone (a specific antagonist), gastric lavage, maintenance of vital functions.

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    Contramal pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

    infoActive ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


    Contramal available forms, composition, doses:

    infoForm of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
    Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
    Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


    Contramal destination | category:

    infoDestination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
    Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


    Contramal Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

    infoA medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


    Contramal pharmaceutical companies:

    infoPharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
    Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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    References

    1. Dailymed."TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE TABLET [LAKE ERIE MEDICAL DBA QUALITY CARE PRODUCTS LLC]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
    2. "Tramadol". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).
    3. "Tramadol". http://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB0019... (accessed August 28, 2018).

    Frequently asked Questions

    Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Contramal?

    Depending on the reaction of the Contramal after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Contramal not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

    Is Contramal addictive or habit forming?

    Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

    Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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    Review

    sDrugs.com conducted a study on Contramal, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Contramal consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

    Visitor reports

    One visitor reported useful

    How is the drug Contramal useful in reducing or relieving the symptoms? How useful is it?
    According to the survey conducted by the website sDrugs.com, there are variable results and below are the percentages of the users that say the medicine is useful to them and that say it is not helping them much. It is not ideal to continue taking the medication if you feel it is not helping you much. Contact your healthcare provider to check if there is a need to change the medicine or if there is a need to re-evaluate your condition. The usefulness of the medicine may vary from patient to patient, depending on the other diseases he is suffering from and slightly depends on the brand name.
    Visitors%
    Not useful1
    100.0%

    One visitor reported frequency of use

    How often in a day do you take the medicine?
    Are you taking the Contramal drug as prescribed by the doctor?

    Few medications can be taken Once in a day more than prescribed when the doctor's advice mentions the medicine can be taken according to frequency or severity of symptoms. Most times, be very careful and clear about the number of times you are taking the medication. The report of sDrugs.com website users about the frequency of taking the drug Contramal is mentioned below.
    Visitors%
    Once in a day1
    100.0%

    Four visitors reported doses

    What is the dose of Contramal drug you are taking?
    According to the survey conducted among sDrugs.com website users, the maximum number of people are using the following dose 51-100mg. Few medications come in only one or two doses. Few are specific for adult dose and child dose. The dose of the medicine given to the patient depends on the severity of the symptom/disease. There can be dose adjustments made by the doctor, based on the progression of the disease. Follow-up is important.
    Visitors%
    51-100mg2
    50.0%
    201-500mg1
    25.0%
    11-50mg1
    25.0%

    Three visitors reported age

    Visitors%
    30-451
    33.3%
    1-51
    33.3%
    16-291
    33.3%

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    The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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