DRUGS & SUPPLEMENTS

Codox

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Codox uses

Codox consists of Aspirin, Dihydrocodeine Tartrate.

Aspirin:


Pharmacological action

Codox is a NSAIDs. It has anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effect, and inhibits platelet aggregation. The mechanism of action is associated with inhibition of COX activity - the main enzyme metabolism of arachidonic acid which is a precursor of prostaglandins which play a major role in the pathogenesis of inflammation, pain and fever. Reduction of prostaglandins (mainly E1) in the thermoregulation center leads to a decrease in body temperature due to expansion of blood vessels of the skin and increase perspiration. Analgesic effect of Codox (Aspirin) is due to both central and peripheral effects. Reduces aggregation, platelet adhesion and thrombus formation through suppression of synthesis of thromboxane A2 in platelets.

Reduces mortality and risk of myocardial infarction in unstable stenocardia. It is effective in primary prevention of cardio-vascular system and secondary prevention of myocardial infarction. At a daily dose of 6 g or more inhibits the synthesis of prothrombin in the liver and increases the prothrombin time. Codox (Aspirin) increases fibrinolytic activity of plasma and reduces the concentration of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (II, VII, IX, X). Increases the rate of hemorrhagic complications in carrying out surgical procedures, increases the risk of bleeding during therapy with anticoagulants. It stimulates the excretion of uric acid (violating its reabsorption in the renal tubules) but in high doses. The blockade of COX-1 in the mucosa of the stomach leads to inhibition of gastroprotective prostaglandins, which may lead to ulceration of the mucous membrane and subsequent bleeding.

Pharmacokinetics

When administered orally Codox (Aspirin) is rapidly absorbed mainly from the proximal small intestine and to a lesser extent from the stomach. The presence of food in the stomach significantly affects the absorption of Codox (Aspirin).

Metabolised in the liver by hydrolysis with the formation of salicylic acid with subsequent conjugation with glycine or two drugs. The concentration of salicylates in blood plasma is variable.

About 80% of salicylic acid binds to plasma proteins. Salicylates easily penetrate into many tissues and body fluids, including the cerebrospinal, peritoneal and synovial fluid. In small quantities salicylates are found in brain tissue, traces - in bile, sweat and feces. Quickly penetrates the placental barrier in small amounts excreted in breast milk.

For newborns salicylates may displace bilirubin from its association with albumin and promote bilirubin encephalopathy.

Penetration into the joint cavity is accelerated in the presence of hyperemia and edema, and slows down in the proliferative phase of inflammation.

If you have acidosis most of salicylate becomes unionized acid, good penetration into the tissue, including in the brain.

Codox (Aspirin) withdraws mainly by active secretion in the tubules of the kidneys in unchanged form (60%) and in the form of metabolites. The withdraw of unchanged salicylate is dependent on the pH of urine (for alkalinization of urine increases ionized salicylates, worsening their reabsorption and increases excretion). T1/2 of Codox (Aspirin) is approximately 15 minutes. T1/2 of salicylate at a reception in low doses is 2-3 h, with an increase in dose may increase to 15-30 hours. Newborns' elimination of salicylate is much slower than in adults.

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Why is Codox prescribed?

Rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, infectious-allergic myocarditis, fever during infectious and inflammatory diseases, pain syndrome, weak and medium intensity of various origins (including neuralgia, myalgia, headache); based prevention of thrombosis and embolism, primary and secondary prevention of myocardial infarction, prevention of violations of cerebral circulation by ischemic type.

In the clinical immunology and allergy: a gradually increasing doses for a prolonged "aspirin" desensitization and the formation of stable tolerance to NSAIDs in patients with "aspirin asthma" and "aspirin triad."

Dosage and administration

Individual. For oral administration dosing of Codox regimen depends on indication for use. Usual adult dose when used as antipyretic and analgesic is 500-1000 mg / day (up to 3 g) were divided into 3 admission.

In myocardial infarction, as well as for secondary prevention in patients after myocardial infarction - 40-325 mg 1 time a day (usually 160 mg). As an inhibitor of platelet aggregation - a dose of 300-325 mg / day, for a long time. At the dynamic circulatory disorders in men, cerebral thromboembolism, including to prevent a recurrence - 325 mg / day with gradual increase to a maximum of 1 g / day. For prevention of thrombosis or occlusion of the aortic shunt - by 325 mg every 7 h after intranasal gastric tube set, and then - through the mouth to 325 mg 3 times a day (usually in combination with dipyridamole, which abolished after 1 week, continuing the long-term treatment with Codox (Aspirin)).

Codox (Aspirin) side effects, adverse reactions

Digestive system: nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, diarrhea; rarely - occurrence of erosive and ulcerative lesions, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, abnormal liver function.

Central nervous system: long-term use may be dizziness, headache, reversible visual disturbances, tinnitus, aseptic meningitis.

Hemopoietic system: rarely - thrombocytopenia, anemia.

Blood coagulation system: rarely - haemorrhagic syndrome, prolongation of bleeding time.

Urinary system: rarely - renal dysfunction, with prolonged use - acute kidney failure, nephrotic syndrome.

Allergic reactions: rarely - skin rash, Quincke's edema, bronchospasm, "aspirin triad" (a combination of bronchial asthma, recurrent nasal polyposis, and paranasal sinuses and intolerance of Codox (Aspirin) and medicines pirazolonic series).

Other: in some cases - Reye syndrome, long-term use - increased symptoms of chronic heart failure.

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Codox contraindications

Exacerbation phase of erosive-ulcerative lesions in the gastrointestinal tract, gastro-intestinal bleeding, "aspirin triad", a history of indications urticaria, rhinitis, caused by taking Codox (Aspirin) and other NSAIDs, hemophilia, hemorrhagic diathesis, gipoprotrombinemii, dissecting aneurysm of the aorta, portal hypertension, deficiency of vitamin K, liver and / or renal failure, deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, Reye syndrome, children's age (under 15 years - the risk of developing Reye syndrome in children with hyperthermia on a background of viral diseases), I and III trimester of pregnancy, lactation, hypersensitivity to Codox (Aspirin) and other salicylates.

Using during pregnancy and breastfeeding

Codox (acetylsalicylic acid) is contraindicated in I and III trimester of pregnancy. In pregnancy trimester II can a one-off reception on the strict condition.

This medication has a teratogenic effect: when used in the I trimester leads to top palatoschisis, in the III trimester - cause inhibition of labor (inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis), premature closure of the ductus arteriosus in the fetus, pulmonary vascular hyperplasia and hypertension in the pulmonary circulation.

Codox (Aspirin) (acetylsalicylic acid) is excreted in breast milk, which increases the risk of bleeding in a child due to dysfunction of platelets, and therefore should not be applied Codox (Aspirin) in the mother during lactation.

Special instructions

Codox (Aspirin) with caution used in patients with liver diseases and kidney, bronchial asthma, erosive and ulcerative lesions, and bleeding from the digestive tract in history, with increased bleeding or while holding anticoagulant therapy, decompensated congestive heart failure.

Codox (Aspirin) even in small doses reduces the excretion of uric acid from the organism that can cause an acute attack of gout in predisposed patients. When conducting long-term therapy and / or use of Codox (Aspirin) in high doses required medical supervision and regular monitoring of hemoglobin levels.

The use of Codox (Aspirin) as anti-inflammatory drugs in a daily dose of 5-8 g is limited due to the high probability of adverse effects from the gastrointestinal tract.

Before surgery to reduce bleeding during surgery and postoperative period should stop taking salicylates for 5-7 days.

During prolonged therapy is necessary to conduct a general analysis of blood and study of occult blood.

The use of Codox (Aspirin) is contraindicated in pediatrics, as in the case of viral infection in children under the influence of Codox (Aspirin) increases the risk of developing Reye syndrome. Symptoms of Reye syndrome are prolonged vomiting, acute encephalopathy, liver enlargement.

Duration of treatment (without consulting a doctor) with Codox (Aspirin) should not exceed 7 days when administered as analgesic and more than 3 days as an antipyretic.

During treatment the patient should abstain from alcohol.

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Precautionary measures

Undesirable combined use with other NSAIDs and glucocorticoids. For 5-7 days before surgery should stop taking.

The probability of NSAID-gastropathy decreases in the appointment after a meal, use of tablets with buffer additives or coated with a special enteric-soluble shell. The risk of hemorrhagic complications is minimal when used in doses less than 100 mg / day.

Note that in predisposed patients Codox (Aspirin) (even in small doses) reduces the excretion of uric acid from the body and can cause the development of acute attack of gout.

During prolonged therapy should regularly carry out the analysis of blood and to investigate faeces for occult blood. In connection with the observed cases hepatogenic encephalopathy is not recommended for relief of fever syndrome in children.

Codox (Aspirin) drug interactions

With simultaneous use of antacids containing magnesium and / or aluminum hydroxide, slow down and reduce the absorption of Codox (Aspirin).

With simultaneous use of calcium channel blockers, means limiting intake of calcium or increasing the excretion of calcium from the body, increases the risk of bleeding.

With simultaneous use with Codox (Aspirin) enhances the action of heparin and indirect anticoagulants, hypoglycemic funds derived sulfonylureas, insulin, methotrexate, phenytoin, valproic acid.

With simultaneous use of Codox (Aspirin) with SCS increases the risk of ulcerogenic effect and occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding.

With simultaneous use of decreasing the effectiveness of diuretics (spironolactone, furosemide).

With simultaneous use of other NSAIDs increases the risk of side effects. Codox (Aspirin) may reduce plasma concentrations indomethacin, piroxicam.

With simultaneous use of gold drugs Codox (Aspirin) can induce liver damage.

With simultaneous use decreases effectiveness of uricosuric medications (including probenecid, sulfinpirazon, benzbromarone).

With simultaneous use of Codox (Aspirin) and alendronate sodium may develop severe esophagitis.

With simultaneous use of griseofulvin may be in breach Absorption of Codox (Aspirin).

There is one case of spontaneous hemorrhage in the iris while taking Ginkgo Biloba extract on the background of prolonged use of Codox (Aspirin) in a dose of 325 mg / day. It is believed that this may be due to additive inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation.

With simultaneous use of dipyridamole may increase Cmax of salicylate in plasma and AUC.

When applied simultaneously with Codox (Aspirin) increased concentration of digoxin, barbiturates and lithium salts in the blood plasma.

With simultaneous use of salicylates in high doses with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors can intoxication salicylates.

Codox (Aspirin) in doses of less than 300 mg have little effect on the effectiveness of captopril and enalapril. When Codox (Aspirin) (acetylsalicylic acid) is admistered in high doses may decrease the effectiveness of captopril and enalapril.

With simultaneous application of caffeine increases the rate of absorption, plasma concentrations and bioavailability of Codox (Aspirin).

With simultaneous use of Codox (Aspirin) with metoprolol may increase Cmax of salicylate in blood plasma.

In the application of pentazocine on the background of long-term use of Codox (Aspirin) in high doses there is a risk of severe adverse reactions in the kidneys.

With simultaneous application phenylbutazone reduces uricosuria caused by Codox (Aspirin).

With simultaneous application of ethanol may exacerbate the effects of Codox (Aspirin) on the gastrointestinal tract.

Codox in case of emergency / overdose

May occur after receiving a single large dose or prolonged use. If a single dose of less than 150 mg / kg, acute poisoning feel light, 150-300 mg / kg - moderate, when using higher doses - heavy.

Symptoms: salicylism syndrome (nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, blurred vision, dizziness, severe headache, malaise, fever - a poor prognostic sign in adults). More severe poisoning - stupor, convulsions and coma, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, abrupt dehydration, violations ABE (initially - respiratory alkalosis, then - metabolic acidosis), renal failure and shock.

In chronic overdose concentration determined in plasma are poorly correlated with the severity of intoxication. The greatest risk of chronic intoxication is found among elderly people at reception for a few days more than 100 mg / kg / day. In children and elderly patients the initial signs of salicylism are not always visible, and therefore desirable to periodically determine the concentration of salicylates in the blood. Level above 70 mg% indicates moderate or severe poisoning; above 100 mg% - on extremely heavy, a poor prognosis. If poisoning moderate require hospitalization for at least 24 hours.

Treatment: the provocation of vomiting, the appointment of activated charcoal and laxatives, monitoring ABE and electrolyte balance, depending on the state of metabolism - the introduction of sodium bicarbonate, solution of sodium citrate or sodium lactate. Raising reserve alkalinity increases the excretion of Codox (Aspirin) by alkalinization of urine. Alkalinization of urine is shown at the level of salicylates above 40 mg%, is provided in / by infusion of sodium bicarbonate - 88 mEq in 1 liter of 5% glucose solution, the rate of 10-15 ml / kg / h. Restoring BCC and induction of diuresis (achieved by introducing a bicarbonate in the same dose and dilution, repeat 2-3 times); should be aware that intense infusion fluid elderly patients may lead to pulmonary edema. Not recommended the use of acetazolamide for alkalinization of urine (may cause acidemia and enhance the toxic effect of salicylates). Hemodialysis is shown at the level of salicylates over 100-130 mg%, and in patients with chronic poisoning - 40 mg% or lower in the presence of witnesses (refractory acidosis, progressive deterioration, severe damage of the CNS, pulmonary edema and renal failure). When pulmonary edema - a mixture of artificial ventilation, oxygen enriched, in the mode of positive end-expiratory pressure, to treat cerebral edema apply hyperventilation and osmotic diuresis.

Dihydrocodeine Tartrate:


DESCRIPTION

Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablets are supplied in tablet form for oral administration.

Each tablet contains:

Acetaminophenִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִ712.8 mg

Caffeineִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִ60 mg

Dihydrocodeine* bitartrateִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִ32 mg

*Warning: May be habit forming

Acetaminophen (4'-hydroxyacetanilide), a slightly bitter, white, odorless, crystalline powder, is a non-opiate, non-salicylate analgesic and antipyretic.

It has the following structural formula:

Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a bitter, white crystalline powder, is a central nervous system stimulant. It has the following structural formula:

Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) Bitartrate (4,5a-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmDihydrocodeine Bitartrate (4,5a-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmDihydrocodeine Bitartrate (4,5a-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmDihydrocodeine Bitartrate (4,5a-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6a-ol (+)-tartrate), an odorless, fine white powder is an opioid analgesic. It has the following structural formula:

In addition, each tablet also contains the following inactive ingredients: crospovidone, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, pregelatinized starch, stearic acid.

CLINICAL

Pharmacology:

Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablets contain Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) which is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic related to codeine, with multiple actions qualitatively similar to those of codeine; the most prominent of these involve the central nervous system and organs with smooth muscle components. The principal action of therapeutic value is analgesia.

This combination product also contains acetaminophen, a non-opiate, non-salicylate analgesic and antipyretic. This combination product contains caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant. Caffeine is also a central nervous system and cardiovascular stimulant.

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INDICATIONS AND USAGE:

Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablets are indicated for the relief of moderate to moderately severe pain.

CONTRAINDICATIONS:

This combination product is contraindicated in persons with hypersensitivity to Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate), codeine, acetaminophen, caffeine, or any of the inactive components listed above, or any situation where opioids are contraindicated including significant respiratory depression (in unmonitored settings or in the absence of resuscitative equipment), acute or severe bronchial asthma or hypercapnia, and paralytic ileus.

WARNINGS:

Usage in Ambulatory Patients:

Codox may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks such as driving a car or operating machinery.

Respiratory Depression:

Respiratory depression is the most dangerous acute reaction produced by opioid agonist preparations, although it is rarely severe with usual doses. Opioids decrease the respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute ventilation, and sensitivity to carbon dioxide. Respiratory depression occurs most frequently in elderly or debilitated patients, usually after large initial doses in nontolerant patients, or when opioids are given in conjunction with other agents that depress respiration. This combination product should be used with caution in patients with significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or corpulmonale and in patients with a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or respiratory depression. In such patients, alternative non-opioid analgesics should be considered, and opioids should be admin- istered only under careful medical supervision at the lowest effective dose.

Head Injury:

This combination product should be used cautiously in the presence of head injury or increased intracranial pressure. The effects of opioids on pupillary response and consciousness may obscure neurologic signs of increases in intracranial pressure in patients with head injuries. The respiratory depressant effects including carbon dioxide retention and secondary elevation of cerebrospinal fluid pressure may be markedly exaggerated in the presence of head injury, intracranial lesions, or other causes of increased intracranial pressures.

Hypotensive Effect:

Codox, like all opioid analgesics, may cause hypotension in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has been compromised by a depleted blood volume or who receive concurrent therapy with drugs such as phenothiazines or other agents which compromise vasomotor tone.

Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablets may produce orthostatic hypotension in ambulatory patients. This combination product should be administered with caution to patients in circulatory shock, since vasodilation produced by the drug may further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure.

Drug Dependence

Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) can produce drug dependence of the codeine type and has the potential of being abused (See DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE ).

PRECAUTIONS:

General:

Selection of patients for treatment with Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox bitartrate tablets should be governed by the same principles that apply to the use of similar opioid/non-opioid fixed combination analgesics. As with any such opioid analgesic, the dosing regimen should be adjusted for each patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ). This combination product should be used with caution in elderly or debilitated patients or those with any of the following conditions: acute alcoholism; adrenocortical insufficiency (e.g., Addison's disease); asthma; central nervous system depression or coma; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; decreased respiratory reserve (including emphysema, severe obesity, cor pulmonale, or kyphoscoliosis); delirium tremens; head injury; hypotension; increased intracranial pressure; myxedema or hypothyroidism; prostatic hypertrophy or urethral stricture; and toxic psychosis. The benefits and risks of using opioids in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors and in those with a history of drug abuse should be carefully considered. The administration of an analgesic containing an opioid may obscure the diagnosis or clinical course in patients with acute abdominal conditions. This combination product may aggravate convulsions in patients with convulsive disorders and, like all opioids, may induce or aggravate seizures in some clinical settings. Acetaminophen is relatively non-toxic at therapeutic doses, but should be used with caution in patients with severe renal or hepatic disease. Care should be observed when using large doses of acetaminophen in malnourished patients or those with a history of chronic alcohol abuse because they may be more susceptible to hepatic damage similar to that observed with toxic overdosage.

Caffeine in high doses may produce central nervous system and cardiovascular stimulation and gastrointestinal irritation.

Drug-Drug Interactions:

Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) with Other Central Nervous System Depressants:

Patients receiving other opioid analgesics, sedatives or hypnotics, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, centrally acting anti-emetics, phenothiazines or other tranquilizers, or alcohol concomitantly with this combination product may exhibit additive depressant effects on the central nervous system. When such combined therapy is contemplated, the dose of one or both agents should be reduced.

Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) with Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors:

Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate), like all opioid analgesics, interacts with monoamine oxidase inhibitors causing central nervous system excitation and hypertension.

Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) with Mixed Agonist/Antagonist Opioid Analgesics:

Agonist/antagonist analgesics (i.e., pentazocine, nalbuphine, butorphanol and buprenorphine) may reduce the analgesic effect of this combination product.

Acetaminophen-Drug Interactions:

Chronic and excessive consumption of alcohol may increase the hepatotoxic risk of acetaminophen. The potential for hepatotoxicity with acetaminophen also may be increased in patients receiving anticonvulsants that induce hepatic microsomal enzymes (including phenytoin, barbiturates, and carbamazepine) or isoniazide. Chronic ingestion of large doses of acetaminophen may slightly potentiate the effects of warfarin- and indandione- derivative anticoagulants. Severe hypothermia is possible in patients receiving acetaminophen concomitantly with phenothiazines.

Caffeine-Drug Interactions:

Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-adrenergic stimulating agents. Coadministration of caffeine and disulfiram may lead to a substantial decrease in caffeine clearance. Caffeine may increase the metabolism of other drugs such as phenobarbital and aspirin. Caffeine accumulation may occur when products or foods containing caffeine are consumed concomitantly with quinolones such as ciprofloxacin.

Information for Patients/Caregivers:

Patients receiving Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox bitartrate tablets should be given the following information:

  • Patients should be advised that Acetaminophen, caffeine and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablet may impair the mental or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks such as driving a car or operating machinery.
  • Patients should be advised to report adverse experiences occurring during therapy.
  • Patients should be advised not to adjust the dose of Acetaminophen, caffeine and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablet without consulting the prescribing professional.
  • Patients should not combine Acetaminophen, caffeine and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablet with alcohol or other central nervous system depressants (sleep aids, tranquilizers) except by the orders of the prescribing physician, because additive effects may occur.
  • Women of childbearing potential who become, or are planning to become, pregnant should be advised to consult their physician regarding the effects of analgesics and other drug use during pregnancy on themselves and their unborn child.
  • Patients should be advised that Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablets are a potential drug of abuse. They should protect it from theft, and it should never be given to anyone other than the individual for whom it was prescribed.

Pregnancy:

Teratogenic Effects – Pregnancy Category C.

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablets. It is also not known whether this combination product can cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women or can affect reproduction capacity in males and females. This combination product should be given to pregnant women only if clearly needed, especially during the first trimester.

Labor and Delivery:

Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox bitartrate tablets are not recommended for use by women during and immediately before labor and delivery because oral opioids may cause respiratory depression in the newborn.

Nursing Mothers:

Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate, acetaminophen and caffeine tablets are excreted in breast milk in small amounts, but the significance of their effects on nursing infants is not known. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from this combination product, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use:

Safety and effectiveness of Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox bitartrate tablets in pediatric patients have not been established.

Geriatric Use:

Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablets should be given with caution to the elderly.

Hepatic Impairment:

Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox bitartrate tablets should be given with caution to patients with hepatic insufficiency. Since Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) is metabolized by the liver and since acetaminophen potentially causes hepatotoxicity, the effects of this combination product should be monitored closely in such patients.

Renal Impairment:

Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablets should be used with caution and at reduced dosage in the presence of impaired renal function.

Pancreatic/Biliary Tract Disease:

Opioids may cause spasms of the sphincter of Oddi and should be used with caution in patients with biliary tract disease including pancreatitis.

ADVERSE REACTIONS:

Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate):

The most frequently observed adverse reactions include light-headedness, dizziness, drowsiness, headache, fatigue, sedation, sweating, nausea, vomiting, constipation, pruritus, and skin reactions. With the exception of constipation, tolerance develops to most of these effects. Other reactions that have been observed with Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) or other opioids include respiratory depression, orthostatic hypotension, cough suppression, confusion, diarrhea, miosis, abdominal pain, dry mouth, indigestion, anorexia, spasm of biliary tract, and urinary retention. Physical and psychological dependence are possibilities. Hypersensitivity reactions (including anaphylactoid reactions), hallucinations, vivid dreams, granulomatous interstitial nephritis, severe narcosis and acute renal failure have been reported rarely during Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) administration.

Acetaminophen:

Acetaminophen in therapeutic doses rarely causes adverse reactions.

The most serious adverse reaction is hepatoxicity from overdosage (see OVERDOSAGE ). Thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, pancytopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenic purpura, and agranulocytosis have been reported in patients receiving acetaminophen or p-aminophenol derivatives. Hypersensitivity reactions including urticarial or erythematous skin reactions, laryngeal edema, angioedema, or anaphylactoid reactions are rare.

Caffeine:

Adverse reactions associated with caffeine use include anxiety, anxiety neurosis, excitement, headaches, insomnia, irritability, lightheadedness, restlessness, tenseness, tremor, extrasystoles, palpitations, tachycardia, diarrhea, nausea, stomach pain, vomiting, diuresis, urticarcia, scintillating scotoma, and tinnitus.

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE:

This combination product is subject to the provisions of the Controlled Substance Act, and has been placed in Schedule III.

Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) can produce drug dependence of the codeine type and therefore has the potential of being abused.

Like other opioid analgesics, Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) may produce subjective effects other than analgesia (e.g., euphoria, relaxation), which may contribute to abuse by some patients. Psychological dependence, physical dependence, and tolerance may develop upon repeated administration of Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate), and It should be prescribed and administered with the same degree of caution appropriate to the use of other oral opioid analgesic medications.

Symptoms of Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) withdrawal consist of irritability, restlessness, insomnia, diaphoresis, anxiety and palpitations.

Prolonged, high intake of caffeine may produce tolerance and habituation. Physical signs of withdrawal, such as headaches, irritation, nervousness, anxiety, and dizziness may occur upon abrupt discontinuation.

OVERDOSAGE:

Following an acute overdosage with Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablets, toxicity may result from the Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate), acetaminophen, or, less likely, caffeine component. An overdose is a potentially lethal polydrug overdose situation, and consultation with a regional poison control center is recommended. A listing of the poison control centers can be found in standard references such as the Physician's Desk Reference®.

Signs and Symptoms and Laboratory Findings:

Toxicity from Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) is typical of opioids and includes pinpoint pupils, respiratory depression, and loss of consciousness. Convulsions, cardiovascular collapse, and death may occur. A single case of acute rhabdomyolysis associated with an overdose of Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) has been reported. With acetaminophen, dose-dependent potentially fatal hepatic necrosis is the most serious adverse effect. Renal tubular necrosis, hypoglycemic coma, and thrombocytopenia may occur. Early symptoms of hepatotoxicity include nausea, vomiting, diaphoresis, and general malaise. Clinical and laboratory evidence of hepatic toxicity may not be apparent until 48 to 72 hours after ingestion. Acute caffeine poisoning may cause insomnia, restlessness, tremor, delirium, tachycardia, extrasystoles, and seizures.

Because overdose information on this combination product is limited, it is unclear which of the signs and symptoms of toxicity would manifest in any particular overdose situation.

Treatment:

Immediate treatment of an overdosage of Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablets includes support of cardiorespiratory function and measures to reduce drug absorption. Vomiting should be induced with syrup of ipecac, if the patient is alert and has adequate laryngeal reflexes. Oral activated charcoal should follow. The first dose of charcoal should be accompanied by an appropriate cathartic. Gastric lavage may be necessary. Hypotension is usually hypovolemic and should be treated with fluids. Endotracheal intubation and artificial respiration may be necessary. Peritoneal or hemodialysis may be necessary. If hypoprothrombinemia occurs, Vitamin K should be administered.

A pure opioid antagonist, such as naloxone or nalmefene, is a specific antidote against respiratory depression which results from opioid overdose. Opioid antagonists should not be given in the absence of clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to opioid overdose. They should be administered cautiously to persons who are known, or suspected to be, physically dependent on any opioid agonist including Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablets. In such cases, an abrupt or complete reversal of opioid effects may precipitate an acute abstinence syndrome. The prescribing information for the specific opioid antagonist should be consulted for details of their proper use.

In adults and adolescents, regardless of the quantity of acetaminophen reported to have been ingested, acetylcysteine should be administered immediately if 24 hours or less have elapsed from the reported time of ingestion. It is not advisable to await the plasma concentration determination of acetaminophen before administering acetylcysteine. Serum liver enzyme levels should be measured. Therapy in children involves a similar treatment scheme; however, a regional Poison Control Center should be contacted. No specific antidote is available for caffeine. In addition to the supportive measures above, administration of demulcents such as aluminum hydroxide gel may diminish gastrointestinal irritation. Seizures may be treated with intravenous diazepam or a barbiturate.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The usual adult dosage is one (1) Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablets orally every four (4) hours, as needed. Dosage should be adjusted according to the severity of the pain and the response of the patient. No more than one (1) tablet should be taken in a 4-hour period. No more than five (5) doses, or five (5) tablets should be taken in a 24-hour period.

HOW SUPPLIED:

Acetaminophen, caffeine, and Codox (Dihydrocodeine Tartrate) bitartrate tablets, containing acetaminophen 712.8 mg, caffeine 60 mg and dihydrocodeine* bitartrate 32 mg (*Warning: May be habit-forming). Tablets are white, oval-shaped single scored and are debossed “Boca” on one side and “611” on the other side; are supplied in

Bottles of 30

NDC 54868-5900-0


Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F).. Protect from moisture.

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container with a child-resistant closure.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Rx Only

Manufactured for:

Boca Pharmacal, Inc.

Coral Springs, FL 33065

www.bocapharmacal.com

Rev. 06/09

Physician’s Desk Reference® is the registered trademark of Thomson Healthcare, Inc.

Relabeling and Repackaging by:

Physicians Total Care, Inc.

Tulsa, OK 74146

Codox pharmaceutical active ingredients containing related brand and generic drugs:

infoActive ingredient is the part of the drug or medicine which is biologically active. This portion of the drug is responsible for the main action of the drug which is intended to cure or reduce the symptom or disease. The other portions of the drug which are inactive are called excipients; there role is to act as vehicle or binder. In contrast to active ingredient, the inactive ingredient's role is not significant in the cure or treatment of the disease. There can be one or more active ingredients in a drug.


Codox available forms, composition, doses:

infoForm of the medicine is the form in which the medicine is marketed in the market, for example, a medicine X can be in the form of capsule or the form of chewable tablet or the form of tablet. Sometimes same medicine can be available as injection form. Each medicine cannot be in all forms but can be marketed in 1, 2, or 3 forms which the pharmaceutical company decided based on various background research results.
Composition is the list of ingredients which combinedly form a medicine. Both active ingredients and inactive ingredients form the composition. The active ingredient gives the desired therapeutic effect whereas the inactive ingredient helps in making the medicine stable.
Doses are various strengths of the medicine like 10mg, 20mg, 30mg and so on. Each medicine comes in various doses which is decided by the manufacturer, that is, pharmaceutical company. The dose is decided on the severity of the symptom or disease.


Codox destination | category:

infoDestination is defined as the organism to which the drug or medicine is targeted. For most of the drugs what we discuss, human is the drug destination.
Drug category can be defined as major classification of the drug. For example, an antihistaminic or an antipyretic or anti anginal or pain killer, anti-inflammatory or so.


Codox Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical codes:

infoA medicine is classified depending on the organ or system it acts [Anatomical], based on what result it gives on what disease, symptom [Therapeutical], based on chemical composition [Chemical]. It is called as ATC code. The code is based on Active ingredients of the medicine. A medicine can have different codes as sometimes it acts on different organs for different indications. Same way, different brands with same active ingredients and same indications can have same ATC code.


Codox pharmaceutical companies:

infoPharmaceutical companies are drug manufacturing companies that help in complete development of the drug from the background research to formation, clinical trials, release of the drug into the market and marketing of the drug.
Researchers are the persons who are responsible for the scientific research and is responsible for all the background clinical trials that resulted in the development of the drug.


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References

  1. Dailymed."BUFFERIN LOW DOSE BUFFERED ASPIRIN (ASPIRIN) TABLET [NOVARTIS CONSUMER HEALTH, INC.]". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  2. Dailymed."ASPIRIN; DIPYRIDAMOLE: DailyMed provides trustworthy information about marketed drugs in the United States. DailyMed is the official provider of FDA label information (package inserts).". https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailym... (accessed August 28, 2018).
  3. "DIHYDROCODEINE". https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/co... (accessed August 28, 2018).

Frequently asked Questions

Can i drive or operate heavy machine after consuming Codox?

Depending on the reaction of the Codox after taken, if you are feeling dizziness, drowsiness or any weakness as a reaction on your body, Then consider Codox not safe to drive or operate heavy machine after consumption. Meaning that, do not drive or operate heavy duty machines after taking the capsule if the capsule has a strange reaction on your body like dizziness, drowsiness. As prescribed by a pharmacist, it is dangerous to take alcohol while taking medicines as it exposed patients to drowsiness and health risk. Please take note of such effect most especially when taking Primosa capsule. It's advisable to consult your doctor on time for a proper recommendation and medical consultations.

Is Codox addictive or habit forming?

Medicines are not designed with the mind of creating an addiction or abuse on the health of the users. Addictive Medicine is categorically called Controlled substances by the government. For instance, Schedule H or X in India and schedule II-V in the US are controlled substances.

Please consult the medicine instruction manual on how to use and ensure it is not a controlled substance.In conclusion, self medication is a killer to your health. Consult your doctor for a proper prescription, recommendation, and guidiance.

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Review

sDrugs.com conducted a study on Codox, and the result of the survey is set out below. It is noteworthy that the product of the survey is based on the perception and impressions of the visitors of the website as well as the views of Codox consumers. We, as a result of this, advice that you do not base your therapeutic or medical decisions on this result, but rather consult your certified medical experts for their recommendations.

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The information was verified by Dr. Arunabha Ray, MD Pharmacology

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